CAMBRIDGE IELTS 11 READING TEST 4 ANSWERS

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Passage 1: Research using twins

Questions 1-4: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?

Please note that the answer given at the end of the book for Question 9 is INCORRECT.   The correct answer is B - Thomas Bouchard.

Paragraph 1:  To biomedical researchers....

Paragraph 2:  Alternatively, by comparing....

Paragraph 3:  These two lines....

Paragraph 4:  The idea of using....

Paragraph 5:  Bouchard and his colleagues....

Paragraph 6:  Lately, however....

Paragraph 7:  Epigenetic processes....

Paragraph 8:  If you think of our DNA....

Paragraph 9:  One way the study....

Paragraph 10:  Geneticist Danielle Reed....

Paragraph 11:  Reed credits....

Paragraph 12:  Having said that....

1. There may be genetic causes for the differences in how young the skin of identical twins looks.

Keywords: genetic causes, differences,  young skin, identical twins

In  the  first  paragraph,  the  writer  argues  that  "Any  differences  between  them  (identical  twins)  - one twin having younger looking skin, for example - must be due to environmental factors such as less time spent  in  the  sun."   So,  there  are  no  genetic  causes  for  the  differences  in  how  young  the  skin  of  identical twins looks, only environmental factors.

=>ANSWER: FALSE

2. Twins are at greater risk of developing certain illnesses than non-twins.

Keywords: greater risk, illnesses

In  terms  of  the  risk  of  developing  certain  illnesses,  the  writer  only  compares  identical  twins  with fraternal twins (at the end of paragraph 2), he does  not make a comparison between twins  and non-twins. So, the statement is not given.

illnesses=ailments

=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN

3. Bouchard advertised in newspapers for twins who had been separated at birth.

Keywords: Bouchard, advertised, newspapers, separated

In this passage, the writer does not mention whether Bouchard advertised in newspapers for twins who had  been  separated  at  birth  or  not.  In  paragraph  4,  we  are  only  told  that  137  sets  of  twins  visited  his laboratory. Therefore, the statement is not given.

=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN

4. Epigenetic processes are different from both genetic and environmental processes

Keywords: Epigenetic processes, genetic, environmental

In paragraph 6, the writer states that "....nature and nurture are not the only elemental forces at work. According to  a recent field called  epigenetics, there is a third factor also in play, one that in some cases serves as a bridge between the environment and our genes."

genetic and environmental processes~nature and nurture

=>ANSWER: TRUE

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Questions 5-9: Look at the following statements (Questions 5-9) and the list of researchers below.

5. invented a term used to distinguish two factors affecting human characteristics.

Keywords: term, distinguish, characteristics

In paragraph 4, the writer explains that "The idea of using twins to measure the influence of heredity dates back to 1875, when the English scientist Francis Galton first suggested the approach (and coined the phrase "nature and nurture")"

invented=coined

=>ANSWER: A

6. expressed the view that the study of epigenetics will increase our knowledge

Keywords: study of epigenetics, increase our knowledge

In  paragraph  12,  the  geneticist  "Reed  adds,  the  latest  work  in  epigenetics  promises  to  take  our understanding even further".

study of epigenetics=work in epigenetics

increase our knowledge~take our understanding even further

=>ANSWER: C

7. developed a mathematical method of measuring genetic influences.

Keywords: mathematical method, measuring

In  paragraph  5,  the  writer  says  that  "Bouchard  and  his  colleagues  used  this  mountain  of  data  to identify how far twins were affected by their genetic makeup. The key to their approach was a statistical concept  called  heritability.  In  broad  terms,  the  heritability  of  a  trait  measures  the  extent  to  which differences among embers of a population can be explained by differences in their genetics".

mathematical method=statistical concept

=>ANSWER: B

8. pioneered research into genetics using twins

Keywords: pioneered, twins

In  paragraph  4,  the  writer  indicates  that  "The  idea  of  using  twins  to  measure  the  influence  of heredity dates back to 1875, when the English scientist Francis Galton first suggested the approach (and coined the phrase "nature and nurture")."

pioneered=first suggested

=>ANSWER: A

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9. carried out research into twins who had lived apart.

Keywords: research, lived apart

In  paragraph  4, ...