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Passage 1: Sheet glass manufacture: the float process

Questions 1-8: Complete the table and diagram below.

1.  spinning

The question requires a method of producing flat glass. There are two methods of making flat glass.
In the first paragraph, “the first successful method for making clear, flat glass involved spinning”. In the second paragraph, “the first continuous ribbon process involved squeezing molten glass through two hot rollers, similar to an old mangle”. So the first method is spinning and the second method is the ribbon process, which is already mentioned in the table.

2.   (perfectly) unblemished

In paragraph 1, “This method [spinning] was very effective as the glass had not touched any surfaces between being soft and becoming hard, so it stayed perfectly unblemished”. The writer mentions the advantage of spinning as it makes the glass remain perfectly unblemished.
–     advantage=be effective
–     stayed = remained

3.   Labour/labor – intensive

The  two  disadvantages  of  spinning  methods  were  mentioned  in  the  last  sentence  of  paragraph  1:
“However, the process took a long time and was labor intensive” . “However”  means  something  which  is  negative.  As  the  sentences  above  indicate  the  advantage  of the spinning process, the transition word “however” implies the disadvantage of this method.
–     took a long time = slow

4.   Thickness

The  advantages  of  the  ribbon  process  were  mentioned  in  paragraph  2,  “This  allowed  glass  of virtually any thickness to be made non-stop” => two advantages were: it could produce glass sheets of varying thickness and it was a non-stop process.
–  virtually any = almost any = varying

5.   Marked

In  paragraph  2,  all  the  information  about  the  drawbacks/  disadvantages  of  the  ribbon  method  was that “but the rollers would leave both sides of the glass  marked, and these would then need to be ground and polished.   This part of the process rubbed away around 20 per cent of the glass, and the machines were very expensive”. The rollers left both sides of glass marked so that it was not unblemished any more and therefore it needed to be polished  => this was the disadvantage of the ribbon method.
–  rubbed away: the action of the machine, in particular the rollers, removed about 20% of the surface of the glass

6.   (Molten) glass & 7. (molten) tin/metal

In paragraph 3, “in 1952, he [Pilkington] had the idea of using a bed of molten metal to form the flat glass,  eliminating  altogether  the  need  for  rollers  within  the  float  bath…but  could  not  boil  at  a temperature below the temperature of the molten glass (about 1500 degree)”.   Pilkington used molten metal as material to form flat glass. Because the metal must be melted at a temperature  less  than  the  hardening  point  of  glass  and  could  not  boil  at  a  temperature  below  the temperature of the molten glass => tin was the most suitable metal. Therefore, in the answer number 7 you can write tin or metal.

8.   Rollers

In paragraph 3, “…eliminating altogether the need for rollers within the float bath” . This means that the float process did not need the rollers within the float bath. In the picture you can
– see two small wheels are outside the float bath => these are rollers.
– eliminate: to remove or get rid of something/somebody

Questions 9-13: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?

9. The metal used in the float process had to have specific properties

Key words: metal, float process, specific properties
In paragraph 3, the  requirement for the metal is  that   “The metal  had to  melt  at  a temperature less than the hardening point of glass (about 600 degrees), but could not boil at a temperature below the temperature of the molten glass (about 1500 degrees). The best metal for the job was tin”. There were specific requirements/properties for the metal used in the floating process: melting at the temperature  less  than  the  hardening  point  of  glass,  not  boiling  below  the  temperature  of  the molten glass.

10. Pilkington invested some of his own money in his float plant

Key words: Pilkington, invested, own money, float plant
In paragraph 5, the writer only indicates that “Pilkington built a pilot plant in 1953 and by 1955 he had  convinced  his  company  to  build  a  full-scale  plant”.  The  writer  does  not  mention  whether Pilkington  used/invested  his  own  money to  build  this  float  plant  or  not  =>  The  information  is  not given.

11. Pilkington’s first full-scale plant was an instant commercial success.

Key words: Pilkington‟s first full-scale plant, commercial success
Paragraph 5, “However, it took 14 months of non-stop production, costing the company £100,000 a  month,  before  the  plant  produced  any  usable  glass.  Furthermore,  once  they  succeeded  in making  marketable  flat  glass,  the  machine  was  turned  off  for  a  service  to  prepare  it  for  years  of continuous production. When it started up again it took another four months get the process right again”.
–  That means the process of making flat glass was not immediately successful (it took 14 months [a long time] of production before the plant produced usable glass).
–   It also stopped working to prepare for continuous production =  it did not work instantly
–  instant: happening immediately
– commercial success = succeed in making marketable flat glass

12.  The process invented by Pilkington has now been improved

Key words: process, invented by Pilkington, been improved.
In  paragraph  6,  “Float  plants  today  make  glass  of  near  optical  quality…It  adds  up  to  a  continuous melting process…” Several processes – melting, refining, homogenizing were used in this process of delivering glass smoothly and continuously to the float bath => these were the recent improvements in the process invented by Pilkington.
–   today = now

13. Computers are better than humans at detecting faults in glass

Key words: computers, better than humans, detecting faults
The last sentences in paragraph 7 explain that “Inspection technology allows more than 100 million measurements a second  to  be made across the  ribbon,  locating flaws the unaided  eye would be unable to see”.  inspection  technology  ~  a  computer  can  make  more  than  100  million  measurements  a  second   as well as locating flaws which a normal person is unable to do => computers are better than humans
– detecting = locating
–  faults = flaws
-humans ~ unaided eye



Questions 14 – 17 choose the correct heading for paragraphs

14. Paragraph B

In  paragraph  B,  “The  climate  events  of  the  Little  Ice  Age  did  more  than  help  shape  the  modern world. They are the deeply important context for the current unprecedented global warming”. This means that the Little Ice Age is the background to/ relates to the current unprecedented global warming. The Little Ice Age has had an effect on today‟s world.
–  today = current
=>   ANSWER: ii – the relevance of the Little Ice Age today

15. Paragraph D

The  first  sentence  in  paragraph  D  is:  “This  book  is  a  narrative  history of  climate  shifts  during  the past  ten  centuries.  This  paragraph  refers  to  information  about  a  book  ~  a  study  which  considers evidence during the last ten centuries = a thousand years.
–     a century = 100 years
=>   ANSWER: vii – A study covering a thousand years

16. Paragraph E

The  last  sentence  in  paragraph  E  states:  “The  increased  productivity  from  farmland  made  some countries self-sufficient in grain and livestock and offered effective protection against famine”. This means  that  thanks  to  the  productivity  from  farmland,  some  countries  have  enough  food  against famine
–     self -sufficient = enough to survive from their own resources
–     grain and livestock = food
–     livestock: the animals kept on a farm, for example cows or sheep
–   ANSWER: ix – Enough food at last

17. Paragraph F

In  paragraph  F,  a  vast  migration  from  Europe  by  land-hungry  farmers  and  others  resulted  in  the spread  of  European  intensive  farming  methods  to  other  countries.   This  caused  an  unprecedented land  clearance,  releasing  vast  quantities  of  carbon  dioxide  into  the  atmosphere  “triggering  for  the first  time  humanly  caused  global  warming”.  =>  This  means  that  humans  had  an  impact  on  the climate.
=>  ANSWER: ix – Human impact on the climate

Questions 18-22: Complete the summary using the list of words, A-I, below.

18. & 19. Ice cores and tree rings [in any order]

In paragraph C, the writer explains that systematic weather observations only began a few centuries ago  (even  more  recently  in  India  and  Tropical  Africa).    So,  before  records  began,  we  have  only “proxy  records”  reconstructed  largely  from  tree  rings  and  ice  cores,  supplemented  by  a  few incomplete written accounts”. This means that before records began, there was only the „proxy record‟ reconstructed largely from tree rings and ice cores, and also from the written accounts which are limited.
–     documentation = written accounts
–     limited = incomplete
=>   ANSWER: ice cores & tree rings

20. Climate Shifts

In paragraph B, “The Little Ice Age was far from a deep freeze, however; rather an irregular seesaw of  rapid  climate  shifts”.  This  means  that  the  Little  Ice  Age  was  not  a  time  of  only  freezing temperatures but shifts/rapid changes in climate.
–  deep freeze = consistent freezing
– consistent: always behaving in the same way, or having the same opinions, standards, etc
– shifts = changes = seesaw
=>   ANSWER: climate shifts

21. Storms

In  paragraph  B,  “The  seesaw  brought  cycles  of  intensely  cold  winters  and  easterly  winds,  then switched  abruptly  to  years  of  heavy  spring  and  early  summer  rains,  mild  winters,  and  frequent Atlantic storms” => This means that the „seesaw‟ or movements of climate between two extremes, brought some periods of very cold winters, storms and heavy rain.
– intensely = very
=>    ANSWER: storms

22. Heat waves

In paragraph B the writer refers to:   “periods of  droughts, light northeasterly winds, and summer heat  waves”   This  „seesaw‟  of  changes  in  climate  also  brought  heat  waves=periods  of  very  high temperatures, and drought [long periods with no rain].

Questions 23 – 26 classify events

23. Many Europeans started farming abroad.

Key words: Europeans, farming abroad.
In paragraph F, the writer explains that in the beginning of the  Modern Warm Period, there were many European  land-hungry  farmers  and  others  migrating  to  other  countries  like  North  America, Australia or New Zealand to farm => This means that they moved to other countries to start farming
= they started farming abroad.
=>   ANSWER: C – Modern Warm Period

24. The cutting down of trees began to affect the climate.

Key words: cutting down of trees, affect, climate
In paragraph F, also in the Modern Warm Period:   “Millions of hectares of forest and woodland fell before the newcomers axes…triggering for the first time humanly caused global warming”.
=>  ANSWER: C – Modern Warm Period

25. Europeans discovered other lands

Key words: Europeans, discovered, lands
In paragraph D, in the Medieval Warm Period, “During these three centuries, Norse voyagers from Northern Europe explored seas, settled Greenland and visited North America”. This means that, during the time of the Medieval Warm Period, Europeans discovered other lands like Greenland and North America.
–     discovered = explored
=> ANSWER: A – Medieval Warm Period

26. Changes took place in fishing patterns

Key words: Changes, fishing patterns
In  paragraph  E,  during  the  Little  Ice  Age,  “Dried  cod  and  herring  were  already  staples  of  the European fish trade, but changes in water temperature forced fishing fleets to work further offshore. The Basques, Dutch and English developed the first offshore fishing boats…”  Dried cod and herring are two kinds of fish; the changes in water temperature made people have to go further offshore to catch fish, so that is a change in fishing patterns.
– fishing fleets: a group of ships fishing together
=>    ANSWER: B – Little Ice Age


Passage 3: The meaning and power of smell

Questions 27 – 32 choosing the correct heading for each paragraph

27. Paragraph A

In  paragraph  A,  “It  became  apparent  that  smell  can  evoke  strong  emotional  responses”.     For example, “a scent associated with a good experience can bring a rush of joy, while a foul odour or one  associated  with  a  bad  memory  may  make  us  grimace  with  disgust”.   In  the  last  sentence,  the writer  confirms  that  “The  perception  of  smell,  therefore,  consists  not  only  of  the  sensation  of  the odours themselves, but of the experiences and emotions associated with them”. This means that there is a relationship between smell and feelings. The experience relating to a smell can affect the feeling of one person towards it.
– associated with = relationship
– feelings = emotional responses
=.  ANSWER: viii – the relationship between smell and feelings

28. Paragraph B

The first sentence in Paragraph B, “Odours are also essential cues in social bonding. One respondent to  the  survey  believed  that  there  is  no  true  emotional  bonding  without  touching  and  smelling  a loved one”. That means it is necessary to touch and smell to have true emotional bonding => smell is very important in personal relationships.
– bonding = the process of forming a special relationship with somebody or with a group of people = relationship
=>  ANSWER: ii – The role of smell in personal relationships

29. Paragraph C

In paragraph C, “In spite of its importance to our emotional and sensory lives, smell is probably the most undervalued sense in many cultures….the human sense is feeble and undeveloped”.  This means that the importance of the human sense of smell is underestimated and not appreciated, especially in comparison with its importance among animals.
– not appreciated = undervalued
=> ANSWER: vi – Why our sense of smell is not appreciated

30. Paragraph D

In paragraph D,  “Odours, unlike colors, for instance, cannot  be named in  many languages because the specific vocabulary simply does not exist. „It smells like…‟ we have to say when describing an odour , struggling to express our olfactory experience”. That means it is difficult for  people to talk about smells because of the lack of specific vocabulary in their languages.
–  difficulties of talking about= struggling to express
– smells = olfactory=connected with the sense of smell
=> ANSWER: i – The difficulties of talking about smells

31.  Paragraph E

In paragraph E, the writer states that “Significant advances have been made in the understanding of the  biological  and  chemical  nature  of  olfaction,  but  many  fundamental  questions  have  yet  to  be answered”. This means that though there have been many developments in research about olfaction, there are still questions to answer => more research is needed in order to provide answers. In  the  last  sentence,  the  writer  again  confirms  that:  “Questions  like  these  mean  that  interest  in  the psychology  of  smell  is  inevitably  set  to  play  an  increasingly  important  role  for  researchers”. Therefore, it is necessary in the future to have further studies into smell.
=> ANSWER: iii – Future studies into smell

32. Paragraph F

In  paragraph  F  the  writer  makes  connections   between  smells  and  cultures:  “Importantly,  our commonly held feelings about smells can help distinguish us from other cultures”. This means that smell can be used to define one people/culture from others.
– define=distinguish
– groups=other cultures
=>  ANSWER: v – The interpretation of smells as a factor in defining groups

Questions 33 – 36: Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

33. According to the introduction, we become aware of the importance of smell when

In the introduction paragraph the writer argues that most of the time, we are surrounded by smells, but  we  are  not  “…consciously  aware  of  their  importance  to  us.    It  is  only  when  the  faculty  is impaired for some reason that we begin to realize the essential role the sense of smell plays in our sense   of   well-being”.   This   means   that   people   are   only   aware   of/   pay   attention   to   the important/essential role of smell when their ability to smell is damaged.
– become aware of = realize
– impaired = damaged
=> ANSWER: C – our ability to smell is damaged

34. The experiment described in paragraph B

The experiment  conducted in  paragraph  B is  described by the writer in  these words: “In  one well- known  test,  women  and  men  were  able  to  distinguish  by  smell  alone  clothing    worn  by  their marriage  partners  ….as  the  experiment  revealed,  even  when  not  consciously  considered,  smells
– register=> we make use of smell without realizing it.
– experiment=test
– without realizing it=even when not consciously considered
=> ANSWER: A – shows how we make use of smell without realizing it.

35. What is the writer doing in paragraph C?

In paragraph C, the writer explains that though the human sense of smell is considered to be feeble and undeveloped, our noses are able to recognize thousands of smells, and to perceive odours which are present only in extremely small quantities.
=>ANSWER: C – rejecting a common belief

36. What does the writer suggest about the study of smell in the atmosphere in paragraph E?

In paragraph E, the writer says that “Researchers have still to decide whether smell is one sense or two – one responding to odours proper and the other registering odourless chemicals in the air”. in the atmosphere=in the air
=> ANSWER: D – Smell is yet to be defined

Questions 37-40: Complete the sentences below.

37. Tests have shown that odours can help people recognize the…..belonging to their husbands and wives.

Key words:  tests, odours, recognize, husbands and wives.
In paragraph B, “In one well-known test, women and men were able to distinguish by smell alone clothing worn by their marriage partners from similar clothing worn by other people”.This  means that the special smell  in clothing worn by husbands or wives  can be used to  recognize their marriage partners.
– odours = smell
– recognize = distinguish
– their husbands and wives = their marriage partners
=> ANSWER: Clothing

38. Certain linguistic groups may have difficulty describing smell because they lack the appropriate….

Key words: linguistic groups, difficulty, describing smell, lack
In paragraph D,  “Odours, unlike colors, for instance, cannot  be named in  many languages because the specific vocabulary simply does not exist. „It smells like…‟ we have to say when describing an odour , struggling to express our olfactory experience”. This means that it is difficult for people to talk about smells because of the lack of specific vocabulary in their languages.
– linguistic groups = languages
– lack = does not exist
=>  ANSWER: Vocabulary

39. The sense of smell may involve response to… which do not smell, in addition to obvious odours.

Key words: sense of smell, involve, and do not smell
In  paragraph  E,  “Researchers  have  still  to  decide  whether  smell  is  one  sense  or  two   –  one responding to odours proper and the other registering odourless chemicals in the air”, so chemicals are things which sometimes do not smell in the air.
– do not smell=odourless
=>  ANSWER: Chemicals

40. Odours regarded as unpleasant in certain…. are not regarded as unpleasant in others.

Key words: unpleasant, regarded as, not unpleasant in others
In paragraph F, “Odours are invested with cultural values: smells that are considered to be offensive in some cultures may be perfectly acceptable in others”. This means that in some cultures, certain smells may be acceptable but in others they are unacceptable.
– unpleasant = offensive
– regarded as=considered
– not unpleasant = acceptable


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One Response

  1. Saiful Islam 17/04/2022

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