CAMBRIDGE IELTS 11 – TEST 1 – PASSAGE 1
- Some food plants, including…., are already grown indoors
=> Answer: tomatoes
Key words: already grown indoors
Based on the question and particularly the key words, we need to find the information about a particular plant that has been already grown indoors. In the first sentence of paragraph 2, the author mentions “The concept of indoor farming is not new, since hothouse production of tomatoes and other produce has been in vogue for some time”. This means that tomatoes, along with other produce, have been produced in heated houses (indoors) for a long period of time.
=> already = not new = in vogue for some time
grown indoors = hothouse production
- Vertical farms would be located in…., meaning that there would be less need to take them long
distances to customers
=>Answer: urban centers/centres
Key words: vertical farm, located, distances
Based on the question and particularly the key words, we know that we need to find the information about vertical farms in terms of location and transportation in the passage. Paragraph 2 says “Situatedin the heart of urban centres, they (vertical farms) would drastically reduce the amount of transportation required to bring food to customers”.
- Vertical farms could use methane from plants and animals to produce….
=> Answer: energy
Key words: methane, produce
Based on the question and particularly the key words, we need to find the information about how methane is used. “Methane” is mentioned in paragraph 4. . So we focus on this paragraph. The paragraph says “Although the system would consume energy, it would return energy to the grid via methane generation from composting non-edible parts of plants”
=> produce = return
- The consumption of….would be cut because agricultural vehicles would be unnecessary.
=> Answer: fossil fuels
Key words: consumption, cut, vehicles
Based on the question and particularly the key words, we need to find the information about the reduced consumption of something. At the end of paragraph 4, the author indicates “It would also dramatically reducefossil fueluse, by cutting out the need for tractors, ploughs and shipping”
=> consumption = use
Cut = reduce
Vehicles = tractors
- The fact that vertical farms would need…light is a disadvantage
=> Answer: artificial
Key words: need, light, disadvantage
Based on the question and particularly the key words, we need to find the information about a type of light that vertical farms need. At the beginning of paragraph 5, the author says “A major drawback of vertical farming, however, is that the plants would require artificial light”
=> need = require
Disadvantage = drawback
- One form of vertical farming involves planting in…which are not fixed.
=> Answer: (stacked) trays
Key words: One form, planting, not fixed.
Based on the question and particularly the key words, we need to find the information about a type of vertical farming and where it is planted. At the beginning of paragraph 6, the author says “One variation on vertical farming that has been developed is to grow plants in stacked trays that move on rails”
=> One form = One variation
Plant = grow
not fixed = move on rails
- The most probable development is that food will be grown on… in towns and cities
=> Answer: (urban) rooftops
Key words: most probable, grown on, towns and cities
Based on the question and particularly the key words, we need to find the information about place(s) where food can be best grown on. At the end of the passage, the author mentions “Most experts currently believe it is far more likely that we will simply use the space available on urban rooftops”
=> most probable = far more likely
towns and cities = urban
- Methods for predicting the Earth‟s population have recently changed
=> Answer: NOT GIVEN
Key words: have recently changed
In the first paragraph, the author just mentions that “applying the most conservative estimates to current demographic trends” to predict the future population. No information about recent changes in population predicting methods is given . So the answer is NOT GIVEN.
=> estimate = predict
=> population change = demographic trends
- Human beings are responsible for some of the destruction to food-producing land.
=> Answer: True
Key words: responsible, destruction.
In paragraph 3, “We despoiled most of the land we work, often turning verdant, natural ecozones into semi-arid deserts”. It means that human action is the cause of the damage to agricultural land. We destroyed most of the land we work, causing natural ecozones to be turned into semi-arid deserts. So the statement given is TRUE.
=> ecozones = areas where there is a natural community of plants and animals
=> semi-arid = with little water
- The crops produced in vertical farms will depend on the season.
=> Answer: False
Key words: depend, seasons, produced
At the beginning of paragraph 2, the author refers to an advantage of vertical farming which is ” sustainable production of a safe and varied food supply (through year-round production of all crops) Briefly, crops are produced in environmentally- controlled conditions and not influenced by natural conditions. The statement is FALSE.
- Some damage to food crops is caused by climate change.
=> Answer: True
Key words: climate change
Paragraph 3 says “However, more often than not now, due to a rapidly changing climate, this is not what happens. Massive floods, long droughts, hurricanes and severe monsoons take their toll each year, destroying millions of tons of valuable crops”. So, due to climate change, adverse natural disasters result in destruction to numerous valuable crops. The statement is TRUE.
=> crops = plants which are grown for food
- Fertilisers will be needed for certain crops in vertical farms.
=> Answer: False
Key words: fertilisers needed
In the middle of paragraph 4, “All the food could be grown organically, eliminating theneed for herbicides, pesticides and fertilisers”. So, there is no need for fertilisers to grow crops in vertical farms. The statement contradicts the information in the passage, so the statement is FALSE.
=> fertilisers = artificial chemicals added to the land to make crops grow bigger or more quickly
- Vertical farming will make plants less likely to be affected by infectious diseases.
=> Answer: True
Key words: less, infectious diseases
In paragraph 4, “The system would greatly reduce the incidence of many infectious diseases that are acquired at the agricultural interface”. The system (vertical farming) would reduce infectious diseases, which makes plants less likely to be affected. So, the statement is TRUE.
=> infectious diseases = diseases that can pass from one plant to another by the wind or by insects
CAMBRIDGE IELTS 11 – TEST 1 – PASSAGE 2
- The Falkirk wheel has linked the Forth and Clyde Canal with the Union Canal for the first time in
=> Answer: FALSE
Key words: has linked, first time
Based on the question and particularly the key words, we need to find the information about whether the wheel has linked two canals for the first time. According to paragraph 1, “Opened in 2002, it(The Falkirk Wheel) is central to the ambitious £84.5 Millennium LinkProject to restore the navigability across Scotland by reconnecting the historic waterways of the Forth and Clyde and the Union Canals”. This means that the connection between the two canals does not exist at the moment
and the Falkirk wheel is expected to (“is central to”) reconnect them. In paragraph 2, it is confirmed that “Historically, the two canals had been joined near the town of Falkirk…..”, but this connection “….had been dismantled in 1933, thereby breaking the link”. So, that “the F wheel has linked the Forth and Clyde Canal with the Union Canal for the first time” is FALSE.
- There was some opposition to the design of the Falkirk Wheel at first.
=> Answer: NOT GIVEN
Keywords: opposition, design
Based on the question and particularly the key words, we need to find the information about the opposition to the design. Obviously, this information is not mentioned in the text. According to paragraph 3, numerous ideas were submitted for the project but the author does not point out whether anyone opposed the plan that was adopted. So, this statement is NOT GIVEN
- The Falkirk Wheel was initially put together at the location where its components were manufactured.
=> Answer: TRUE
Key words: put together, location, components, manufactured
Based on the question and particularly the key words, we need to find the information about the Wheel‟s location. According to paragraph 5, “The various parts of the Falkirk Wheel were all constructed and assembled at Butterley Engineering‟s Steelworks in Derbyshire…”. So the statement and the information in the text have the same meaning.
- put together = assembled
- components = parts
- manufactured = constructed
=> The statement is TRUE
- The Falkirk Wheel is the only boat lift in the world which has steel sections bolted together by hand.
=> Answer: NOT GIVEN
Key words: only, by hand
Actually, the author did mention how steel sections of the Falkirk Wheel were bolted (at the end of paragraph 4 : “…to make the structure more robust, the steel sections were bolted rather than welded together. Over 45,000 bolt holes were matched with their bolts and each bolt was hand-tightened”). However, he did not indicate whether this is unique or not. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.
- The weight of the gondolas varies according to the size of boat being carried
=> Answer: FALSE
Key words: weight, varies.
Based on the question and particularly the key words, we need to identify whether the gondolas‟ weight is influenced by the size of boat being carried. According to paragraph 5, “These gondolas always weigh the same, whether or not they are carrying boats”. So the statement is FALSE.
- The construction of the Falkirk Wheel site took into account the presence of a nearby ancient monument
=> Answer: TRUE
Key words: construction, monument
According to the last paragraph, “the Wheel could not be constructed to elevate boats over the full 35-metre difference betbeen the two canals, owing to the presence of historically important Antonine Wall” So the construction of the Wheel is influenced by the presence of an ancient monument. So the statement is TRUE.
- ancient= historically important
- A pair of… are lifted in order to shut out water from canal basin.
=> Answer: gates
Key words: a pair, lifted, shut out water
According to the second sentence of paragraph 6, “Two hydraulic steel gates are raised, so as to seal the gondola off from the water in the canal basin”
- a pair of=two
- shut out water=seal off from water
- A… is taken out, enabling Wheel to rotate
=> Answer: clamp
Key words: taken out, rotate
According to the fourth sentence of paragraph 6 , “A hydraulic clamp…, is removed, allowing the Wheel to turn”
- taken out = removed
- rotate = turn
- Hydraulic motors drive…
=> Answer: axle
Key words: drive
According to paragraph 6, “In the central machine room an array of ten hydraulic motors then begins to rotate the central axle”. So, the hydraulic motors drive, or control the axle by rotating it.
- A range of different-sized…ensures boat keeps upright.
=> Answer: cogs
Key words: different-sized, upright
According to paragraph 6, “As the wheel rotates, the gondolas are kept in the upright position by a simple gearing system.” Then, the author describes the gearing system which includes many cogs of different sizes. So, the word in the blank is cogs.
- Boat reaches top Wheel, then moves directly onto…
=> Answer: aqueduct
Key words: moves directly onto
At the end of paragraph 6, the author indicates “when the gondola reaches the top, the boat passes straight onto the aqueduct situated 24 metres above the canal basin”. So “aqueduct” is the answer ( ” the aqueduct” is WRONG because only ONE word is needed)
- move onto=pass onto
- Boat travels through tunnel beneath Roman…
=> Answer: wall
Key words: beneath, Roman
At the end of the text, “Boats travel under this wall via a tunnel…”. “This wall” means the wall built by the Romans in the second century AD. So, the word needed is “wall”
- ……….raise boat 11m to level of Union Canal
=> Answer: locks
Key words: raise, reach
The final paragraph begins: “The remaining 11 metres of lift needed to reach the Union Canal is
achieved by a pair of locks”. So, the answer is “locks”.
CAMBRIDGE IELTS 11 – TEST 1 – PASSAGE 3
27-29. Which paragraph contains the following information?
- mention of a geo-engineering project based on an earlier natural phenomenon.
=> Answer: D
We have to find out the information about a nature-based project. Obviously, at the beginning of paragraph D, the author describes a project which results in global dimming. Then, he explains “The idea is modelled on historic volcanic explosions, such as that of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines in o 1992, which led to a short-term cooling of global temperatures by 0.5 C. So, the “earlier natural
phenomenon” is “historic volcanic explosions”.
- based on=modelled on
- an example of a successful use of geo-engineering.
=> Answer: B
At the beginning of paragraph B, the author emphasizes that “Geo-engineering has been shown to work, at least on a small localised scale”. This means geo-engineering has been somewhat effective so far. Then, he provides a successful project as an example. It is “For Decades, May Day parades in Moscow have taken place under clear blue skies, aircraft having deposited dry ice, silver iodide and cement powder to disperse clouds”
- be successful = work
- a common definition of geo-engineering
In paragraph A, “Consequently, an increasing number of scientists are beginning to explore the alternative of geo-engineering – a term which generallyrefers to the international large-scale manipulation of the environment. “Refer to” is usually used to define a term, so we need to pay attention to the passage containing it.
- refer to (v)=define (definition)
- to create a ……… that would reduce the amount of light reaching Earth.
At the end of paragraph B, “His scheme would employ up to 16 trillion minute spacecraft, each weighing about one gram, to form a transparent, sunlight-refracting sunshade in an orbit 1.5 million km above the Earth. This could, argues Angel, reduce the amount of light reaching the Earth by two per cent.
- far above Earth=1.5 million km above the Earth
=> Answer: sunshade
- place………in the sea
- to encourage ……..to form
We need to find out a project which relates to “the sea”. In paragraph C, the author says “The majority of geo-engineering project so far carried out-which include planting forests in deserts and depositing iron in the ocean to stimulate the growth of algae – have focused on achieving a general cooling of the Earth.”
=> Answers: 31. iron
- to create ……….that would reduce the amount of light reaching Earth.
First, we need to find out the paragraph which contains the information about aerosol sprays (paragraph D). In this paragraph, the author indicates that “The concept of releasing aerosol sprays into the stratosphereabove the Arctic has been proposed by several scientists. This would involve using sulphur or hydrogen sulphide aerosols so that sulphur dioxide would formclouds, which would, in turn, lead to a global dimming.”
- reduce the amount of light reaching Earth= a global dimming
=> Answer: clouds
- fixstrong……to Greenland ice sheets
The key word in this sentence is “Greenland”, so we should focus on paragraph D. In this paragraph, the author argues “Scientists have also scrutinised whether it‟s possible to preserve the ice sheets of Greenland with reinforcedhigh-tension cables, preventing icebergs from moving into the sea”.
- strong= reinforced
=> Answer: cables
- to allow the……..to reflect radiation
According to the table, we need to find out the information about planting trees in Russian Arctic. At the end of paragraph D, the author argues “Meanwhile in the Russian Arctic, geo-engineering plans include the planting of millions of birch trees. Whereas the region‟s native evergreen pines shade the snow and absorb radiation, birches would shed their leaves in winter, thus enabling radiation to be reflected by the snow.”
=> Answer: snow
- change the direction of ……….. to bring more cold water into ice-forming areas.
The key word is ice-forming areas, so we need to find out the information about ice-forming areas. At the end of paragraph D, the author indicates that “Re-routing Russian rivers to increase cold water flow to ice-forming areas could also be used to slow down warming, say some climate scientists.”
- change the direction of =re-route
- bring more=increase
=> Answer: rivers
37-40. We focus on the last four paragraphs which contain the scientists‟ statements
- The effects of geo-engineering may not be long-lasting.
Key words: effects, not long-lasting.
In the paragraph E, “I think all of us agree that if we were to end geo-engineering on a given day, then the planet would return to its pre-engineered condition very rapidly…” This means that once we end geo-engineering, the effects of it on the planet may end, too. In other words, “the effects of geo- engineering may not be long-lasting”
=> Answer: B
- Geo-engineering is a topic worth exploring
Key words: worth exploring
In the last paragraph, Dr Martin Sommerkorn emphasizes that “Human-induced climate change has brought humanity to a position where we shouldn‟t exclude thinking thoroughly about this topic and its possibilities.”
- worth exploring=shouldn‟t exclude thinking thoroughly
=> Answer: D
- It may be necessary to limitthe effectiveness of geo-engineering projects.
Key words: limit
In the paragraph G, “To avoid such a scenario, Lunt says Angel‟s project would have to operate at half strength; all of which reinforces his view that the best option is to avoid the need for geo- engineering altogether.”
- limit the effectiveness=operate at half strength
=> Answer: C
- Research into non-fossil-based fuels cannot be replaced by geo-engineering.
In the paragraph E, Angel says that his plan is “no substitute for developing renewable energy”, renewable enegry is the only “permanent solution”.
- non-fossil-based fuels=renewable energy
- cannot be replaced=no substitute for
=> Answer: A