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Passage 1: A Chronicle of Timekeeping
Questions 1-4: Reading Passage has eight paragraphs, A-H.
1. a description of an early timekeeping invention affected by cold temperatures.
Keywords:early, timekeeping, cold temperatures
In paragraph D, the writer indicates that “In order to track temporal hours during the day, inventors created sundials, which indicate time by the length or direction of the sun‟s shadow. The sundial‟s counterpart, the water clock, was designed to measure temporal hours at night. One of the first water clocks was a basin […]. Although these devices performed satisfactorily around the Mediterranean; they could not always be depended on in the cloudy and freezing weather of northern Europe.”
– early~one of the first
2. an explanation of the importance of geography in the development of the calendar in farming communities.
Keywords: geography, calendar, farming communities
In paragraph B, the writer states that “Before the invention of artificial light, the moon had greater social impact. And, for those living near the equator in particular, its waxing and waning was more conspicuous than the passing of the seasons. Hence, the calendars that were developed at the lower latitudes were influenced more by the lunar cycle than by the solar year. In more northern climes, however, where seasonal agriculture was practised, the solar year became more crucial.”
3. a description of the origins of the pendulum clock
Keywords: origins, pendulum clock
In paragraph F, the writer says that “By the 16th century, a pendulum clock had been devised, but the pendulum swung in a large arc and thus was not very efficient.”
4. details of the simultaneous efforts of different societies to calculate time using uniform hours.
Keywords: calculate time, uniform hours
paragraph E, the writer says that “….in the early 14 century, a number of systems evolved. The schemes that divided the day into 24 equal parts varied according to the start of the count: Italian hours began at sunset, Babylonian hours at sunrise, astronomical hours at midday and „great clock‟ hours, used for some large public clocks in Germany, at midnight. Eventually these were superseded by „small clock‟, or French, hours, which split the day into two 12-hour periods commencing at midnight.” So, these efforts all occurred at around the same time (= simultaneously) in the early 14th century, based on 24 equal parts (= uniform hours) in different countries (= different societies).
Questions 5-8: Look at the following events (Questions 5-8) and the list of nationalities below.
5. They devised a civil calendar in which the months were equal in length.
Keywords: a civil calendar, months, equal in length
In paragraph C, the writer explains that “Centuries before the Roman Empire, the Egyptians had formulated a municipal calendar having 12 months of 30 days, with five days added to approximate the solar year.” Therefore, the Egyptians devised this calendar.
– he months were equal in length ~ 12 months of 30 days
6. They divided the day into two equal halves
Keywords: divided, two equal halves
In paragraph E, the writer indicates that “Eventually, these were superseded by „small clock‟, or French, hours, which split the day into two 12-hour periods commencing at midnight.”
– two equal halves ~ two 12-hour periods
7. They developed a new cabinet shape for a type of timekeeper.
Keywords: new, cabinet shape, timekeeper.
In paragraph G, the writer says that in England in 1670, the invention of the anchor escapement enabled the pendulum to travel in a very small arc, which means that it moved only a short distance. So a long pendulum which beat once every second could be used “….and thus led to the development of a new floor-standing case design, which became known as the grandfather clock.‟ So, this grandfather clock, a type of timekeeper, stood on the floor, and the pendulum moved inside the tall case, shaped lack a cabinet.
8. They created a calendar to organize public events and work schedules.
Keywords: calendar, organize public events, work schedules
In the first paragraph, the writer says that “the Babylonians began to measure time, introducing calendars to co-ordinate communal activities, to plan the shipment of goods and, in particular, to regulate planting and harvesting.”
– organize public events = co-ordinate communal activities
Questions 9-13: Label the diagram below.
9-13. How the 1670 lever-based device worked
Keywords: 1670, lever-based device. Thus, all the answers will be found in paragraph G.
9. escapement (resembling…..)
In paragraph G, the writer says that “It was called the anchor escapement, which was a lever-based device shaped like a ship‟s anchor”
– resembling=be shaped like
=>ANSWER: (ship‟s) anchor
In paragraph G, the writer explains that “The motion of a pendulum rocks this device (escapement) so that it catches and releases each tooth of the escape wheel.”
=>ANSWER: 10.(escape) wheel 11. tooth
12-13. a 12…..which beats each 13…..
In paragraph G, the writer says that “Moreover, this invention allowed the use of a long pendulum which could beat once a second and thus led to the development of a new floor-standing case design.”
=>ANSWER: 12. (long) pendulum 13. second
Passage 2: Air traffic control in the USA
Question 14- 19: Reading Passage 2 has seven paragraphs, A-G.
14. Paragraph A
In this paragraph, the writer indicates that “An accident that occurred in the skies over the Grand Canyon in 1956 resulted in the establishment of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to regulate and oversee the operation of aircraft in the skies over the United States” So, this paragraph’s main idea is aviation disaster prompts action.
15. Paragraph C
In this paragraph, the writer argues that “It was only after the creation of the FAA that full-scale regulation of America‟s airspace took place, and this was fortuitous, for the advent of the jet engine suddenly resulted in a large number of very fast planes…” So, this paragraph is about two coincidental developments.
– coincidental= fortuitous
16. Paragraph D
In this paragraph, the writer argues that “Many people think that ATC consists of a row of controllers sitting in front of their radar screens at the nation’s airports, telling arriving and departing traffic what to do. This is a very incomplete part of the picture.” So, this paragraph is about a view about ATC which is oversimplified.
17. Paragraph E
In this paragraph, the writer writes about airspace; especially altitude zones: “In general, from 365m above the ground and higher, the entire country is blanketed by controlled airspace. In certain areas, mainly near airports, controlled airspace extends down to 215m above the ground […] In this way, the recreational pilot who simply wishes to go flying for a while without all the restrictions composed by the FAA has only to stay in uncontrolled airspace, below 365m.” So, the correct heading for this paragraph is setting altitude zones.
18. Paragraph F
In this paragraph, the writer writes about weather condition rules for safety: “In good meteorological conditions, flying would be permitted under Visual Flight Rules (VFR), which suggests a strong reliance on visual cues to maintain an acceptable level of safety. Poor visibility necessitated a set of Instrumental Flight Rules (IFR)…” So, the correct heading for this paragraph is setting rules to weather conditions.
– weather conditions=meteorological conditions
19. Paragraph G
The main idea of this paragraph lies in the first sentence “Controlled airspace is divided into several types, designated by letters of the alphabet.” Then, the writer details how controlled airspace is divided into categories and defines them. So, the correct heading for this paragraph is defining airspace categories.
Question 20-26: Do the following statements agrees with the given information of the reading passage?
20. The FAA was created as a result of the introduction of the jet engine.
Keywords: FAA, created, jet engine
In paragraph C, the writer argues that “It was only after the creation of the FAA that full-scale regulation of America‟s airspace took place, and this was fortuitous, for the advent of the jet engine suddenly resulted in a large number of very fast planes…” This means that the jet engine was created after the formation of the FAA.
21. Air Traffic Control started after the Grand Canyon crash in 1956
Keywords: after Grand Canyon crash, 1956
In the second paragraph, the writer states that “Rudimentary air traffic control (ATC) existed well before the Grand Canyon disaster.”
22. Beacons and flashing lights are still used by ATC today.
Keywords: beacons, flashing lights, used, today
In this passage, the writer does not mention whether beacons and flashing lights are still used by ATC today. Beacons and flashing lights are referred to in paragraph B, but we are not told if this system has been abandoned completely or is still used. So, the statement is not given.
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
23. Some improvements were made in radio communication during World War II
Key words: improvements, radio communication, World War II
In paragraph C, the writer explains that “In the 1940s, ATC centres could and did take advantage of the newly developed radar and improved radio communication brought about by the Second World War.” =>ANSWER: TRUE
24. Class F airspace is airspace which is below 365m and not near airports.
Keywords: Class F, below 365m, not near airports
In the last paragraph, the writer says that “Uncontrolled airspace is designated Class F.”In paragraph E, the writer argues that “Elsewhere, in uncontrolled airspace, pilots are bound by fewer regulations. In this way, the recreational pilot who simply wishes to go flying for a while without all the restrictions composed by the FAA has only to stay in uncontrolled airspace, below 365m.
25. All aircraft in Class E airspace must use IFR
Keywords: All, Class E, must use IFR
In the last paragraph, the writer says that “The difference between Class E and A airspace is that in Class A, all operations are IFR…” This means that not all aircraft in Class E airspace must use IFR.
26. A pilot entering Class C airspace is flying over an average-sized city.
Keywords: Class C, an average-sized city
In the last paragraph, the writer states that “Three other types of airspace, Classes D, C and B, govern the vicinity of airports. These correspond roughly to small municipal, medium-sized metropolitan and major metropolitan airports respectively.” This means that Class C corresponds to medium-sized metropolitan airports. So, the statement is true.
Passage 3: Telepathy
Questions 27-30: Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-G, below.
27. Researchers with differing attitudes towards telepathy agree on
Keywords: differing attitudes, telepathy, agree
In paragraph 2, the writer states that “Some researchers say the results constitute compelling evidence that telepathy is genuine. Other parapsychologists believe the field is on the brink of collapse, having tried to produce definitive scientific proof and failed. Sceptics and advocates alike do concur on one issue, however: that the most impressive evidence so far has come from the so-called “ganzfeld experiments”, a German term that means “whole field””.
– Researchers with differing attitudes= Sceptics and advocates
– agree on=concur on
=>ANSWER: E (the significance of the ganzfeld experiments)
28. Reports of experiences during meditation indicated
Keywords: reports, meditation, indicated
In paragraph 2, the writer argues that “Reports of telepathic experiences had by people during meditation led parapsychologists to suspect that telepathy might involve „signals‟ passing between people that were so faint that they were usually swamped by normal brain activity. In this case, such signals might be more easily detected by those experiencing meditation-like tranquility in a relaxing „whole- field‟ of light, sound and warmth.” This means that a suitable environment (a relaxing „whole-field‟ of light, sound and warmth) should be created so that such signals could be easily detected.
=>ANSWER: B (the need to create a suitable environment for telepathy)
29. Attitudes to parapsychology would alter drastically with
Keywords: attitudes, alter, with
In paragraph 7, the writer says that “What they are certainly not finding, however, is any change in attitude of mainstream scientists: most still today reject the very idea of telepathy. The problem stems at least in part from the lack of any plausible mechanism for telepathy.” This means that if there is a plausible mechanism for telepathy, attitudes to parapsychology would alter drastically.
=>ANSWER: A (the discovery of a mechanism for telepathy)
30. Recent autoganzfeld trials suggest that success rates will improve with
Keywords: autoganzfeld, success rate, improve
In the last paragraph, the writer indicates that “Some work has begun already, with researchers trying to identify people who are particularly successful in autoganzfeld trials. Early results show that creative and artistic people do much better than average: in one study at the University of Edinburgh, musicians achieved a hit-rate of 56 per cent.” This means that success rates will improve with a more careful selection of subjects.
– success rate=hit-rate
=>ANSWER: F (a more careful selection of subjects)
Questions 31-40: Complete the table below.
31-32-33. Involved a person acting as a 31….., who picked out one 32…..from a random selection of four, and a 33….., who then tried to identify it.
Keywords: Ganzfeld studies 1982
In paragraph 3, the writer explains that “In early ganzfeld experiments, the telepathy test involved identification of a picture chosen from a random selection of four taken from a large image bank. The idea was that a person acting as a “sender” would attempt to beam the image over to the “receiver”relaxing in the sealed room.”
– picked out=chose
=>ANSWER: 31. sender 32. picture 33. receiver
34-35. Positive results could be produced by factors such as 34….. or 35…..
Keywords: positive results, factors
In paragraph 4, the writer says that “there were many other ways of getting positive results. These ranged from „sensory leakage‟ – where clues about the pictures accidentally reach the receiver – to outright fraud.”
=>ANSWER: 34. sensory leakage 35. outright fraud
36-37. 36…..were used for key tasks to limit the amount of 37…..in carrying out the tests
Keywords: Autoganzfeld studies 1987, key tasks
In paragraph 5, the writer indicates that “After this, many researchers switched to autoganzfeld tests – an automated variant of the technique which used computers to perform many of the key tasks such as random selection of images. By minimising human involvement, the idea was to minimise the risk of flawed results.”
=>ANSWER: 36. computers 37. human involvement
38. The results were then subjected to a…..
Keywords: results, subjected to
In paragraph 5, the writer says that “In 1987, results from hundreds of autoganzfeld tests were studied by Honorton in a „meta-analysis‟, a statistical technique for finding the overall results from a set of studies.”
39-40. 39…..between different test results was put down to the fact that sample groups were not 40….. (as with most ganzfeld studies)
Keywords: flaw, test results, sample groups
In paragraph 6, the writer explains that “Yet some parapsychologists remain disturbed by the lack of consistency between individual ganzfeld tests. Defenders of telepathy point out that demanding impressive evidence from every study ignores one basic statistical fact: it takes large samples to detect small effects. If, as current results suggest, telepathy produces hit-rates only marginally above the 25 per cent expected by chance, it‟s unlikely to be detected by a typical ganzfeld study involving around 40 people: the group is just not big enough.”
=>ANSWER: 39. lack of consistency 40. big enough
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