CAMBRIDGE IELTS 11 READING – TEST 4 – ANSWERS

CAMBRIDGE IELTS 11 READING – TEST 4 – ANSWERS

CAMBRIDGE IELTS 11 – TEST 4 – PASSAGE 1

 

Please note that the answer given at the end of the book for Question 9 is INCORRECT.   The correct

answer is B – Thomas Bouchard.

 

Paragraph 1:  To biomedical researchers….

Paragraph 2:  Alternatively, by comparing….

Paragraph 3:  These two lines….

Paragraph 4:  The idea of using….

Paragraph 5:  Bouchard and his colleagues….

Paragraph 6:  Lately, however….

Paragraph 7:  Epigenetic processes….

Paragraph 8:  If you think of our DNA….

Paragraph 9:  One way the study….

Paragraph 10:  Geneticist Danielle Reed….

Paragraph 11:  Reed credits….

Paragraph 12:  Having said that….

 

  1. There may be genetic causes for the differences in how young the skin of identical twins looks.

Keywords: genetic causes, differences,  young skin, identical twins

In  the  first  paragraph,  the  writer  argues  that  “Any  differences  between  them  (identical  twins)  – one twin having younger looking skin, for example – must be due to environmental factors such as less time spent  in  the  sun.”   So,  there  are  no  genetic  causes  for  the  differences  in  how  young  the  skin  of  identical twins looks, only environmental factors.

=>ANSWER: FALSE

 

  1. Twins are at greater risk of developing certain illnesses than non-twins.

Keywords: greater risk, illnesses

In  terms  of  the  risk  of  developing  certain  illnesses,  the  writer  only  compares  identical  twins  with fraternal twins (at the end of paragraph 2), he does  not make a comparison between twins  and non-twins. So, the statement is not given.

  • illnesses=ailments

=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN

 

  1. Bouchard advertised in newspapers for twins who had been separated at birth.

Keywords: Bouchard, advertised, newspapers, separated

In this passage, the writer does not mention whether Bouchard advertised in newspapers for twins who had  been  separated  at  birth  or  not.  In  paragraph  4,  we  are  only  told  that  137  sets  of  twins  visited  his laboratory. Therefore, the statement is not given.

=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN

 

  1. Epigenetic processes are different from both genetic and environmental processes

Keywords: Epigenetic processes, genetic, environmental

In paragraph 6, the writer states that “….nature and nurture are not the only elemental forces at work. According to  a recent field called  epigenetics, there is a third factor also in play, one that in some cases serves as a bridge between the environment and our genes.”

  • genetic and environmental processes~nature and nurture

=>ANSWER: TRUE

 



  1. invented a term used to distinguish two factors affecting human characteristics.

Keywords: term, distinguish, characteristics

In paragraph 4, the writer explains that “The idea of using twins to measure the influence of heredity dates back to 1875, when the English scientist Francis Galton first suggested the approach (and coined the phrase „nature and nurture‟)”

  • invented=coined

=>ANSWER: A

 

  1. expressed the view that the study of epigenetics will increase our knowledge

Keywords: study of epigenetics, increase our knowledge

In  paragraph  12,  the  geneticist  “Reed  adds,  the  latest  work  in  epigenetics  promises  to  take  our understanding even further”.

  • study of epigenetics=work in epigenetics
  • increase our knowledge~take our understanding even further

=>ANSWER: C

 

  1. developed a mathematical method of measuring genetic influences.

Keywords: mathematical method, measuring

In  paragraph  5,  the  writer  says  that  “Bouchard  and  his  colleagues  used  this  mountain  of  data  to identify how far twins were affected by their genetic makeup. The key to their approach was a statistical concept  called  heritability.  In  broad  terms,  the  heritability  of  a  trait  measures  the  extent  to  which

differences among embers of a population can be explained by differences in their genetics”.

  • mathematical method=statistical concept

=>ANSWER: B

 

  1. pioneered research into genetics using twins

Keywords: pioneered, twins

In  paragraph  4,  the  writer  indicates  that  “The  idea  of  using  twins  to  measure  the  influence  of heredity dates back to 1875, when the English scientist Francis Galton first suggested the approach (and coined the phrase „nature and nurture‟).”

  • pioneered=first suggested

=>ANSWER: A

 



  1. carried out research into twins who had lived apart.

Keywords: research, lived apart

In  paragraph  4,  the  writer  says  that  “…  twin  studies  took  a  surprising  twist  in  the  1980s,  with  the arrival of studies into identical twins who had been separated at birth and reunited as adults. Over two decades 137 sets of twins eventually visited Thomas Bouchard‟s lab….”

  • lived apart= been separated at birth

=>ANSWER: B

 

10-13. Epigenetic processes

In epigenetic processes, 10…..influence the activity of our genes, for example in creating our internal

11…..  The  study  of  epigenetic  processes  is  uncovering  a  way  in  which  our  genes  can  be  affected  by  our

12……One example is that if a pregnant rat suffers stress, the new-born rat may show problems in its 13……

 

10-11.    In  epigenetic  processes,  10…..influence  the  activity  of  our  genes,  for  example  in  creating  our

internal…..

Keywords: influence, genes, creating internal

In  paragraph  7,  the  writer  says  that  “Epigenetic  processes  are  chemical  reactions  tied  to  neither nature  nor  nurture  but  representing  what  researchers  have  called  a  „third  component‟.  These  reactions influence how our genetic code is expressed: how each gene is strengthened or weakened, even turned

on of off, to build our bones, brains and all other parts of our bodies”

  • the activity of our genes ~ how our genetic code is expressed
  • organs ~ brains and all other parts of our bodies
  • create=build

=>ANSWER: 10. D (chemicals)

  1. B (organs)

 

  1. The study of epigenetic processes is uncovering a way in which our genes can be affected by our……

Keywords: uncovering a way, genes affected by

In  paragraph  9,  the  writer  says  that  “One  way  the  study  of  epigenetics  is  revolutionizing  our understanding of biology is by revealing a mechanism by which the environment directly impacts our genes.”

  • uncover=reveal
  • affect=impact

=>ANSWER: E (environment)

 

  1. One example is that if a pregnant rat suffers stress, the new-born rat may show problems in its……

Keywords: pregnant, new-born rat, problems

 

In  paragraph  9,  the  writer  says  that  “Studies  of  animals,  for  example,  have  shown  that  when  a  rat experiences  stress  during  pregnancy,  it  can  cause  epigenetic  changes  in  a  fetus  that  lead  to  behavioral problems as the rodent grows up.”

 

  • suffers=experiences

=>ANSWER: F (behaviour)

 



CAMBRIDGE IELTS 11 – TEST 4 – PASSAGE 2

 

Paragraph 1:  Though we might think….

Paragraph 2:  Let us start….

Paragraph 3:  When voice textures fit….

Paragraph 4:  The comedy Bringing up Baby….

Paragraph 5:  Synchronous sound effects….

Paragraph 6:  Asynchronous sound effects….

Paragraph 7:  We are probably all….

Paragraph 8:  Background music….

Paragraph 9:  Film sound….

 

  1. In the first paragraph, the writer makes a point that

In  this  paragraph,  the  writer  explains  that  “Though  we  might  think  of  film  as  an  essentially  visual experience, we really cannot afford to underestimate the importance of film sound.” Then, the writer details how important film sound is. So, he makes a point that it would be wrong to overlook the contribution of

sound to the artistry of films.

  • underestimate=overlook

=>ANSWER: B

 

  1. One reason that the writer refers to Humphrey Bogart is to exemplify

Keywords: Humphrey Bogart, exemplify

In the second paragraph, the writer argues that “As is the case with stage drama, dialogue serves to tell the story and expresses feelings and motivations of characters as well. Often with film characterization the audience  perceives  little  or  no  difference  between  the  character  and  the  actor.  Thus,  for  example,  the

actor  Humphrey  Bogart  is  the  character  Sam  Spade;  film  personality  and  life  personality  seem  to merge.” This means that Humphrey Bogart is mentioned to exemplify the importance of the actor and the character appearing to have similar personalities.

  • appearing to have similar personalities~film personality and life personality seem to merge

=>ANSWER: A

 

  1. In the third paragraph, the writer suggests that

In  this  paragraph,  the  writer  says  that  “It  is  interesting  to  note  that  how  dialogue  is  used…  varies widely  among  films.  For  example,  in  the  highly  successful  science-fiction  film  2001,  little  dialogue  was evident, and most of it was banal  and of little intrinsic interest. In this way the film-maker was able to

portray what Thomas Sobochack and Vivian Sobochack call, in An Introduction to Film, the „inadequacy human responses when compared with the magnificent technology created by man and the visual beauties of the universe.” This means that the banal

  • dull=banal

=>ANSWER: B

 

  1. What does the writer suggest about Bringing Up Baby?

In  paragraph  4,  the  writer  argues  that  “The  comedy  Bringing  Up  Baby,  on  the  other  hand,  presents practically non-stop dialogue delivered at breakneck speed. This use of dialogue underscores not only the dizzy  quality  of  the  character  Katherine  Hepburn,  but  also  the  absurdity  of  the  film itself  and  thus  its

humor.” This means that the dialogue in this film emphasises key elements of the film.

  • key elements ~ the absurdity of the humor of the film

=>ANSWER: D

 

  1. The writer refers to the „click‟ of a door to make the point that realistic sounds

Keywords: click, door, realistic sounds

In paragraph 5, the writer argues that “Synchronous sounds contribute to the realism of film and also help to create a particular atmosphere. For example, the „click‟ of a door being opened may simply serve to  convince  the  audience  that  the  image  portrayed  is  real,  and  the  audience  may  only  subconsciously

note the expected sound. However, if the „click‟ of an opening door is part of an ominous action such as a burglary, the sound mixer may call attention to the „click‟ with an increase in volume; this helps to engage the audience in a moment of suspense.” This means that realistic sounds may be modified to engage the

audience in a particular atmosphere or to convince them that something is really happening.

=>ANSWER: C

 



  1. Audiences are likely to be surprised if a film lacks background music.

Keywords: surprised, lacks background music

In paragraph 7, the writer says that “We are probably all  familiar with background music in films, which has become so ubiquitous as to be noticeable in its absence.”

=>ANSWER: TRUE

 

  1. Background music may anticipate a development in a film.

Keywords: background, anticipate, development

In paragraph 7, the writer argues that “In addition, background music often foreshadows a change in mood.  For example, dissonant  music may be used in  film  to  indicate an  approaching  (but not  yet  visible) menace or disaster.”

  • anticipate=foreshadow

=>ANSWER: TRUE

 

  1. Background music has more effect on some people than on others.

Keywords: background, more effect

Background music is referred to in paragraphs 7 and 8, and its effects are discussed, but not in terms of comparing some people with others. So, the statement is not given.

=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN

 

  1. Background music may help the audience to make certain connections within the film

Keywords: connections, within, film

In paragraph 8, the writer indicates that “Background music may aid viewer understanding by linking scenes.”

  • help=aid
  • audience=viewer
  • make connections within a film ~ linking scenes

=>ANSWER: TRUE

 



  1. Audiences tend to be aware of how the background music is affecting them

Keywords: audiences, aware, background, affecting

In the last paragraph, the writer says that “The effects of sound are often largely subtle and often are noted  by only our subconscious minds. We need  to  foster an  awareness  of film sound  as well  as film space  so  as  to  truly  appreciate  an  art  form  that  sprang  to  life  during  the  twentieth  century  –  the  modern

film.” This means that audiences have not been aware/have not been conscious of how background music is affecting  them.   Therefore,  the  writer  adds,  audiences  should  be  made  aware  of  the  effect  of  background music.

=>: FALSE

 

  1. The audience‟s response to different parts of a film can be controlled

Keywords: response, different parts, controlled

In paragraph 1, the writer states that “The entire sound track consists of three essential ingredients: the human voice, sound effects and music.   These three tracks must be mixed and balanced so as to produce the  necessary  emphases  which  in  turn  create  desired  effects”.   So,  the  reaction  of  the  audience  can  be

influenced if voice, sound and music are combined appropriately.

  • combined appropriately~mixed and balanced.

=>ANSWER: C

 

  1. The feelings and motivations of characters become clear

Keywords: feelings, motivations, clear

In  paragraph  2,  the  writer  says  that:   “…dialogue  serves  to  tell  the  story and  expresses  feelings and motivations  of  characters  as  well.   Often  with  film  characterization  the  audience  perceives  little  or  no difference between the character and the actor.   Thus, the dialogue makes the character and the actor seem

to be the same person, and so the audience have no difficulty in understanding the feelings and motivations of the characters in films.

=>ANSWER: A

 

  1. A character seems to be a real person rather than an actor

Keywords: real person, actor

In  paragraph  3,  the  writer  says  that  “When  voice  textures  fit  the  performer‟s  physiognomy  and gestures, a whole and very realistic person emerges.” This means that a character seems to be a real person rather  than  an  actor  when  the  audience  listens  to  the  voice,  looks  at  the  appearance  of  the  character  and

watches how he/she moves.

  • actor=performer
  • appearance=physiognomy
  • moves=gestures
  • consistent with=fit

=>ANSWER: E

 



CAMBRIDGE IELTS 11 – TEST 4 – PASSAGE 3

 

  1. Paragraph A

In paragraph A, the writer emphasizes the importance of the invention of language compared to other inventions.  “Of  all  mankind‟s  manifold  creations,  language  must  take  pride  of  place…Compared  to language,  all  other  inventions  pale  in  significance,  since  everything  we  have  ever  achieved  depends  on

language  and  originates  from  it.”  So,  the  correct  heading  for  this  paragraph  is  why  language  is  the  most important invention of all.

  • language is the most important invention~language must take pride of place

=>ANSWER: vi

 

  1. Paragraph B

In this paragraph, the writer says that “In its own right it is a tool of extraordinary sophistication, yet based  on  an  idea  of  ingenious  simplicity.”    Then,  at  the  end  of  this  passage,  the  writer  concludes  that “Language is mankind‟s greatest invention – except, of course, that it was never invented. This apparent

paradox is at the core of our fascination with language, and it holds many of its secrets.” So, this paragraph is all about incompatible characteristics of language.

  • incompatible characteristics=paradox

=>ANSWER: iv

 

  1. Paragraph C

In this paragraph, the writer refers to “…barely three dozen measly morsels of sound”. “In themselves, these  configurations  of  mouth  –  p, f,  b,  v,  t,  d, k,  sh,  a,  e  and  so  on  – amount  to  nothing  […] But  run them  through  the  cogs  and  wheels  of  the  language  machine,  let  it  arrange  them  in  some  very  special orders,  and  there  is  nothing  that  these  meaningless  streams  of  air  cannot  do:  from  sighing  the interminable boredom of existence to unravelling the fundamental order of the universe.” This means that if these sounds are organised, they can convey a huge range of meaning.

  • organised ~let it arrange them in some very special orders

=>ANSWER: ii

 

  1. Paragraph D

In this paragraph, the writer states that “The language machine allows just about everybody […] to tie these meaningless sounds together into an infinite variety of subtle senses, and all apparently without  the slightest exertion.” So, the correct heading of this paragraph is the universal ability to use language.

  • universal=just about everybody

=>ANSWER: vii

 



  1. Paragraph E

In  this  paragraph,  the  writer  says  that  “Often,  it  is  the  only  estrangement  of  foreign  tongues,  with their many exotic and outlandish features, that brings home the wonder of language‟s design.”  Then the writer takes an example of a Turkish word of breath-breaking length which English takes a whole sentence

to   say.   So,   the   correct   heading   of   this   paragraph   is   differences   between   languages   highlight   their impressiveness.

=>ANSWER: i

 

  1. Paragraph F

In this paragraph, the writer discusses Sumerian, which was the language spoken on the banks of the Euphrates  some  5,000  years  ago.  But  the  most  important  point  he  makes  in  this  paragraph  is  “even  the absence of a sound has been enlisted to express something specific.”… “The technology is so fine-tuned

then that even a non-sound, when carefully placed in a particular position, has been invested with a specific function.”  So, the correct heading of this paragraph is even silence can be meaningful.

  • silence=absence of a sound

=>ANSWER: v

 

-36 The importance of language

The wheel is one invention that has had a major impact on 33…..aspects of life, but no impact has been as

34…..as that of language. Language is very 35….., yet composed of just a small number of sounds. Language appears to be 36…..to use. However, its sophistication is often overlooked.

 

33-34. The wheel  is  one  invention  that has had a  major impact  on 33…..aspects  of life, but  no impact  has been as 34…..as that of language.

Keywords: wheel, invention, impact, aspects

In the first paragraph, the writer states that “Other inventions – the wheel, agriculture, sliced bread  – may  have  transformed  our  material  existence,  but  the  advent  of  language  is  what  made  us  human. Compared to language, all other inventions pale in significance, since everything we have ever achieved

depends  on  language  and  originates  from  it.”  This  means  that  the  wheel  has  had  a  major  impact  on material aspects of life, but no impact has been as important (fundamental) as that of language, because every other invention owes its origin to language – language is fundamental.

  • had a major impact on=transformed
  • aspects of life=existence

=>ANSWER: 33. E (material)

  1. G (fundamental)

 



  1. Language is very 35….., yet composed of just a small number of sounds.

In paragraph B, the writer argues that “In its own right it is a tool of extraordinary sophistication, yet based on an idea of ingenious simplicity.”  He refers to it as: “this marvellous invention of composing out of twenty-five  or  thirty  sounds  that  infinite  variety  of  expressions….‟    This  means  that  language  is  very

sophisticated, or complex.

  • a small number~twenty-five or thirty
  • complex~an infinite variety of expressions

=>ANSWER: B (complex)

 

  1. Language appears to be 36…..to use. However, its sophistication is often overlooked.

Keywords:  appears, sophistication, overlooked

In  paragraph  D,  the  writer  claims  that  “The  most  extraordinary  thing  about  language  is  that  one doesn‟t have to be a genius to set its wheels in motion. The language machine allows just about everybody […] to tie these meaningless sounds  together into an infinite variety of  subtle senses, and all  apparently

without the slightest exertion.” This means that language appears to be easy to use.

=>ANSWER: F (easy)

 

  1. Human beings might have achieved their present position without language.

Keywords: present position, without language

In the first paragraph, the writer argues that “Without language, we could  never have embarked on our ascent to unparalleled power over all other animals, and even over nature itself.” So, the statement is false.

=>ANSWER:  NO

 

  1. The Port-Royal grammarians did justice to the nature of language.

Keywords: Port-Royal grammarians, justice

In paragraph B, the writer says that “This was how, in 1660, the renowned French grammarians of the Port-Royal abbey near Versailles distilled the essence of language, and no one since has celebrated more eloquently  the  magnitude  of  its  achievement.”    By  summarising  in  beautiful  words  what  language  has

enabled us to achieve, these grammarians did justice to its importance.  So, the statement is true.

  • nature=essence

=>ANSWER: YES

 

  1. A complex idea can be explained more clearly in a sentence than in a single word.

Keywords: complex idea, clearly, sentence

In this passage, the writer does not mention whether a complex idea can be explained more clearly in a sentence than in a single word. Sentences are mentioned in paragraph E, but only to note that one word in Turkish requires a whole sentence in English to explain it. So, the statement is not given.

=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN

 

  1. The Sumerians were responsible for starting the recording of events.

Keywords: Sumerians, recording events

In  paragraph  F,  the  writer  says  that  “And  if  that  sounds  like  some  one-off  freak,  then  consider Sumerian,  the  language  spoken  on  the  banks  of  the  Euphrates  some  5,000  years  ago  by  the  people  who invented writing and thus enabled the documentation of history.”  So, the statement is true.

 

  • recording of events=documentation of history

=>ANSWER: YES

 

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