Questions 1 – 5, choose the correct heading for sections B – F
1.   Section B
In paragraph B, the writer gives us an overview about lower secondary schools in Japan such  as  the  number  of  years  [lower  secondary  schools  in  Japan  cover  three  school years¼private sector],  the facilities [School  are usually modern in  design¼in  rows],  the time of lessons [a standardized 50 minutes], break time [a 10 – minute break], classes are large and unstreamed. => This provides the background of secondary education in Japan.
– lower secondary schools = middle – years education
=> ANSWER: vii – Background to middle – years education in Japan

2.   Section C
In  paragraph  C:  “Everyone  has  their  own  copy of  the  textbook  supplied  by  the  central education authority, Monbusho, as a part of the concept of free compulsory education up to the age of 15” => Monbusho, central education authority supplies textbooks. The last sentence in paragraph C: “Besides approving textbooks,  Monbusho also decides the highly centralized national curriculum and how it is to be delivered”. This means that Monbusho has great effects/influence not only on textbooks but also the national curriculum. Moreover, the writer only refers to Monbusho in paragraph C.
=>ANSWER: i – The influence of Monbusho

3.   Section D
In paragraph D, the writer indicates the pattern for a math lessons:  “Lessons all follow thesame pattern. At the beginning, the pupils put solutions to the homework on the board, then the teachers comment, collect or elaborate as necessary”.   => That means there is a typical format/pattern of a math lesson.
format = pattern
=> ANSWER:  v – The typical format of a math lesson

4.   Section E
In paragraph E:   “Teachers say that they give individual help at the end of a lesson or after school,  setting  extra  work  if  necessary”.  Moreover,  “in  observed  lessons,  any  strugglers would  be  assisted  by  the  teacher  or  quietly  seek  help  from  their  neighbor”.   That  means teachers are willing to help students who have difficulties in learning.
– less successful students = strugglers
– help [to be helped] ~ be assisted by
=>ANSWER: ii – Helping less successful students

5.   Section F
In paragraph  F, the writer raises a question in order to  find out what factors contribute to the success of math education in Japan.   “So what are the  major contributing factors in the  success  of  maths  teaching?  Clearly,  attitudes  are  important”.    Some  other  “relevant points  relate  to  the  supportive  attitude  of  a  class  towards  slower  pupils,  the  lack  of competition within a class, and the positive emphasis on learning….”
– key = major contributing factors
=> ANSWER: viii – The key to Japanese successes in maths education

Questions 6-9
6.   There  is  a  wider  range of  achievement  amongst  English  pupils  studying  maths  than  amongst their Japanese counterparts
Key words: wider range of achievement, English pupils, studying maths, Japanese counterparts
In  paragraph  A:    “but  there  was  also  a  larger  proportion  of  „low‟  attainers  in  England, where, incidentally, the variation in attainment scores was much greater”. This  means  that  though  Japan  has  a  significantly  better  record  in  terms  of  average mathematical attainment than England and Wales, England has a wider range of attainment scores than Japan.  So, in England and Wales it is common for some pupils to achieve very high scores, while others only have low scores.
– wider = greater
– achievement = attainment
counterpart:  a person or thing that has the same position or function as somebody/something else in a different place or situation.

7. The  percentage  of  Gross  National  Product  spent  on  education  generally  reflects  the  level  of attainment
Key words: percentage, Gross National Product, spent, reflects, level of attainment
The  last  sentence  in  paragraph  A:    “the  percentage  of  Gross  National  Product  spent  on education  is  reasonably  similar  in  the  two  countries,  so  how  is  this  higher  and  more consistent attainment in maths achieved?”
This means that though both countries [Japan & England] receive the same percentage of Gross  National  Product,  the  level  of  achievement  in  studying  maths  is  higher  in  Japan. Moreover,  in  the  first  sentence,  the  writer  indicates  that  Japan  has  a  better  record  in mathematical  attainment  than  England  and  Wales;  therefore,  it  is  false  to  say  that  the percentage of GNP spent on education reflects the level of attainment.

8.   Private  schools  in  Japan  are  more  modern  and  spacious  than  state  –  run  lower  secondary schools.
Key words: private schools in Japan, modern, spacious, state – run lower secondary schools
In paragraph B, the writer indicates that :  “all  pupils attend state schools;  only 3 per cent are in the private sector. Schools [state schools] are usually modern in design, set well back from the road and spacious inside”. This means that the writer states only that state schools are modern and spacious.   We do not know whether private schools are more modern than state schools or not.
– state – run lower secondary schools = state schools

9.   Teachers mark homework in Japanese schools
Key words: teachers, mark, homework, Japanese schools
In  paragraph  D:    “Pupils  mark  their  own  homework:  this  is  an  important  principle  in Japanese schooling as it enables pupils to see where and why they made a mistake so that these can be avoided in future”. => This means that teachers do not mark homework.   It is the students who mark their own homework.

Questions 10-13   Choose the correct letter, A,B,C or D.
10. Maths textbooks in Japanese schools are
In  paragraph  C:  “These  textbooks  are,  on  the  whole,  small,  presumably  inexpensive  to produce,  but  well  set  out  and  logically  developed”.   Textbooks  are  referred  to  again  in paragraph D:   “….the logical nature of the textbooks and their comprehensive coverage of  different  types  of  examples,  combined  with  the  relative  homogeneity  of  the  class, renders work sheets unnecessary”.   Therefore, teachers do not need to use work sheets, the maths textbooks contain everything that the pupils need.
–  well organised = well set out
–  comprehensive coverage ~ containing all the examples that the pupils need
=>ANSWER: B  – Well organised and adapted to the needs of the pupils

11. When a new maths topic is introduced,
In paragraph D:   “…. the teacher explains the topic of the lesson, slowly and with a lot of epetition and elaboration.   Examples are demonstrated on the board; questions from the textbook  are  worked  through  first  with  the  class….”.  This  means  that  when  a  new  maths topic is introduced, the teacher patiently gives a clearly explanation of the topic to students.
– patiently = slowly
–  carefully = with a lot of repetition and elaboration
=>ANSWER:  C- It is carefully and patiently explained to the students

12. How do schools deal with students who experience difficulties?
In paragraph E:  “Teachers say that they give individual help at the end of a lesson or after school,  setting  extra  work  if  necessary.    In  observed  lessons,  any  strugglers  would  be assisted by the teacher or quietly seek help from their neighbour”.
Schools  also  encourage  parents  to  help:     “Parents  are  kept  closely  informed  of  their children‟s  progress  and  will  play  a  part  in  helping  their  children  to  keep  up  with  class, sending  them  to  „Juku‟  (private  evening tuition)  if  extra  help  is  needed  and  encouraging them to work harder”.
– supplementary = extra tuition: the act of teaching something, especially to one person or to people in small groups
=>ANSWER: A – They are given appropriate supplementary tuition

13. Why do Japanese students tend to achieve relatively high rates of success in maths?
In  paragraph  F:  “maths  is  recognised  as  an  important  compulsory  subject  throughout schooling; and the emphasis is on hard work coupled with a focus on accuracy”.
Maths is an important subject in Japanese schooling,  Japanese students tend to learn hard/make a lot of effort and focus on the accuracy of answers  => they tend to achieve high rates of success in maths
– correct answers = accuracy
–  hard work = effort
=>ANSWER: C – Much effort is made and correct answers are emphasised


Questions 14 – 17  Choose the correct letter, A,B,C or D
14. The use of pesticides has contributed to
In paragraph 1: “Apart from engendering widespread ecological disorders, pesticides have contributed   to   the   emergence   of   a   new   breed   of   chemical-resistant,   highly   lethal superbugs”.
This  means  that  the  use  of  pesticides  is  partly  responsible  for  widespread  ecological disorders and the development of  highly lethal superbugs ~ types of insects that are very difficult to destroy and which cause a lot of damage.   This results in an imbalance in many ecologies around the world.
– around the world = widespread
– imbalance = disorders
=> ANSWER: B – an imbalance in many ecologies around the world.

15. The Food and Agriculture Organization has counted more than 300 agricultural pests which
In paragraph 2: “more than 300 species of agricultural pests have developed resistance to a wide range of potent chemicals”.   That means pesticides no longer affect/ have any effect on these agricultural pests.
– no longer responding to = have developed resistance to
– pesticides = potent chemicals
=>ANSWER: A – are no longer responding to most pesticides in use.

16. Cotton farmers in Central America began to use pesticides
Paragraph   4   refers  to   cotton   farmers  in   Central   America:     “farmers   avidly   took   to pesticides  as  a  sure  measure  to  boost  crop  yield”.  That  means  farmers  used  pesticides  to increase the amount of cotton harvested from each crop ~ the crop yield.
– began to use = took to
– boost: to make something increase
=>ANSWER: D – to ensure more cotton was harvested from each crop

17. By the mid-1960s, cotton farmers in Central America found that pesticides
In paragraph 5: “By the mid-1960s, the situation took an alarming turn with the outbreak of four more new pests, necessitating pesticides spraying to such an extent that 50% of the financial outlay on cotton production was accounted for by pesticides”.
This  means  that  pesticides  accounted  for  50%  of  the  amount  of  money  spent  on  cotton production.
– financial outlay: the money that you have to spend in order to produce cotton
=>ANSWER: D – were costing 50% of the total amount they spent on their crops

Questions 18 – 21
18. Disease -spreading pests respond more quickly to pesticides than agricultural pests do.
Key words: disease-spreading pests, respond, more quickly, pesticides, agricultural pests.
In  paragraph  2,  the  FAO  states  that  “more  than  300  species  of  agricultural  pests  have developed  resistance  to  a  wide  range  of  potent  chemicals.  Not  to  be  left  behind  are  the disease-spreading pests, about 100 species of which have become immune to a variety of insecticides now in use”. In this paragraph, the  writer only refers to  the number of species of  both  agricultural  and disease – spreading pests which respond to pesticides. There is no mention of which type of pests develop resistance to pesticides more quickly.  The information is not given.
– respond to = develop resistance to
– respond to = become immune to

19. A number of pests are now born with an innate immunity to some pesticides
Key words: pests, born, innate immunity, pesticides
In  paragraph  3:  “Because  of  their  tremendous  breeding  potential  and  genetic  diversity, many pests are known to withstand synthetic chemicals and bear offspring with a built-in resistance  to  pesticides”.   That  means  these  species  are  born  with  an  innate  immunity/  to insecticides.
– born with ~ some pests give birth to young/offspring which are not killed by chemical pesticides
– withstand ~ resist/be immune to/not be killed by
– insecticides ~ chemicals/pesticides which kill insects innate: that you have when you were born

20. Biological control entails using synthetic chemicals to try and change the genetic make-up of the pests‟ offspring.
Key words: biological control, synthetic chemicals, change, genetic make-up, pests‟ offspring.
In paragraph 7, “In the face of the escalating perils  from indiscriminate  applications of pesticides, a more effective and ecologically sound strategy of biological control, involving the selective use of  natural  enemies of  the pest population, is  fast  gaining popularity – though, as yet, it is a new field with limited potential”.
The  writer  states  that  „biological  control‟  is  a  more  effective  and  ecologically  sound strategy,  used  in  an  effort  to  tackle  the  serious  danger  caused  by  the  application  of pesticides.  This  means  that  „biological  control‟  does  not  use  pesticides  but  uses  natural enemies  of  pests.  =>  It  is  false  to  say  that  “Biological  control  entails  using  synthetic chemicals to try and change the genetic make-up of the pests‟ offspring”.
– peril: serious danger
– indiscriminate:  action  that  is  taken  without  thought  about  what  the  result  may  be,  especially when it causes people to be harmed

21. Bio-control is free from danger under certain circumstances
Key words: bio – control, free from, danger, circumstances
In  paragraph  7,  the  writer  mentions   “the  advantage  of  biological  control  in  contrast  to other  methods  is  that  it  provides  a  relatively  low  –  cost,  perpetual  control  system  with  a minimum of detrimental side – effects. When handled by experts, bio – control is safe, non – polluting and self – dispersing”.
– Under certain circumstances [when handled by experts], bio-control is safe, non-polluting and self-dispersing = free from danger.

Questions 22 – 26
22. Disapene scale insects feed on
The last sentence in paragraph 9 explains that   “CIBC is also  perfecting the technique for breeding parasites that prey on „disapene scale‟ insects – notorious defoliants of fruit trees in the US and India” => This means that disapene scale insects feed on fruit trees.
– notorious: well known for being bad
– defoliant: these insects eat the leaves from plants, in particular the leaves of fruit trees
=>ANSWER: D – Fruit trees

23. Neodumetia sangawani ate
In  paragraph  10:   “Neodumetia  sangawani,  was  found  useful  in  controlling  the  Rhodes grass-scale insect that was devouring forage grass in many parts of the US”. This  means  Neodumetia  sangawaniate  ate  Rhodes  grass-scale  insect  to  control  it  from devouring  [eating]  forage  grass.  To  be  clear,  Neodumetia  sangawani  eats  grass-scale insects, and grass-scale insects eat forage grass.
–  ate = was devouring
=>ANSWER:  H – Grass-scale insects

24. Leaf-mining hispides blighted
In  paragraph  10:  “In  the  late  1960s,  when  Sri  Lanka‟s  flourishing  coconut  groves  were plagued  by  leaf-mining  hispides,  a  larval  parasite  imported  from  Singapore  brought  the pest under control”. This means that Sri Lanka‟s coconut groves were damaged by leaf-mining hispides.
– blight = plague
– flourishing: developing quickly and being very successful/productive
grove: a small group of trees
=> ANSWER: C – Coconut trees

25. An Argentinian weevil may be successful in wiping out
In  paragraph  9,  “Similarly the  Hyderabad  – based Regional  Laboratory (RRL), supported by CIBC, is now trying out an Argentina weevil  for the  eradication of water hyacinth”. That  means  an  Argentinian  weevil  may  be  successful  in  destroying  all  of  the  water hyacinth plants [by eating them]
– hyacinth: a plant with a mass of small blue, white or pink flowers with a sweet smell that grow closely together around a thick stem
– wiping out = eradication

26. Salvinia molesta plagues
In paragraph 10:  “By using Neochetina bruci, a beetle native to Brazil, scientists at Kerala Agricultural  University  freed  a  12-kilometer-long  canal  from  the  clutches  of  the  weed Salvinia molesta¼About 30,000 hectares of rice fields in Kerala are infested by this weed [Salvinia molesta]”.
That means weed Salvinia molesta plagues about 30,000 hectares of rice fields in Kerala.
– plague = infest
=>ANSWER: B – Rice fields


27. Taxonomic research involves comparing members of one group of ants
Key words: taxonomic, comparing members of group of ants
In paragraph 1:   “For taxonomy, or classification, long series, from a single nest, which contain  all  castes  (workers,  including  majors  and  minors,  and,  if  present,  queens  and males) are desirable, to allow the determination of variation within species”.
This  means  that  taxonomic  research  involves  classifying  ants  from  a  single  nest,  which contain all castes, or different members of a group.
– comparing = determination of variation
– one group = species

28. New species of ant are frequently identified by taxonomists.
Key words: new species of ant, identified, taxonomists
All the information relating to taxonomic research is in paragraph 1. Taxonomic research involves   comparing  members   of  one   group  of   ants   and   “the   taxonomist   sometimes overlooks whole species in favour of those currently under study”.
There is no information about how often new species of ant are identified by taxonomists.

29. Range is the key criterion for ecological collections
Key words: range, key criterion, ecological collections
In paragraph 1, “For ecological studies, the most important factor is collecting identifiable samples  of  as  many  of  the  different  species  present  as  possible”.  This  means  that  it  is important for ecological collections to collect a variety of present species [collect different species]
– range: a variety of things of a particular type
– key criterion = the most important factor

30. A single collection of ants can generally be used for both taxonomic and ecological purposes.
Key words: single collection of ants, taxonomic and ecological purposes
In paragraph 1: “For ecological studies, the most important factor is collecting identifiable samples of as many of the different species present as possible”.    Taxonomists prefer to collect  a  lot  of  ants  from  a  single  nest.    “Unfortunately,  these  methods  are  not  always compatible”.  Therefore, one collection of ants cannot always be used for both purposes.
Therefore, it  is  false to  say that  a single collection of ants  can  generally be used for  both taxonomic and ecological purposes.

Questions 31 – 36
31. It is preferable to take specimens from groups of ants
In paragraph 2, in the hand collecting method, “when possible, collections should be made from nests or foraging columns and at least 20 to 25 individuals collected. This will ensure that  all  individuals  are  from  the  same  species  and  so  increase  their  value  for  detailed studies”.  “Take  specimens  from  groups  of  ants”  means  all  individuals  [ants]  are  the  same  species, from       the       same       nestor column of ants searching for food.
=>ANSWER: A – Hand-collecting

32. It is particularly effective for wet habitats.
In paragraph 4, in the ground litter sampling method, “this method  works especially well in rain forests and marshy areas”.  Rain forests and marshy areas are wet habitats.
– effective = works well
– marshy area: land which is always soft and wet.
=> ANSWER: C – Sampling ground litter

33. It is a good method for species which are hard to find
In  paragraph  3,  in  the  method  using  baits,  “Baits  can  be  used  to  attract  and  concentrate foragers. This often increases the number of individuals collected and attracts  species that are otherwise  elusive”.  That  means baits can be  used to  collect  species which are hard to find [elusive].
– hard to find = elusive
=>ANSWER: B – Using bait

34. Little time and effort is required
In paragraph 5, the pitfall trap method, “One advantage of pitfall traps is that they can be used to collect over a period of time with minimal maintenance and intervention”. That means when using pitfall traps, little time and effort is required to look after and check the traps [this is the advantage of this method].
– little = minimal: very small in size or amount; as small as possible
=>ANSWER: D – Using a pitfall trap

35. Separate containers are used for individual specimens
In paragraph 2, in the hand collecting method, “Individual insects are placed in plastic or glass tubes (1.5 – 3.0 ml capacity for small ants, 5-8 ml for larger ants) containing 75% to 95% ethanol”.
Insects   [including   small   ants   and   larger   ants]   are   placed   in   plastic   or   glass   tubes [containers] with different sizes.  Each insect is placed in a separate tube.
– containers = tubes
=>ANSWER: A – Hand collecting

36. Non-alcoholic preservative should be used
In paragraph 5, in the method using pitfall traps, “the preservative used is usually ethylene glycol or propylene glycol, as alcohol will evaporate quickly and the traps will dry out”.
If  alcohol  is  used  to  preserve  ant  speciments,  the  traps  dry  too  quickly  because  alcohol evaporates.     So   other   preservatives,   which   do   not   contain   alcohol   should   be   used.
– evaporate: to disappear, especially by gradually becoming less and less
=> ANSWER: D – Using a pitfall trap

Questions 37 – 40
In paragraph 4:   “This is most commonly done by placing leaf litter [38] on a screen [39] over a large funnel, often  under some heat [37]. As the leaf litter dries from above, ants (and other animals) move downward and eventually fall out the bottom and are collected in alcohol [40] placed below the funnel”

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