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Passage 1: Let’s Go Bats
Questions 1-5 Which paragraph contains the following information
1. examples of wildlife other than bats which do not rely on vision to navigate by
Keywords: examples,other than bats, not rely on vision
In paragraph B, the writer states : ” …How to find their way and find their prey in the absence of light.Bats are not the only creatures to face this difficulty today.Obviously….” Then the writer lists some names of insects and fishes in the following sentences.
– navigate = find their way ,find their prey : to make or find a course or way/ find position/ direction you need to go
– in the absence of light = do not rely on vision
– other than bats = bats are not the only
– other than = except/ different from
=> ANSWER: B
2. How early mammals avoided dying out
Keywords : how, mammals, avoided dying
In paragraph A, the writer says : “It is probable that the nocturnal trades go way back in the ancestry of all mammals. In the time when …, our mammalian ancestors probably only managed to survive at all because they found ways of scraping a living at night” It can be inferred that finding ways of scraping a living at night is how early mammals avoided dying out – early mammals = our mammalian ancestors
– avoided dying out= managed to survive
– scraping a living=just finding enough food to eat and survive
=> ANSWER: A
3. Why bats hunt in the dark
Keywords: Why, hunt, dark
In paragraph A, the writer argues : ” They hunt at night,and cannot use light to help them…You might say that this is a problem of their own making, one that they could avoid…. But the daytime economy is already heavily exploited by other creatures such as birds” This explains that bats hunt in the dark due to the “heavily exploited economy” during the daytime when, for example, birds catch insects.
– in the dark=at night
=> ANSWER: A
4. How a particular discovery has helped our understanding of bats
Keywords : how, discovery, understanding of bats
In paragraph E, the writer explains : ” But the underlying mathematical theories of radar and sonar are very similar, and much of our scientific understanding of the details of what bats are doing has come from applying radar theory to them. The American zoologist, Donald Griffin, who was largely responsible for the discovery of sonar in bats, coined the term „echolocation‟ to cover both sonar and radar…” This means that radar theory helped our understanding of bats.
=> ANSWER: E
5. Early military uses of echolocation
Key words: military uses, echolocation
In paragraph D, the writer says : ” After this technique had been invented, it was only a matter of time before weapons designers adapted it for the detection of submarines. Both sides in the Second World Warrelied heavily on these devices, under such codenames as Asdic (British) and Sonar…, which uses radio echoes rather than sound echoes.” This means that devices using radio echoes were used for military purposes, as they served in a war. The term „echolocation‟ was not known to the early pioneers, and was invented later, as the final paragraph explains.
=> ANSWER: D
Questions 6-9 Complete the summary
( Notice that from the title ” Facial Vison we can infer that information should be found in paragraph D.”)
6. In fact, the sensation is more similar to the way in which pain from a ….arm or leg might be felt.
Keywords: sensation, similar, pain , arm or leg
In line 6 (paragraph D), the writer states : ” Experiments showed that, infact, facial vision is nothing to do with touch or the front of the face, although the sensation maybe referred to the sensation to the front of the face, like the referred pain in a phantom limb.”
– similar to=like
We need an adjective/ noun to modify “arm or leg “. In addition.” pain from a…arm or leg ” is corresponding to ” pain in a phantom limb” in the text, adding that we see no ” arm” or “leg ” in the text. So it can be inferred that “arm or leg” = limb, and we need ” phantom” to fill the gap.
=> ANSWER: Phantom
7. The ability actually comes from perceiving … through ears.
Keywords : ability, actually, perceiving, through ears
In the next sentence, the writer says : ” The sensation of facial vision, it turns out , really goes in through the ears.Blind people, without even being aware of the fact, are actually using echoes of their own footsteps…” This means that the sensation of facial vision, in fact, comes from using echoes through one‟s ears. ” The ability” refers to ” the sensation of facial vision” .
=> ANSWER: echoes
8. However, even before this was understood, the principle has been applied in the design of instruments which calculated the… of the seabed.
Keywords : principle,instruments, calculated, seabed
In the next sentence, the writer explains : ” Before this was discovered, engineers had already built instruments to exploit the principle, for example, to measure the depth of the sea under a ship.”
+ understood = discovered
+ calculate = measure
+ seabed = sea under a ship : the floor of the sea/ocean
=> ANSWER: depth
9. This was followed by a wartime application in devices for finding …
Keywords: wartime application, devices, finding
In the next sentence, the writer says : ” After this technique had been invented, it was only a matter of time before weapons designers adapted it for the detection of submarines.”
+ this was followed = after
+ wartime application= weapons designers adapted it
+ finding = detection
=> ANSWER: submarines
10. Long before the invention of radar,…. had resulted in a sophisticated radar-like system in bats.
Keywords: Long before,invention, resulted in, in bats
In paragraph E, the first sentence, the writer says : ” The Sonar and Radar pioneers didn‟t know it then, but all the world now knows that bats, or rather natural selection working on bats, had perfected the system tens of millions of years earlier, and their ” radar ” achieves feats of detection and navigation that would strike an engineer dumb with admiration. ” This means bats have a radar-like system due to natural selection.
+ the Sonar and Radar pioneers refer to the inventors of radar, corresponding to ” the invention of radar”
+ tens of millions of years earlier = long before
+ sophisticated= clever and complicated in the way that it works or is presented
+ “natural selection perfected the system” ,so we can infer that the system was “sophisticated”
+ the writer puts “radar ” in quotation marks, indicating that the system is “radar-like”
=> ANSWER: natural selection
11. Radar is an inaccurate term when referring to bats because … are not used in their navigation system.
Keywords: inaccurate, referring to bats, navigation system
In paragraph E, the writer argues : ” It is technically incorrect to talk about bat ” radar”, since they do not use radio waves.
This means that bats actually don‟t have radar, because they do not use radio waves, while radar does.
+ inaccurate= incorrect
+ referring to = talk about
+ because =since
=> ANSWER: radio waves
12. Radar and sonar are based on similar….
Keywords: radar and sonar, based, similar
In paragraph E, the writersays : ” But the underlying mathematical theories of radar and sonar are very similar,…”
This means that radar and sonar are based on mathematical theories which are almost the same. So it can be inferred that radar and sonar are based on similar mathematical theories
+ underlying = basic, fundamental
=> ANSWER: mathematical theories
13.The word ” echolocation ” was first used by someone working as a …
Keywords: echolocation, first, someone
In paragraph E, the writer says: ” The American zoologistDonald Griffin, who was largely responsible for the …, coined the term ” echolocation” to cover both sonar and radar,…”
+ first used=coined
=> ANSWER: zoologist
Passage 2: Making Every Drop Count
Questions 14-20 Choose the correct heading
14. Paragraph A
Reading the first sentence, ” The history of human civilisation is entwined with the history of the ways we have learned to manipulate water resources”, we could anticipate that the writer is going to talk about how water is supplied. Skimming through the next sentences, we see words like ” water was brought…”, “the Roman Empire”, “supplied occupants of Rome”. Therefore, the most suitable heading for this paragraph should be xi: a description of ancient water supplies.
+ ancient: belonging to a period of history that is thousands of years in the past corresponding to the Roman Empire, occupants of Rome, history
+ description: corresponds to ” the way”
+ water supplies corresponds to ” manipulate water resources “, supplied occupants” manipulate : to control or use something in a skilful way
=> ANSWER: xi a description of ancient water supplies.
Example: Paragraph B
In the first sentence the writer says : ” During the industrial revolution and population explosion of the 19th and 20th centuries, the demand for water rose dramatically.” Then he continues: “Unprecedented construction of tens of ….brought great benefits to hundreds of millions of people”. Here we should focus on the bold words to realise that the main content of the text is that the increasing demand of water has been met. Looking back at the heading list, the most suitable heading should be iii, How a global challenge was met. It can be inferred that “global challenge” here corresponds to “the demand for water rose dramatically”
=> ANSWER: iii how a global challenge was met.
15. Paragraph C
The main points in this paragraph relate to dangers to health as the result of a lack of clean water. The writer says : “…more than one billion people lack access to clean drinking water; some two and a half billion do not have adequate sanitation services. Preventable water-related diseases kill an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 children every day…‟ Therefore, the most suitable heading should be vii:The relevance to health
=> ANSWER: vii the relevance to health
16. Paragraph D
In the first sentence, the writer states: ” The consequences of our water policies extend beyond jeopardising human health.”From the bold words, we can infer that the writer is going to talk about negative results/effects of water policies, not simply in terms of the effects of these policies on human health. Looking back at the list, the possible heading should be either v, „Environmental effects‟or i, „Scientists‟call for a revision of policy‟. Looking more closely at the text, we see ” …more than 20% of all freshwater fish species are now threatened or endangered because dams and water withdrawals have destroyed the free-flowing river ecosystems where they thrive. Certain irrigation practices degrade soil quality…” So the heading is v, Enviromental effects
=> ANSWER: v Environmental effects
17. Paragraph E
In the first sentence, the writer says: ” At the outset of the new millennium, however, the way resource planners think about water is beginning to change” . In the text we see that in the following sentences, the writer indicates ” some water experts are now demanding that…”, “This shift in philosophy…” From the bold words we can calculate that the text mainly discusses the demand by water experts to change something related to water policy. Therefore, the most suitable heading should be i, Scientists‟ call for a revision of policy
Scientists corresponds to resource planners, water experts
Revision corresponds to this shift in philosophy, change
=> ANSWER: i Scientists‟ call for a revision of policy
18. Paragraph F
In the first sentence, the writer says : ” Fortunately- and unexpectedly- the demand for water is not rising as rapidly as some predicted”. So we can infer that the text is possibly going to talk about a downward trend in water demand. In the text, we see words like “slowed” , “demand has actually fallen.” Therefore, the most suitable heading should be ix, A surprising downward trend in demand for water
=> ANSWER: ix A surprising downward trend in demand for water
19. Paragraph G
In the first sentence, the writer poses a question in response to the final sentence in paragraph F [demand for water has fallen in some parts of the world]. ” What explains this remarkable turn of events ?” , indicating that he is going to talk about the cause for the downward trend in water demand. He then discusses two factors: people now use water more efficiently and “…communities are now re-thinking their priorities for water use. Therefore the most suitable heading should be ii, An explanation for reduced water use
=> ANSWER: ii An explanation for reduced water use
20. Paragraph H
In the first sentence, the writer says :” On the other hand, aqueducts and other kinds of infrustructure will still have to be built, particularly in developing countries where basic human needs have not been met. But such projects must be built to higher specifications and with more accountability to local people and their environment than in the past”. In these ways, the new projects should have higher standards in order to protect local people and their environment. Therefore the most suitable heading should be x, The need to raise standards. Must be corresponds to the need Built to higher specifications corresponds to raise standards
=> ANSWER: x The need to raise standards
Questions 21-26 YES, NO, NOT GIVEN
21. Water use per person is higher in the industrial world than it was in Ancient Rome
Keywords : Water use per person, higher, industrial world, Ancient Rome
In paragraph A, the last sentence, the writer says: ” At the height of the Roman Empire,…, supplied the occupants of Rome with as much water per person as is provided in many parts of the industrial world today.” Thus, people in ancient Rome used as much water as people in the industrial world now.
=> ANSWER: NO
22. Feeding increasing populations is possible due primarily to improved irrigation systems.
Keywords: Feeding, populations, irrigation systems
In paragraph B, the writer explains: ” Food production has kept pace with soaring populations mainly because of the expansion of artificial irrigation systems that make possible the growth of 40% of the world’s food.” This means that food production still manages to supply the increasing population because irrigation systems help in the production of more food.
+ increasing = soaring
+ due primarily to= mainly because of
+improved irrigation systems = expansion of artificial irrigation systems
=> ANSWER: YES
23. Modern water systems imitate those of the ancient Greeks and Romans
Keywords: Modern, imitate, ancient Greeks and Romans
From these key words, it can be inferred that description of water systems could only be found in paragraph C. However, we are only told that “…half of the world‟s population still suffers, with water services inferior to those available to the ancient Greeks and Romans”. Whether these modern water systems copy those of ancient Greece and Rome is not stated.
=> ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
24. Industrial growth is increasing the overall demand for water
Keywords: Industrial, increasing, demand for water
In paragraph F , the writer argues: ” Although population, industrial output and economic
productivity have continued to soar in developed nations, the rate at which people withdraw water from aquifers, rivers and lakes has slowed.” This means that that industrial growth is not increasing the demand for water. In fact, the demand has slowed. “And in a few parts of the world, demand has fallen”.
+ increasing corresponds to continued to soar
+ demand for water corresponds to the rate at which people withdraw water from…
=> ANSWER: NO
25. Modern technologies have led to a reduction in domestic water consumption
Keywords: modern technologies, reduction, domestic water consumption
In paragraph G, the writer says : ” But since 1980, the amount of water consumed per person has actually decreased, thanks to a range of new technologies that help to conserve water in homes and industry.”
+ water consumption = the amount of water consumed
+ reduction corresponds to decrease
+ new technologies = modern technologies
+ domestic=in homes
=> ANSWER: YES
26. In the future, governments should maintain ownership of water infrastructures.
Keywords: future, government, ownership, water infrastructures
Information relating to government and water infrastructures can only be found in paragraphs H and E.
In paragraph E, the writer just states: “Some water experts are now demanding that existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways rather than building new facilities.” There is nothing about ownership. In paragraph H: “…dams, aqueducts and other kinds of infrastructure will still have to be built….”, but again there is nothing related to ownership. Therefore, there is no information indicating whether governments should maintain ownership of water infrastructures or not.
=> ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
Passage 3: Educating Psyche
Questions 27 -30 Choose the correct letter
27. The book Educating Psyche is mainly concerned with
Keywords: Educating Psyche, mainly
In the first paragraph,the writer says: ” Educating Psyche by Bernie Neville is a book which looks at radical new approaches to learning, describing the effect of emotion, imagination and the unconscious on learning.” So in can be inferred that the main content of the book is about new approaches to learning. The possible answers that contain keywords relating to “approaches” is B. A particular technique for learning based on emotions and D. Ways of learning which are not traditional. However, answer B focuses only one technique – based on emotions – while according to the above text, the book deals not only with emotions but also the effect of imagination and the unconscious on learning.
Therefore the answer is D: ways of learning which are not traditional.
+ ways of learning= approaches to learning =techniques for learning
+ not traditional = new
=> ANSWER: D
28. Lozanov‟s theory claims that, when we try to remember things,
Keywords: Lozanov”s theory, remember
In paragraph 2, the writer explains : ” Lozanov‟s instructional technique is based on the evidence that the connections made in the brain through unconscious processing are more durable than those made through conscious processing”. Then he continues to explain more about the theory ” …we know from our experience that we often remember what we have perceived peripherally, long after we have forgotten what we set out to learn.” This means that when we try to remember things, our brains find it difficult to remember connections between the things which we want to learn, but find it easier to recall connections between the unimportant things that we do not try to learn. Therefore the answer is A: unimportant details are easiest to recall
+ unimportant details can be understood as what we have perceived peripherally
+ unimportant= peripheral
+ remember = recall
+ unimportant details stay longer in our memory than important ones, even when we perceive them peripherally, so they are easiest to recall.
=> ANSWER: A
29. In this passage, the author uses the examples of a book and a lecture to illustrate that
Keywords: examples, book, lecture
In paragraph 2 the writer says : ” If we think of a book we studied months or years ago, we find it easier to recall peripheral details…than the content on which we were concentrating. If we think of a lecture we listened to with great concentration,we will recall the lecturer’s appearance and mannerism…much more easily than the ideas we went to learn.” Both examples indicate that we recall unimportant things more easily than we recall things we intend to learn. This supports Lozanov’s theory. Therefore, these examples support the idea that his theory is valid.
So the answer is B: His theory about methods of learning is valid
=> ANSWER: B
30. Lozanov claims that teachers should train students to
Keywords: Lozanov, teacher, train,students
In paragraph 3, the writer states: “Lozanovtherefore made indirect instruction (suggestion) central to his teaching system. In suggestopedia, as he called his method, consciousness is shifted away from the curriculum to focus on something peripheral. The curriculum then become peripheral and is dealt with by the reserve capacity of the brain.”
This means that he suggests making the curriculum peripheral by focusing on something else, in order to remember the curriculum better.
Therefore the most suitable answer is C: Think about something other than the curriculum content.
+ think about=focus on
=> ANSWER: C
Questions 31-36 True/ False / Not given
31. In the examples of suggestopedic teaching in the fourth paragraph, the only variable that changes is the music.
Keywords: suggestopedic teaching, variable, changes, music
In the paragraph 4, the writer says: “… In the first part, the music is classical and the teacher reads the text slowly and solemnly, with attention to the dynamic of the music”. ” In the second part, they listen to baroque music while the teacher reads the text in a normal speaking voice.” In addition, the paragraph also tells us that in the first part, students “follow the text in their books..” but in the second part “they have their books closed”.
So, the music is only one difference, there are two other variables.
=> ANSWER: FALSE
32. Prior to the suggestopedia class, students are made aware that the language experience will be demanding
Keywords: Prior to, suggestopedia, language experience, demanding
In paragraph 5, the writer says: ” Before hand, the students have been carefully prepared for the language learning experience. Through meeting with the staff and satisfied students they develop the expectation that learning will be easy and pleasant…”
This means that the students think that the language experience will not require much effort.
+ Prior to=Before hand
=> ANSWER: FALSE
33. In the follow-up class, the teaching activities are similar to those used in conventional classes.
Keywords: follow-up class, activities, similar, conventional class
In paragraph 6, the writer states: “There is a follow-upclass at which the students are stimulated to recall the material presented. The students… focus on using the language to communicate (e.g. through games or improvised dramatisations). Such methods are not unusual in language teaching.”
+ teaching activities = methods
+ similar to = not unusual
=> ANSWER: TRUE
34. As an indirect benefit, students notice improvements in their memory
Key words : benefit, students, improvement, memory
Information relating to the “benefit” of the method for students can only be found in paragraph 6.
However, the writer just mentions that the students can learn more words: “…students can regularly learn 1000 new words of a foreign language during a suggestopedic session.There is no mention of any benefit to the memory of students. => ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
35. Teachers say they prefer suggestopedia to traditional approaches to language teaching.
Keywords: Teachers, prefer, suggestopedia, traditional
Information relating to suggestopedia and traditional approaches can only be found in paragraph 6 and in the final paragraph.However, in paragraph 6 we learn only the task of the teacher in the suggestopedia approach. In the last paragraph, we learn that “…few teachers are able to emulate the spectacular results of Lozanov..” There is no reference to which approach teachers prefer.
=> ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
36. Students in a suggestopedia class retain more new vocabulary than those in ordinary classes.
Keywords: suggestopedia, retain, more new vocabulary, ordinary
In paragraph 6, the last sentence, the writer says: ” Another difference from conventional teaching is the evidence that students can regularly learn 1000 new words of a foreign language during a suggestopedic session, as well as grammar and idiom.” Therefore, the suggestion is that this total of 1000 words is more than they would learn in an ordinary class.
+ ordinary = conventional
+ retain = learn
=> ANSWER: TRUE
Questions 37-40 Complete the summary using the list of words below
37-38. However, Lozanov admits that a certain amount of… is neccessary in order to convince students, even if this is just a…
Keywords: Lozanove admits, amount, necessary,
In paragraph 7, the writer says: “Lozanovac knowledges that the ritual surrounding suggestion in his own system is also a placebo, but maintains that without such a placebo people are unable or afraid to tap the reserve capacity of their brain. Like any placebo, it must be dispensed with authority to be effective.” This means that ritual is necessary for making students believe that the method is effective. On the other hand, ritual is also a placebo. If students are not convinced, the writer explains in the last paragraph that: “We can, perhaps, attribute mediocre results to an inadequate placebo effect. The students…are often not motivated to learn through this method. They do not have enough „faith‟. They do not see it as „real teaching‟..”
+ admit = acknowledge
=> ANSWER: 37. F: (ritual) 38.H:(placebo)
39-40. Although Lozanov‟s method has become quite….., the results of most other teachers using this method have been…
Keywords: Lozanov’s method, results, other teachers
In the last paragraph, the writerstates: ” Whilesuggestopedia has gained some notoriety through success in the teaching of modern languages, few teachers are able to emulate the spectacular results of Lozanov and his associates.” This means that, although Lozanov’s method is successful,the results obtained by most of the teachers using his method have not been very good/spectacular. Here we need 2 adjectives, one to describe Lozanov‟s “method”, and the other for “the results.”
+ become well known=gain notoriety
=> ANSWER: 39. K: (well known)