Questions 1-6 TRUE, FALSE, NOT GIVEN
1. Ants use the same channels of communication as humans do
Keywords: same channels of communication, humans
In the second paragraph, the writer says: “Ants store food, repel attackers and use chemical signals to contact one another in case of attack. Such chemical communication can be compared to the human use of visual and auditory channels (as in religious chants, advertising images and jingles, political slogans and martial music) ….” This means that ants use chemical signals to communicate and humans use visual and auditory channels. Thesetwo channels of communication can be compared to each other, but they are not the same.

2. City life is one factor that encourages the development of intelligence.
Keywords: city life, encourages, intelligence
In paragraph 7, the writer states: “Whereas prehistoric man had no exposure to urban lifestyles- the forcing house of intelligence- the evidence suggests that ants have lived in urban settings for close on a hundred million years…” This means that city life is what encourages the growth of intelligence, so it is one factor encouraging the development of intelligence.
+ city life = urban lifestyles
+ the forcing house= factor that encourages the development of intelligence
=> ANSWER:      TRUE

3. Ants can build large cities more quickly than humans do.
Keywords: large cities, more quickly
Information relating to the  building of ants and humans can be found in paragraphs 7 and 8, where the writer says: ” Yet Hoelldobler and Wilson‟s magnificient work for ant lovers, The Ants, describes a supercolony of the ant Formica yessensis on the Ishikari Coast of Hokkaido. This “megalopolis” was reported to be composed of 360 million workers and a million queens living  in 4,500 interconnected nests across a territory of 2.7 square kilometres.Such enduring and intricately meshed levels of technical achievement outstrip by far anything achieved by our distant ancestors.” This means that ants are compared to humans in terms of technical achievement (specifically “large cities”in this case) , but there is no mention of the speed of building.
+ large city = megalopolis
+ humans = ancestors

4. Some ants can find their way by making calculations based on distance and position
Keywords: find their way, distance, position
In paragraph 10, the writer reports:”Research conducted at Oxford, Sussex and Zurich Universities has shown that when desert ants return from a foraging trip, they navigate by integrating bearings and distances…….”
+ find their way = navigate
+  position = bearing = direction
+ integrate = combine two or more things so that they work together.  In this context, integrating can be understood as making calculations as ants combine “bearings and distances”.
=> ANSWER:      TRUE

5. In one experiment, foraging teams were able to use their sense of smell to find food.
Keywords: experiment, foraging, smell
In paragraph 11, where the experiment is described, the writer says: “Elaborate precautions were taken to prevent the foraging team using odour clues.”.
This means that foraring teams in the experiment cannot rely on smell to find food.
+ odour = smell

6. The essay, ” In the company of ants”, explores ant communication.
Keywords: In the company of ants, communication
In the last paragraph, the writer says: “It‟s no surprise that Edward Wilson, in his essay, “In the company of ants”, advises readers who ask what to do with the ants in their kitchen to  “Watch where you step. Be careful of little lives”. The writer just states that the essay advises people to take notice of ants. There is no information about whether the essay does or does not explore ant communication.

Questions 7-13 Complete the summary
7. The ants cultivate a large number of different species of edible fungi which convert… into a form which they can digest.
Keywords: fungi, convert, digest
In paragraph 5, the writer says: ” Ants can‟tdigest the cellulose in leaves- but some fungi can. The ants therefore cultivate these fungi in their nests, bringing them leaves to feed on, and then use them as a source of food.” So it can be inferred that ants cultivate fungi because these fungi can digest cellulose, which ants cannot digest.  After the fungi have eaten the leaves, the cellulose in the leaves is converted by the fungi into a form of food that ants can then digest. Here we need a noun- something that fungi can digest,and something that they convert into a different form for ants to eat.
=> ANSWER:     C.cellulose

8-9. They use their own natural… as weed-killers and also use unwanted material as…
Keywords: own natural, weed-killers, unwanted
In the next sentence, the writer continues : ” Farmer ants secrete antibiotics to control other fungi that might act as “weeds”, and spread wasteto fertilise the crop.” This means that ants secrete (produce from their own bodies) antibiotics to kill weeds. Therefore the most suitable words to be filled here should be:
=> ANSWER:     M. secretions
Also, it can be seen that ants use waste to fertilisetheir crop. So unwanted material is used as fertilizers.
+ unwanted material = waste
The answer is:
=> ANSWER:     F. fertilizers

10. Genetic analysis shows they constantly upgrade these fungi by developing new species and by… species with their neighbouring ant colonies.
Keywords: upgrade, species, neighbouring ant colonies
In paragraph 6, the writer states: “These turned out to be highly diverse: it seems that ants are continually domesticating new species. Even more impressively, DNA analysis of the fungi suggests that the ants improve or modify the fungi by regularly swapping and sharing strains with neighbouring ant colonies”
+ upgrade = improve or modify
+ exchange= swap and share
Here we need a verb-ing which has the same meaning asswapping and sharing. The most suitable answer is:
=> ANSWER:    D. Exchanging

11-13. In fact,the farming methods of ants could be said to be more advanced than human agribusiness, since they use …methods, they do not affect the… and do not watse…
Keywords:  farming methods, affect, waste
Here we have a comparison in farming methods between ants and humans, in which ants is more advanced. Human agribusiness is referred to at the end of paragraph 3.  The information therefore could be navigated to be in paragraph 4, where the author notes the contrast between human agribusiness at the end of the previous paragraph and ants: ” The farming methods of ants are at least sustainable. They do notruin environments or use enormous amounts of energy.” Number 11, we need an adjective to describe the farming methods of ants. The answer is:
=> ANSWER:   N.sustainable
Number 12, we need a noun-something that they do not affect
=> ANSWER:   the environment
Number 13, we need a noun-something they do not waste
=> ANSWER:    energy
+ affect the enviroment= ruin the environment
+ waste energy  = use enormous amounts of energy
=> ANSWER:     11. N. sustainable
=> ANSWER:    12. O. environment
=> ANSWER:    13 E. Energy


Questions 14-19 Choose the correct heading
14. Section A
This is a short paragraph. Skimming through the whole paragraph, it can be seen that the writer talks about the development in techniques of studying population movements by using words indicating development: used to be based on – developed-the best -now being obtained… The writer also refers to early population movements in this section: “Study of the origins and distribution of human populationused to be based on…. A number of new techniques developed…. the best information on early population movements is now being…” Looking back at the heading list,  it can be seen that heading –  iv. Developments in the methods used to study early population movements – deals with early population movements and its content matches the main content of the section
+ methods = techinques
=> ANSWER:    iv  Developments in the methods used to study early population movements

15. Section B
From the first sentence, we can infer that the paragraph is going to deal with migration to America: “Recent work on the problem of when people first entered the Americas is an example of the value of these new techniques.” Then the author continues with 2 questions   “But was there one major wave of migration?….And when did this event, or events, take place?” Looking back at the heading lists, the most suitable heading should be vii. Long-standing questions about prehistoric migration to America
+ prehistoric migration to America corresponds to the problem of when people first entered the Americas
=> ANSWER:      vii  Long-standing questions about prehistoric migration to America

16.Section C
In the first sentence , the writer says : ” An important project, led by the biological anthropologist Robert Williams, focused on the variants (called Gmallotypes) of one particular protein … found in the fluid portion of human blood.” Then in the last sentence he concludes: “Thus, by comparing the Gmallotypes … one can establish their  genetic “distance”, which can  be calibrated to give an indication of the length of time since these populations last interbred.” So it can be inferred that the paragraph deals with how variants of protein in our blood are used to explore relationships among different populations.
The most suitable heading is x. How analysis of blood-variants measures the closeness of the relationship between different populations
+ blood-variants = the variants found in human blood
+ measure corresponds to „give an indication of the length of…‟
+ closeness of the relationship corresponds to genetic distance, interbred
=> ANSWER:      x    How  analysis  of  blood-variants  measures  the  closeness  of  the  relationship  between different populations

17. Section D
In the  first sentences, the writer reports:  ” Williams and his colleagues sampled the blood of over 5000 American Indians….They found that their Gmallotypescould be divided into two groups… Other testsshowed that. …From this evidence, it was deduced that…” So  we know that the paragraph refers to the result of Williams‟s project – the tests carried out and the evidence found from the results. The best suitable heading is:
=> ANSWER:      i  The result of the research into blood-variants

18. Section E
In the first sentence, the writer poses a question : ” How far does other research support these conclusions?” followed by the next sentence: ” Geneticist Douglas…” So, it is clear that the other research is carried out by this geneticist – it is genetic research.  The conclusions which this genetic research supports is the conclusion mentioned in Section D – that there were three waves of migration. So the most suitable heading is:
=> ANSWER:    vi:Further genetic evidence relating to the three-wave theory.

19. Section F
In the first sentence, the writer says : ” There are two other kinds of research… they involve the study of teeth and languages.” Then he continues:  “The biological anthropologist Christy Turner is an expert in…human teeth.” Afterthat,by skimming, it can be seen that the other part of the paragraph consists of words relating to “teeth” : crown, root, incisor. Therefore, we know that the paragraph is about evidence in terms of teeth. The most suitable heading is ii. Dental evidence
+ dental = relating to teeth
=> ANSWER:         ii Dental evidence

Questions 20-21
20. Information about Williams‟s research is in Section D.
The writer states: ” From this evidence it was deduced that there had been three major waves of migration across the Bering Strait. The first, Paleo-Indian, wave more than 1500 years ago was ancestral to all Central and South American Indians.”
Only route E goes from somewhere in Asia, across the Bering Strait and then continues to Central and South America
=> ANSWER:        E

21. In the next sentence, the writer says: ” The second wave…(who only migrated south from Canada about 600 or 700 years ago.”
The map shows this second wave took place over two periods, indicated by the dotted line (C)  – the first period 14,000 to 12,000 years ago.  After a long time in Canada, in the second period 600 or 700 years ago, these people migrated south from Canada to the USA, shown on the map by the arrows, D. So, this route is from Canada to the USA, 600 or 700 years ago.
=> ANSWER:        D

Questions 22-25
22.  Again, it is Section  D which first refers to the , three wave theory.
The writer states :”The third wave, perhaps 10,000 or 9,000 years ago, saw the migration from North East Asia of groups ancestral to the modern Eskimo (Inuit) and Aleut”.
=> ANSWER:         C

23. In the same paragraph, the writer also says : ” The second wave…brought Na-Dene hunters, ancestors of the Navajo and Apache …”
=> ANSWER:         B

24. Pima-Papago
In Section E, the writer states: ” Geneticist Douglas Wallace has studied….Pima-Papago Indians…Maya Indians and TicunaIndians……all three groups appear to be descended from the same ancestral (Paleo -Indian) population. ” We know from Section D, that this population was the first wave: ” The first, Paleo-Indian, wave…”
=> ANSWER:         A

25.  Ticuna
=> ANSWER:         A

Question 26. Choose the correct letter A, B, C, D Chirsty Turner‟s research involved the examination of
Keywords : Christy Turner‟s research, examination
Christy Turner‟s research is described in Section F:We know that: “Christy Turner is an expert in the analysis of changing physical characteristics in human teeth.”Studies carried out by Turner of many thousands of New and Old World specimens, both ancient and modern, suggest that the majority of prehistoric Americans are linked toNorthern Asian populations by crown and root traits and …” So, Turner‟s research examined thousands of New and Old World teeth, both ancient and modern.
=> ANSWER:  A. teeth from both prehistoric and modern Americans and Asians
+ teeth is specimens
+ prehistoric = ancient
+ New World = American
+ Old World = Europe, Asia and Africa
B, D are not correct because the object of the study is  specimens of teeth,  not humansor eating habits. C is not correct because specimenswere studied not only from prehistoric Americans, but also modern Americans,  as well as ancient and modern Asians.


Questions  27-33 TRUE, FALSE, NOT GIVEN
27. Forest problems of Mediterranean countries are to be discussed at the next meeting of experts.
Keywords: Mediterranean, next meeting, experts
Information on Mediterranean countries can ony be found at the end of paragraph 1, where the writer states: ” Those confined to particular geographical areas, such as countries bordering the Mediterranean or the Nordic countries therefore had to be discarded. Howerver this does not mean that in thefuture they will be ignored.”  This means that  the first two meeting of experts did not deal with problems of Mediterranean countries, and that they will be noticed in the future. The writer doesn‟t indicate a particular time when the problem will be discussed.

28. Problems in Nordic countries were excluded because they are outside the European Economic Community.
Keywords: Nordic, outside the European Economic Community.
In paragraph 1 the writer says:  “Their initial task was to decide which of the many forest problems of concern to Europe involved the largest number of countries and might be the subject of joint action. Those confined to particular geographical areas, such as countries bordering the Mediterranean or the Nordic countries therefore hadto be discarded.” Therefore, the reason for excluding Nordic countries here is that their problems are particular/special to that geographical area, not to all of Europe.
+ exclude = discard
=> ANSWER:       FALSE

29. Forests are a renewable source of raw material
Keywords:  renewable, raw material
In paragraph 2, the writer states:  “At the same time, forests provide raw materials for human activities through their constantly renewed production of wood.”
=> ANSWER:       TRUE

30. The biological functions of forests were recognised only in the twentieth century.
Keywords : biological, twentieth century
In paragraph 2, the writer argues:   “The economic importance of forests has been understood since the dawn of man…..The other aspects have been recognised only for a few centuries but they are becoming more and more important.” “The other aspects” here are ones mentioned in the first sentence of the paragraph in which the writer refers to the „triple function‟ of forests in Europe:biological and recreational, as well as economic. This means that bilologicalfuntions have been recognised for a few centuries, not only in the twentieth century.
=> ANSWER:        FALSE

31. Natural forests still exist in parts of Europe
Keywords: natural, parts
In paragraph 3, the writer says: ” The myth of the “natural forest” has survived , yet there are effectively no remaining “primary” forests in Europe.All European forests are artificial…”
+ natural forests = primary forests
+ not natural = artificial
=> ANSWER:         FALSE

32. Forest policy should be limited by national boundaries.
Keywords: forest policy, limited, national boundaries
In the next sentence of paragraph 3, the writer argues :  “This means that a forest policy is vital, that it must transcend national frontiers and generations of people…” This means forest policy should not be limited by national boundaries.
+ boundaries = frontiers
+ not limit = transcend (go beyond the limits of countries)
=> ANSWER:       FALSE

33. The Strasbourg conference decided that a forest policy must allow for the possibility of change.
Keywords: Strasbourg, forest policy, allow for, change
In paragraph 3, the writer argues : “This means that a forest policy is vital, that it must transcend national frontiers and generations of people, that it must allow for the inevitable changes that take place in the forests, in needs,and hence in policy. The Strasbourg conference was one of the first events on such a scale to reach this conclusion.” ” …this conclusion” here is that:  “it must transcend national frontiers ….allow for the inevitable changes…”  Thus, the Strasbourg conference was the first event to reach this conclusion means that it allows for the changes which are certain to take place.
=> ANSWER:         TRUE

Questions  34-39
34. Resolution 1
Paragraph 4 discusses the resolutions made at the conference.  “The first proposes the extension and systematisation of surveillance sites to monitor forest decline.”  Thus, there will be more forest sites surveyed and systematically monitored, to gather information regularly about the condition of forests. Therefore,the most suitable statement, relating to forest decline, is J. 35. Resolution 2. In paragraph 4, the writer says:  “The second resolution concentrates on the need to preserve the genetic diversity of European forests. The aim is to reverse the decline in the number of tree species or at least to preserve the „genetic material‟ of all of them.” So this resolution deals with preservation of the diversity of tree species.Therefore the most suitable statement is A.
=> ANSWER:        A All kinds of species of trees should be preserved.

36. Resolution 3
In paragraph 4, the writer states: “Although forest fires do not affect all of Europe to the same extent, the amount of damage caused the experts to propose as the third resolution that the Strasbourg conference consider the establishment of a European databank on the subject.” So we know that this resolution deals with the need to establish a databank on forest fires, with the information made available to all of Europe. The most suitable answer, therefore, should be  E.
+ collect information = establish a databank
=> ANSWER:    E  Information on forest fires should be collected and shared.

37. Resolution 4
In paragraph 4, the writer states: “The subject of the fourth resolution discussed by the ministers was mountain forests….Proposed developments include a preferential research program on mountain forests.”   The answer therefore is B.
+ be given priority = preferential
=> ANSWER: B  Fragile mountain forests should be given priority in research programs

38. Resolution 5
In paragraph 4, the writer says:  “The fifth resolution relaunched the European research network on the physiology of trees, called Eurosilva. Eurosilva should support joint European research on tree diseases and their physiological and biochemical aspects.” So, this resolution deals with developing a research network on tree diseases and their physiological and biochemical aspects.
The answer, then, should be a statement concerning tree diseases:  G.
=> ANSWER: G  Resources should be allocated to research into tree diseases.

39. Resolution 6
At the end of paragraph 4, the writer states:  “Finally, the conference established the framework for a European research network on forest ecosystems.  This would also involve harmonising activities in individual countries as well as identifying a number of priority research topics…” So the conference established a research framework for Europe, in which individual countries would pursue the same activities and have the same priority for research topics. The most suitable statement left, therefore should be D.
+ co-ordinate throughout Europe corresponds to establishing a European research network.
=> ANSWER:         D  Research is to be better co-ordinated throughout Europe.

Question 40  The best title for Passage 3
The structure of the passage: goes from [1] posing a need for new policies by European countries to protect Europe‟s forests, then continues to talk about [2] the functions of forests [3]to stress the importance of coordinated policies and [4]finally goes into detail about 6 resolutions proposed  by a conference.  It should be noticed that the resolution part – paragraph4 –  accounts for half of the passage‟s length. Therefore, its main content is about ways to improve the decline of forests throughout Europe. So the best title should be B.
A is not correct because it just refers to paragraph 2.
C is not correct because it refers to ecosystems in general, but the passage refers only to forest ecosystems.
D is not correct because the proposal is just on aEuropeanscale, not world-wide.
=> ANSWER:       B  Plans to protect the forests of Europe.



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