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Pulling strings to build pyramids
Questions 1-7 TRUE, FALSE, NOT GIVEN
1. It is generally believed that large numbers of people were needed to build the pyramids
Keywords: generally, large numbers, build
In the opening of paragraph 1, the writer says: ” The pyramids of Egypt were built more than three thousand years ago, and no one knows how. The conventional picture is that tens of thousands of slaves dragged stones on sledges.” This means that a huge number of peopleare generally believed to have been involved in building the pyramids.
+ Conventional picture here can be understood as the general belief/thought of many people, indicating that the fact is generally believed.
2. Clemmons found a strange hieroglyph on the wall of an Egyptian monument.
Keywords: Clemmons, hieroglyph, wall, monument
In the first paragraph, the writer states: “While perusing a book on monuments of Egypt, she noticed a hieroglyph that showed a row of men standing in odd postures ” This means that Clemmons found a picture of the hieroglyph in a book on Egyptian monuments, but she did not find the hieroglyph actually on the wall of a monument.
3. Gharib had previously done experiments on bird flight.
Keywords: Gharibs, previously, bird flight
Information on Gharib before he did the experiment on Clemmon’s theory can only be found in paragraph 2, but there is no mention that he had done experiments on bird flight.
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
4. Gharib and Graff tested their theory before applying it.
Keywords: Gharib, Graff, tested, before applying
Paragraph 3 is about the preparations of Gharib and Graff for testing their theory, and in paragraph 4 we learn what happened when the theory was applied. In paragraph 3, the writer reports that: “Their initial calculations and scale-model wind-tunnel experiments convinced them they wouldn‟t need a strong wind to lift the 33.5tonne column”. So this means that their theory had been tested before being applied.
+ test = experiment
5. The success of the actual experiment was due to the high speed of the wind
Keywords: actual experiment, high speed, wind
In paragraph 5, where information on the the actual result of the experiment is found, the writer says : “The wind was blowing at a gentle 16 to 20 kilometers an hour, little more than half what they thought would be needed”.This means that the wind speed needed in reality is lower than the speed they calculated before. So the success of the actual experiment is not due to the high speed of the wind.
6. They found that, as the kite flew higher, the wind force got stronger
Keywords: kite, higher, wind, stronger
Information of the actual experiment can only be found in paragraph 5. We only know that when the kite was opened, there was a huge initial force. There is no reference to the height of the kite, nor the relation of the height to the force of the wind.
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
7. The team decided that it was possible to use kites to raise very heavy stones
Keywords : decided, possible, stones
In paragraph 5, the writer explains: “So Clemmons was right: the pyramids builders could have used kitesto lift massive stones into place.”
+ raise = lift = move something to a higher position
+ very heavy = massive
Questions 8-13 Complete the summary below (No more than two words )
From the title of the summary, [Additional evidence for theory of kite-lifting] it can be inferred that the information should be found in paragraph 7: “Others feel there is more of a case for the theory. …”
+ additional evidence = more of a case = other evidence to support the theory 8-9-10.The Egyptians had…, which could lift larges pieces of …and they knew how to use the energy of the wind from their skill as …
Keywords: had, lift large pieces of, skill, as
In paragraph 7, the writer states: ” Harnessing the wind would not have been a problem for accomplished sailors like the Egyptians. And they are known to have used wooden pulleys, which could have been made strong enough to bear the weight of massive blocks of stone”. In gap 8 and gap 9, we need 2 nouns – something that the Egyptians could use to lift larges pieces of something. The answer therefore should be wooden pulleys and stone. In gap 10, we need a noun – which possibly indicates a job , as the question mentions “skill as…” , which requires the ability to use the energy of the wind. The word that refers to a job here can only be (accomplished) sailors
+ lift = bear the weight
+ large pieces of = massive blocks of
=>ANSWER: 8. wooden pulleys
11-12 The discovery on one pyramid of an object which resembled a…suggests they may have experimented with …
Keywords : an object, resembled, suggest,experimented with
In paragraph 7, the writer says: “A wooden artefact found on the step pyramid at Saqqara looks uncannily like a modern glider. Although it dates from several hundred years after the building of the pyramids, its sophistication suggests that the Egyptians might have been developing ideas of flight for a long time.” Here we need 2 nouns -an object that on one pyramid resembled something. That object suggests that the Egyptians experimented with some idea or theory. The answer, then, is a modern glider, and flight
+ resemble= look uncannily like
+ experiment with= develop ideas of
=>ANSWER: 11. modern glider
13. In addition, over two thousand years ago kites were used in China as weapons, as well as for sending …
Keywords: weapons, kites, China, sending
In paragraph 7, the writer states: “And other ancient civilisations certainly knew about kites;as early as 1250 BC, the Chinese were using them to deliver messages and dump flaming debris on their foes.” Here we need a noun – something that was sent by kites in China. The answer, therefore, is messages.
+ send = deliver
=>ANSWER: 13. Messages
Questions 14-20 TRUE, FALSE, NOT GIVEN
14. The inhabitants of the Aleutian islands renamed their islands “Aleyska”
Keywords: inhabitants, renamed, Aleutian islands, Aleyska
In the first paragraph, the writer says: ” …Russian explorers and fur hunters landed on the Aleutian Islands…and learned of a land mass that lay farther to the north. The islands‟ native inhabitants called this land mass Aleyska…” This means that the inhabitants of the Aleutian islands only named the land to the north of the islands Aleyska. This was not a new name for their own islands.
15. Alaska’s fisheries are owned by some of the world’s largest companies.
Keywords: Alaska’s fisheries, owned, world’s largest companies
At the end of paragraph 2, the writer just states: “Taking advantage of this rich bounty, Alaska’s commercial fisheries have developed into some of the largest in the world.” No information indicating their owners can be found.
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
16. Life in Alaska is dependent on salmon
Keywords: dependent, salmon
In paragraph 3, the writer states: “Salmon….pump through Alaska like blood through a heart, bringing rhythmic, circulating nourishment to land, animals and people.” Therefore, the land, animals and people all depend on salmon.
17. Ninety per cent of all Pacific salmon caught are sockeye or pink salmon
Keywords: ninety per cent,Pacific, caught, sockeye, pink
In paragraph 3, where information on sockeye and pink salmon can be found, the writer explains: “All five species of Pacific salmon -chinook, or king; chum or dog; coho, or silver; sockeye, or red; and pink, or humpback- spawn in Alaskan waters, and 90% of all Pacific salmon commercially caught in North America are produced there.” The author only indicates that sockeye and pink salmon spawn in Alaskan waters, but there are 5 species of Pacific salmon. We do not know what percentage of sockeye or pink salmon are part of the 90% of Pacific salmon caught in general. So, there is no information indicating the percentage of pink and sockeye salmon caught.
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
18. More than 320,000 tonnes of salmon were caught in Alaska in 2000
Keywords: more, 320,000 tonnes, Alaska, in 2000
At the end of paragraph 3, the writer says: “During 2000, commercial catches of Pacific salmon in Alaska exceeded 320,000 tonnes…”
+ more than = exceed = be greater than a particular amount
19. Between 1940 and 1959, there was a sharp decrease in Alaska‟s salmon population
Keywords: Between 1940 and 1959, sharp decrease, population
In the opening of paragraph 4, the writer says: “Between 1940 and 1959, overfishing led to crashes in salmon populations so severe that in 1953 Alaska was declared a federal disaster area”
+ a sharp decrease = a crash = a sudden serious fall in the price or value of something In case you have no idea what “crash” means, we can still guess that its meaning is “decrease”, because as stated, it is caused by overfishing, which means fishing too much, exceeding the allowed amount.
20. During the 1990s, the average number of salmon caught each year was 100 million.
Keywords: during the 1990s, average, each year, 100 million
At the end of paragraph 4, the writer states : ” …until, during the 1990s, annual harvests were well in excess of 100 million, and on several occasions over 200 million fish”. This means that the annual number of salmon caught was over 100 million during the 1990s. Therefore, because the number of salmon caught each year in the 1990s was a lot more than 100 million (and sometimes was over 200 million), it is impossible that the average for each year could be 100 million.
+ each year = annual
+ in excess of = over
21. In Alaska, biologists keep a check on adult fish
Keywords: biologists, check, adult
In paragraph 5, the writer reports: “There are biologists throughout the state constantly monitoring adult fish as they show up to spawn. The biologists sit in streamside counting towers, study sonar, watch from aeroplanes and talk to fishermen.” In any area, the biologists “…can put a halt to fishing….It is this management mechanism that has allowed Alaska salmon stocks – to prosper…” Therefore, the most suitable answer is G.
+ keep a check on = monitor = to watch and check something over a period of time in order to see how it develops, so that you can make any necessary changes
+ permit = allow
=>ANSWER: G To ensure that fish numbers are sufficient to permit fishing.
22. Biologists have the authority
Keywords: biologists, authority
As mentioned above, the writer says : “one or more field biologists in a particular area can put a halt to fishing. Even sport fishing can be brought to a halt.” This means that biologists have the authority to stop fishing, and particularly sport fishing. The answer, therefore, is E. Stop people fishing for sport. We do not choose K. Biologists in one area can stop fishing in that area, but they cannot close down all the companies engaged in fishing = fisheries.
+ stop = close down =put a halt to = bring a halt to
=>ANSWER: E. Stop people fishing for sport
23. In-Season Abundance-Based Management has allowed the Alaska salmon fisheries
Keywords : In-Season Abundance -Based Management, allowed,fisheries
In paragraph 5 again, the author also says: “It is this management mechanism that has allowed Alaska salmon stocks – and, accordingly, Alaska salmon fisheries- to prosper,…” This management mechanism here refers to In-Season Abundance-Based Management
The answer is B.
+ be successful =to prosper = be fortunate or successful
=>ANSWER: B to be successful
24. The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) was established
Keywords : MSC
In the opening of paragraph 6, the writer states: “In 1999, the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) commissioned a review of the Alaska salmon fisheries.The Council, which was founded in 1996, certifies fisheries that meet high environmental standards, enabling them to use a label that recognises their environmental responsibility…” This means that MSC was founded to recognise fisheries that meet their environmental standards The answer, then, should be A.
+ established = founded = started or created an organization, a system, etc. that is meant to last for a long time
+ recognise=certify = admit officially (usually in writing ) that something is true/exists.
=>ANSWER: Ato recognise fisheries that care for the environment
25. As a result of the collapse of the salmon runs in 1999, the state decided
Keywords : result,collapse, salmon runs, the state, 1999
In paragraph 7, the author mentions the collapse: “… in the months leading up to the MSC‟s final decision , salmon runs throughout western Alaska completely collapsed.” Then, in the next paragraph, he continues to deal with its result: “However, the state reacted quickly, closing down all fisheries, even those necessary for subsistence purposes ” Therefore, the answer is K.
=>ANSWER: K to close down all fisheries
26. In September 2000, the MSC allowed seven Alaska salmon companies
Keywords : MSC, September 2000, allowed, seven, companies
In the last paragraph, the writer states: ” In September 2000, MSC announced that the Alaska salmon fisheries qualified for certification. Seven companies producing Alaska salmon were immediately granted permission to display the MSC logo on their products.” This means that the MSC allowed seven companies to have the MSC logo on their products. The answer, therefore, is F.
+ allow = grant permission
=>ANSWER: F label their product using the MSC logo
EFFECTS OF NOISE
Questions 27-29 Choose the correct answer
27. The writer suggests that people may have difficulty sleeping in the mountains because
Keywords : sleeping, mountains, because
In paragraph 1, the writer states: “And yet most of us have had the experience of having to adjust to sleeping in the mountains or the countryside because it was initially „too quiet‟, an experience that suggests that humans are capable of adapting to a wide range of noise levels.” This means that most people have to adjust to sleeping in the mountains because they are not used to the quiet here. They have adapted to noise in the city. Therefore the answer is D. They may have adapted to a higher noise level in the city. A is not correct because the writer states: “In general, it is plausible to suppose that we should prefer peace and quiet to noise” B is not correct because the situation in which people may be exposed to short bursts of sounds is a condition in an experiment by Glass and Singer (1972).No information is given about the exposure of people in mountains to strange sounds. C is not correct because in paragraph 1, there is no information indicating that people prefer noise to sleep.
=>ANSWER: D they may have adapted to a higher noise level in the city
28. In noise experiments, Glass and Singer found that
Keywords: experiments, Glass and Singer
In paragraph 1, the writer says: “The noise was quite disruptive at first, but after about four minutes the subjects were doing just as well on their tasks as control subjects who were not exposed to noise.” This means that bursts of noise only affect the subjects at first, then they have no further effects. The answer, therefore, is C. Bursts of noise do not seriously disrupt problem-solving in the long term. A is not correct because the result of the research shows that ” …after about four minutes the subjects were doing just as well on their tasks as control subjects who were not exposed to noise” B is not correct because we learn about their physiological reactions to noise and: “Their physiological arousal also declined quickly to the same levels as those of the control subjects.” So, from the above sentence, we know that D is not correct, because the writer refers to the physiological arousal only of the people exposed to noise: “Their physiological arousal also declined quickly to the same level as those of the control subjects.” The control group subjects were not exposed to noise.
=>ANSWER: C bursts of noise do not seriously disrupt problem-solving in the long term
29. Researchers discoverd that high noise levels are not likely to interfere with the
Keywords: high noise levels, not likely, interfere
In the opening of paragraph 2, the writer argues: “But there are limits to adaptation and loud noise becomes more troublesome if the person is required to concentrate on more than one task.” This means that if the person is required to do only one task, loud noise will not become a problem to him. Therefore, the answer is A. successful performance of a single task. B and D are not correct because the writer says: “For example, high noise levels interfered with the performance of the subjects who were required to monitor three dials at a time, a task not unlike that of an aeroplane pilot or an air-traffic controller (Broadbent, 1957)”. This means that tasks of pilots or traffic controllers are similar to the task of monitoring three dials at a time, with which high noise levels could interfere. C is not correct because the writer states: “Similarly, noise….did interfere with the subject’s abilitly to repeat numbers while tracking (Finkelman and Glass, 1970).
+ become troublesome = interfere with
+ high noise level = loud noise
=>ANSWER: A successful performance of a single task
Questions 30-34 Complete the summary
Skimming through the summary, it can be seen that it deals with the experiments of Glass and Singer.
Therefore we should find the information in paragraphs 3 to 5.
30. Glass and Singer showed that situations in which there is intense noise have less effect on performance than circumstances in which … noise occurs.
Keywords: intense noise, less effect, noise occurs
In paragraph 3, the writer says: “We are much more able to “tune out” chronic background noise, even if it is quite loud, than to work under circumstances with unexpected intrusions of noise.” This means that we are able to work better with intense noise than unexpected noise. Here we need an adjective to describe a kind of noise that is compared to intense noise, and which has more effect on performance.
+ intense = loud
The answer, therefore, is B.
=>ANSWER: B unexpected noise
31. All groups were exposed to … noise
Keywords: All groups, exposed
In paragraph 3, the writer says: “For some subjects, the bursts were spaced exactly one minute apart (predictable noise); others heard the same amount of noise overall, but the bursts occurred at random intervals (unpredictable noise).” This means that all subjects hear the same amount of noise.
The answer is D.
=>ANSWER: D the same amount of
32. The predictable noise group … the unpredictable noise group on this task
Keywords: predictable, unpredictable
In the same paragraph, the writer continues: “Subjects reported finding the predictable and unpredictable noise equally annoying, and all subjects performed at about the same level during the noise portion of the experiment.” The answer, then, is F.
=>ANSWER: F perform at about the same level as
33. The group which had been exposed to unpredictable noise
In paragraph 3, the writer says: “As shown in Table 1 the unpredictable noise produced more errors in the later proofreading task than predictable noise;” Therefore the answer is I [made more mistakes than the group which had been exposed to predictable noise]
+ make mistakes =produce errors
=>ANSWER: I made more mistakes than
34. The results suggest that … noise produces fatigue but that this manifests itself later.
Keywords: noise, fatigue, manifests itself later
In paragraph 4, the writer concludes: “Apparently, unpredictable noise produces more fatigue than predictable noise, but it takes a while for this fatigue to take its toll on the performance” .This means that unpredictable noise produces more fatigue, but its effect comes later. The answer, then, should be B.
=>ANSWER: B unpredictable
Questions 35-40 Match each statement with the correct researchers
A. Glass and Singer
C. Finkelman and Glass
D. Cohen at al.
35. Subjects exposed to noise find it difficult at first to concentrate on problem-solving tasks
Keywords : problems-solving tasks
In paragraph 1, the writer says: “For example, Glass and Singer (1972) exposed people to shorts bursts of very loud noise and then measured their ability to work out problems …. The noise was quite disruptive at first…” So the conclusion is from Glass and Singer’s research
+ problem-solving = work out problems
36. Long-term exposure to noise can produce changes in behaviour which can still be observed over a year later.
Keywords: long-term exposure, changes in behaviour, a year later
In the last paragraph the writer states: “A follow-up study showed that children who were moved to less noisy classrooms still showed greater distractibility one year later than students who had always been in the quiet schools (Cohen et al, 1981) “
The changes in behaviour which can be observed a year later here is greater distractibility. So it can be inferred that this statement is from Cohen et al‟s study
37. The problems associated with exposure to noise do not arise if the subject knows they can make it stop.
Keywords: the subject knows they can make it stop
In paragraph 5, the writer argues: “If the individual knows that he or she can control the noise, this seems to eliminate both its negative effect at the time and its after-effects. This is true even if the individual never actually excercises his or her option to turn the noise off (Glass and Singer, 1972)” This means that if the individual knows that he can control the noise, particularly turn the noise off, he will not suffer its negative effects.
Therefore this statement is from Glass and Singer’s research.
+ make the noise stop = turn the noise off
38. Exposure to high-pitched noise results in more errors than exposure to low-pitched noise
Keywords: high-pitched, low-pitched, more errors
Although, in paragraph 2, we are told that Broadbent discovered that loud noise becomes a problem, and we make more mistakes, when a person has to concentrate on more than one task, this is simply a limit on how well we can adapt to exposure to loud noise. So, no researcher found that high-pitched noise produces more errors in all situations.
39. Subjects find it difficult to perform three tasks at the same time when exposed to noise
Keywords: three tasks at the same time
In paragraph 2, the writer explains: “For example, high noise levels interfered with the performance of the subjects who were required to monitor three dials at a time… “(Broadbent, 1957)
+ difficult to perform = interfered with the performance of
+ at the same time = at a time
The answer is B.
40. Noise affects a subject’s capacity to repeat numbers while carrying out another task.
Keywords: repeat numbers, carrying out another task
In the same paragraph, the writer also states: “Similarly, noise did not affect a subject’s ability to track a moving line…, but it did interfere with the subject’s ability to repeat numbers while tracking (Finkelman and Glass, 1970) So it is clear that the statement is from Finkelman and Glass’s study.
+ another task here refers to tracking
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