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Sheet glass manufacture: the float process
Questions 1-8: Complete the table and diagram below.
The question requires a method of producing flat glass. There are two methods of making flat glass.
In the first paragraph, “the first successful method for making clear, flat glass involved spinning”. In the second paragraph, “the first continuous ribbon process involved squeezing molten glass through two hot rollers, similar to an old mangle”. So the first method is spinning and the second method is the ribbon process, which is already mentioned in the table.
2. (perfectly) unblemished
In paragraph 1, “This method [spinning] was very effective as the glass had not touched any surfaces between being soft and becoming hard, so it stayed perfectly unblemished”. The writer mentions the advantage of spinning as it makes the glass remain perfectly unblemished.
– advantage=be effective
– stayed = remained
3. Labour/labor – intensive
The two disadvantages of spinning methods were mentioned in the last sentence of paragraph 1:
“However, the process took a long time and was labor intensive” . “However” means something which is negative. As the sentences above indicate the advantage of the spinning process, the transition word “however” implies the disadvantage of this method.
– took a long time = slow
The advantages of the ribbon process were mentioned in paragraph 2, “This allowed glass of virtually any thickness to be made non-stop” => two advantages were: it could produce glass sheets of varying thickness and it was a non-stop process.
– virtually any = almost any = varying
In paragraph 2, all the information about the drawbacks/ disadvantages of the ribbon method was that “but the rollers would leave both sides of the glass marked, and these would then need to be ground and polished. This part of the process rubbed away around 20 per cent of the glass, and the machines were very expensive”. The rollers left both sides of glass marked so that it was not unblemished any more and therefore it needed to be polished => this was the disadvantage of the ribbon method.
– rubbed away: the action of the machine, in particular the rollers, removed about 20% of the surface of the glass
6. (Molten) glass & 7. (molten) tin/metal
In paragraph 3, “in 1952, he [Pilkington] had the idea of using a bed of molten metal to form the flat glass, eliminating altogether the need for rollers within the float bath…but could not boil at a temperature below the temperature of the molten glass (about 1500 degree)”. Pilkington used molten metal as material to form flat glass. Because the metal must be melted at a temperature less than the hardening point of glass and could not boil at a temperature below the temperature of the molten glass => tin was the most suitable metal. Therefore, in the answer number 7 you can write tin or metal.
In paragraph 3, “…eliminating altogether the need for rollers within the float bath” . This means that the float process did not need the rollers within the float bath. In the picture you can
– see two small wheels are outside the float bath => these are rollers.
– eliminate: to remove or get rid of something/somebody
Questions 9-13: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?
9. The metal used in the float process had to have specific properties
Key words: metal, float process, specific properties
In paragraph 3, the requirement for the metal is that “The metal had to melt at a temperature less than the hardening point of glass (about 600 degrees), but could not boil at a temperature below the temperature of the molten glass (about 1500 degrees). The best metal for the job was tin”. There were specific requirements/properties for the metal used in the floating process: melting at the temperature less than the hardening point of glass, not boiling below the temperature of the molten glass.
=> ANSWER: TRUE
10. Pilkington invested some of his own money in his float plant
Key words: Pilkington, invested, own money, float plant
In paragraph 5, the writer only indicates that “Pilkington built a pilot plant in 1953 and by 1955 he had convinced his company to build a full-scale plant”. The writer does not mention whether Pilkington used/invested his own money to build this float plant or not => The information is not given.
=> ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
11. Pilkington’s first full-scale plant was an instant commercial success.
Key words: Pilkington‟s first full-scale plant, commercial success
Paragraph 5, “However, it took 14 months of non-stop production, costing the company £100,000 a month, before the plant produced any usable glass. Furthermore, once they succeeded in making marketable flat glass, the machine was turned off for a service to prepare it for years of continuous production. When it started up again it took another four months get the process right again”.
– That means the process of making flat glass was not immediately successful (it took 14 months [a long time] of production before the plant produced usable glass).
– It also stopped working to prepare for continuous production = it did not work instantly
– instant: happening immediately
– commercial success = succeed in making marketable flat glass
=> ANSWER: FALSE
12. The process invented by Pilkington has now been improved
Key words: process, invented by Pilkington, been improved.
In paragraph 6, “Float plants today make glass of near optical quality…It adds up to a continuous melting process…” Several processes – melting, refining, homogenizing were used in this process of delivering glass smoothly and continuously to the float bath => these were the recent improvements in the process invented by Pilkington.
– today = now
=> ANSWER: TRUE
13. Computers are better than humans at detecting faults in glass
Key words: computers, better than humans, detecting faults
The last sentences in paragraph 7 explain that “Inspection technology allows more than 100 million measurements a second to be made across the ribbon, locating flaws the unaided eye would be unable to see”. inspection technology ~ a computer can make more than 100 million measurements a second as well as locating flaws which a normal person is unable to do => computers are better than humans
– detecting = locating
– faults = flaws
-humans ~ unaided eye
THE LITTLE ICE AGE
Questions 14 – 17 choose the correct heading for paragraphs
14. Paragraph B
In paragraph B, “The climate events of the Little Ice Age did more than help shape the modern world. They are the deeply important context for the current unprecedented global warming”. This means that the Little Ice Age is the background to/ relates to the current unprecedented global warming. The Little Ice Age has had an effect on today‟s world.
– today = current
=> ANSWER: ii – the relevance of the Little Ice Age today
15. Paragraph D
The first sentence in paragraph D is: “This book is a narrative history of climate shifts during the past ten centuries. This paragraph refers to information about a book ~ a study which considers evidence during the last ten centuries = a thousand years.
– a century = 100 years
=> ANSWER: vii – A study covering a thousand years
16. Paragraph E
The last sentence in paragraph E states: “The increased productivity from farmland made some countries self-sufficient in grain and livestock and offered effective protection against famine”. This means that thanks to the productivity from farmland, some countries have enough food against famine
– self -sufficient = enough to survive from their own resources
– grain and livestock = food
– livestock: the animals kept on a farm, for example cows or sheep
– ANSWER: ix – Enough food at last
17. Paragraph F
In paragraph F, a vast migration from Europe by land-hungry farmers and others resulted in the spread of European intensive farming methods to other countries. This caused an unprecedented land clearance, releasing vast quantities of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere “triggering for the first time humanly caused global warming”. => This means that humans had an impact on the climate.
=> ANSWER: ix – Human impact on the climate
Questions 18-22: Complete the summary using the list of words, A-I, below.
18. & 19. Ice cores and tree rings [in any order]
In paragraph C, the writer explains that systematic weather observations only began a few centuries ago (even more recently in India and Tropical Africa). So, before records began, we have only “proxy records” reconstructed largely from tree rings and ice cores, supplemented by a few incomplete written accounts”. This means that before records began, there was only the „proxy record‟ reconstructed largely from tree rings and ice cores, and also from the written accounts which are limited.
– documentation = written accounts
– limited = incomplete
=> ANSWER: ice cores & tree rings
20. Climate Shifts
In paragraph B, “The Little Ice Age was far from a deep freeze, however; rather an irregular seesaw of rapid climate shifts”. This means that the Little Ice Age was not a time of only freezing temperatures but shifts/rapid changes in climate.
– deep freeze = consistent freezing
– consistent: always behaving in the same way, or having the same opinions, standards, etc
– shifts = changes = seesaw
=> ANSWER: climate shifts
In paragraph B, “The seesaw brought cycles of intensely cold winters and easterly winds, then switched abruptly to years of heavy spring and early summer rains, mild winters, and frequent Atlantic storms” => This means that the „seesaw‟ or movements of climate between two extremes, brought some periods of very cold winters, storms and heavy rain.
– intensely = very
=> ANSWER: storms
22. Heat waves
In paragraph B the writer refers to: “periods of droughts, light northeasterly winds, and summer heat waves” This „seesaw‟ of changes in climate also brought heat waves=periods of very high temperatures, and drought [long periods with no rain].
Questions 23 – 26 classify events
23. Many Europeans started farming abroad.
Key words: Europeans, farming abroad.
In paragraph F, the writer explains that in the beginning of the Modern Warm Period, there were many European land-hungry farmers and others migrating to other countries like North America, Australia or New Zealand to farm => This means that they moved to other countries to start farming
= they started farming abroad.
=> ANSWER: C – Modern Warm Period
24. The cutting down of trees began to affect the climate.
Key words: cutting down of trees, affect, climate
In paragraph F, also in the Modern Warm Period: “Millions of hectares of forest and woodland fell before the newcomers axes…triggering for the first time humanly caused global warming”.
=> ANSWER: C – Modern Warm Period
25. Europeans discovered other lands
Key words: Europeans, discovered, lands
In paragraph D, in the Medieval Warm Period, “During these three centuries, Norse voyagers from Northern Europe explored seas, settled Greenland and visited North America”. This means that, during the time of the Medieval Warm Period, Europeans discovered other lands like Greenland and North America.
– discovered = explored
=> ANSWER: A – Medieval Warm Period
26. Changes took place in fishing patterns
Key words: Changes, fishing patterns
In paragraph E, during the Little Ice Age, “Dried cod and herring were already staples of the European fish trade, but changes in water temperature forced fishing fleets to work further offshore. The Basques, Dutch and English developed the first offshore fishing boats…” Dried cod and herring are two kinds of fish; the changes in water temperature made people have to go further offshore to catch fish, so that is a change in fishing patterns.
– fishing fleets: a group of ships fishing together
=> ANSWER: B – Little Ice Age
The meaning and power of smell
Questions 27 – 32 choosing the correct heading for each paragraph
27. Paragraph A
In paragraph A, “It became apparent that smell can evoke strong emotional responses”. For example, “a scent associated with a good experience can bring a rush of joy, while a foul odour or one associated with a bad memory may make us grimace with disgust”. In the last sentence, the writer confirms that “The perception of smell, therefore, consists not only of the sensation of the odours themselves, but of the experiences and emotions associated with them”. This means that there is a relationship between smell and feelings. The experience relating to a smell can affect the feeling of one person towards it.
– associated with = relationship
– feelings = emotional responses
=. ANSWER: viii – the relationship between smell and feelings
28. Paragraph B
The first sentence in Paragraph B, “Odours are also essential cues in social bonding. One respondent to the survey believed that there is no true emotional bonding without touching and smelling a loved one”. That means it is necessary to touch and smell to have true emotional bonding => smell is very important in personal relationships.
– bonding = the process of forming a special relationship with somebody or with a group of people = relationship
=> ANSWER: ii – The role of smell in personal relationships
29. Paragraph C
In paragraph C, “In spite of its importance to our emotional and sensory lives, smell is probably the most undervalued sense in many cultures….the human sense is feeble and undeveloped”. This means that the importance of the human sense of smell is underestimated and not appreciated, especially in comparison with its importance among animals.
– not appreciated = undervalued
=> ANSWER: vi – Why our sense of smell is not appreciated
30. Paragraph D
In paragraph D, “Odours, unlike colors, for instance, cannot be named in many languages because the specific vocabulary simply does not exist. „It smells like…‟ we have to say when describing an odour , struggling to express our olfactory experience”. That means it is difficult for people to talk about smells because of the lack of specific vocabulary in their languages.
– difficulties of talking about= struggling to express
– smells = olfactory=connected with the sense of smell
=> ANSWER: i – The difficulties of talking about smells
31. Paragraph E
In paragraph E, the writer states that “Significant advances have been made in the understanding of the biological and chemical nature of olfaction, but many fundamental questions have yet to be answered”. This means that though there have been many developments in research about olfaction, there are still questions to answer => more research is needed in order to provide answers. In the last sentence, the writer again confirms that: “Questions like these mean that interest in the psychology of smell is inevitably set to play an increasingly important role for researchers”. Therefore, it is necessary in the future to have further studies into smell.
=> ANSWER: iii – Future studies into smell
32. Paragraph F
In paragraph F the writer makes connections between smells and cultures: “Importantly, our commonly held feelings about smells can help distinguish us from other cultures”. This means that smell can be used to define one people/culture from others.
– groups=other cultures
=> ANSWER: v – The interpretation of smells as a factor in defining groups
Questions 33 – 36: Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
33. According to the introduction, we become aware of the importance of smell when
In the introduction paragraph the writer argues that most of the time, we are surrounded by smells, but we are not “…consciously aware of their importance to us. It is only when the faculty is impaired for some reason that we begin to realize the essential role the sense of smell plays in our sense of well-being”. This means that people are only aware of/ pay attention to the important/essential role of smell when their ability to smell is damaged.
– become aware of = realize
– impaired = damaged
=> ANSWER: C – our ability to smell is damaged
34. The experiment described in paragraph B
The experiment conducted in paragraph B is described by the writer in these words: “In one well- known test, women and men were able to distinguish by smell alone clothing worn by their marriage partners ….as the experiment revealed, even when not consciously considered, smells
– register=> we make use of smell without realizing it.
– without realizing it=even when not consciously considered
=> ANSWER: A – shows how we make use of smell without realizing it.
35. What is the writer doing in paragraph C?
In paragraph C, the writer explains that though the human sense of smell is considered to be feeble and undeveloped, our noses are able to recognize thousands of smells, and to perceive odours which are present only in extremely small quantities.
=>ANSWER: C – rejecting a common belief
36. What does the writer suggest about the study of smell in the atmosphere in paragraph E?
In paragraph E, the writer says that “Researchers have still to decide whether smell is one sense or two – one responding to odours proper and the other registering odourless chemicals in the air”. in the atmosphere=in the air
=> ANSWER: D – Smell is yet to be defined
Questions 37-40: Complete the sentences below.
37. Tests have shown that odours can help people recognize the…..belonging to their husbands and wives.
Key words: tests, odours, recognize, husbands and wives.
In paragraph B, “In one well-known test, women and men were able to distinguish by smell alone clothing worn by their marriage partners from similar clothing worn by other people”.This means that the special smell in clothing worn by husbands or wives can be used to recognize their marriage partners.
– odours = smell
– recognize = distinguish
– their husbands and wives = their marriage partners
=> ANSWER: Clothing
38. Certain linguistic groups may have difficulty describing smell because they lack the appropriate….
Key words: linguistic groups, difficulty, describing smell, lack
In paragraph D, “Odours, unlike colors, for instance, cannot be named in many languages because the specific vocabulary simply does not exist. „It smells like…‟ we have to say when describing an odour , struggling to express our olfactory experience”. This means that it is difficult for people to talk about smells because of the lack of specific vocabulary in their languages.
– linguistic groups = languages
– lack = does not exist
=> ANSWER: Vocabulary
39. The sense of smell may involve response to… which do not smell, in addition to obvious odours.
Key words: sense of smell, involve, and do not smell
In paragraph E, “Researchers have still to decide whether smell is one sense or two – one responding to odours proper and the other registering odourless chemicals in the air”, so chemicals are things which sometimes do not smell in the air.
– do not smell=odourless
=> ANSWER: Chemicals
40. Odours regarded as unpleasant in certain…. are not regarded as unpleasant in others.
Key words: unpleasant, regarded as, not unpleasant in others
In paragraph F, “Odours are invested with cultural values: smells that are considered to be offensive in some cultures may be perfectly acceptable in others”. This means that in some cultures, certain smells may be acceptable but in others they are unacceptable.
– unpleasant = offensive
– regarded as=considered
– not unpleasant = acceptable
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