1. Some food plants, including…., are already grown indoors

=> Answer: tomatoes

Key words: already grown indoors

Based  on  the  question  and  particularly  the  key  words,  we  need  to  find  the  information  about  a particular plant  that has  been already grown indoors.  In the  first  sentence  of paragraph 2, the  author mentions  “The concept  of  indoor farming  is  not  new, since hothouse production  of  tomatoes  and other produce has been in vogue for some time”. This means that tomatoes, along with other produce, have been produced in heated houses (indoors) for a long period of time.

=> already = not new = in vogue for some time

grown indoors = hothouse production


  1. Vertical  farms  would  be  located  in….,  meaning  that  there  would  be  less  need  to  take  them  long

distances to customers

=>Answer: urban centers/centres

Key words: vertical farm, located, distances

Based  on  the  question  and  particularly  the  key  words,  we  know  that  we  need  to  find   the information  about  vertical  farms  in  terms  of  location  and  transportation  in  the  passage.  Paragraph  2 says  “Situatedin  the  heart  of  urban  centres,  they  (vertical  farms)  would  drastically  reduce  the amount of transportation required to bring food to customers”.

=> located=situated



  1. Vertical farms could use methane from plants and animals to produce….

=> Answer: energy

Key words: methane, produce

Based on the question and particularly the key words, we need to find the information about how methane  is  used.  “Methane”  is  mentioned  in  paragraph  4.  .  So  we  focus  on  this  paragraph.  The paragraph says “Although the system would consume energy, it would return energy to the grid via methane generation from composting non-edible parts of plants”

=> produce = return


  1. The consumption of….would be cut because agricultural vehicles would be unnecessary.

=> Answer: fossil fuels

Key words: consumption, cut, vehicles

Based  on the question and particularly the key words, we need to  find the information  about  the reduced  consumption  of  something.  At  the  end  of  paragraph  4,  the  author  indicates  “It  would  also dramatically reducefossil fueluse, by cutting out the need for tractors, ploughs and shipping”

=> consumption = use

Cut = reduce

Vehicles = tractors


  1. The fact that vertical farms would need…light is a disadvantage

=> Answer: artificial

Key words: need, light, disadvantage

Based on the question and particularly the key words, we need to find the information about a type of light that vertical farms need. At the beginning of paragraph 5,  the author says “A major drawback of vertical farming, however, is that the plants would require artificial light”

=> need = require

Disadvantage = drawback


  1. One form of vertical farming involves planting in…which are not fixed.

=> Answer: (stacked) trays

Key words: One form, planting, not fixed.

Based on the question and particularly the key words, we need to find the information about a type of  vertical  farming  and  where  it  is  planted.  At  the  beginning  of  paragraph  6,  the  author  says  “One variation on vertical farming that has been developed is to grow plants in stacked trays that move on rails”

=> One form = One variation

Plant = grow

not fixed = move on rails


  1. The most probable development is that food will be grown on… in towns and cities

=> Answer: (urban) rooftops

Key words: most probable, grown on, towns and cities

Based  on  the  question  and  particularly  the  key  words,  we  need  to  find  the  information  about place(s)  where  food  can  be  best  grown  on.  At  the  end  of  the  passage,  the  author  mentions  “Most experts  currently believe  it  is  far  more  likely  that  we  will  simply use  the  space  available  on  urban rooftops”

=> most probable = far more likely

towns and cities = urban


  1. Methods for predicting the Earth‟s population have recently changed

=> Answer: NOT GIVEN

Key words: have recently changed

In  the first  paragraph, the author just  mentions  that  “applying the most  conservative  estimates to current demographic trends” to predict the future population. No information about recent changes in population predicting methods is given .  So the answer is NOT GIVEN.

=> estimate = predict

=> population change = demographic trends


  1. Human beings are responsible for some of the destruction to food-producing land.

=> Answer: True

Key words: responsible, destruction.

In    paragraph  3,  “We  despoiled  most  of  the  land  we  work,  often  turning  verdant,  natural ecozones into semi-arid deserts”. It means that human action is the cause of the damage to agricultural land.   We destroyed most  of the land we work, causing natural  ecozones  to  be turned into semi-arid deserts. So the statement given is TRUE.

=>  ecozones = areas where there is a natural community of plants and animals

=>  semi-arid = with little water


  1. The crops produced in vertical farms will depend on the season.

=> Answer: False

Key words: depend, seasons, produced

At the beginning of paragraph   2, the author refers to an advantage of vertical farming which is ” sustainable production of a safe and varied food supply (through year-round production of all crops) Briefly,  crops  are  produced  in  environmentally-  controlled  conditions  and  not  influenced  by natural conditions. The statement is FALSE.


  1. Some damage to food crops is caused by climate change.

=> Answer: True

Key words: climate change

Paragraph 3 says “However, more often than not now, due to a rapidly changing climate, this is not what happens.  Massive floods, long droughts, hurricanes and severe monsoons take their toll each year,  destroying  millions  of  tons  of  valuable  crops”.  So,  due  to  climate  change,  adverse  natural disasters result in destruction to numerous valuable crops. The statement is TRUE.

=> crops = plants which are grown for food


  1. Fertilisers will be needed for certain crops in vertical farms.

=> Answer: False

Key words: fertilisers needed

In the middle of paragraph 4, “All the food could be grown organically,  eliminating theneed for herbicides,  pesticides  and  fertilisers”.  So,  there  is  no  need  for  fertilisers  to  grow  crops  in  vertical farms. The statement contradicts  the information in the passage, so the statement is FALSE.

=> fertilisers = artificial chemicals added to the land to make crops grow bigger or more quickly


  1. Vertical farming will make plants less likely to be affected by infectious diseases.

=> Answer: True

Key words: less, infectious diseases

In paragraph 4,  “The system would greatly reduce the incidence of many infectious diseases that are  acquired  at  the  agricultural  interface”.    The  system  (vertical  farming)  would  reduce  infectious diseases, which makes plants less likely to be affected. So, the statement is TRUE.

=> infectious diseases = diseases that can pass from one plant to another by the wind or by insects




  1. The Falkirk wheel has linked the Forth and Clyde Canal with the Union Canal for the first time in


=> Answer: FALSE

Key words: has linked, first time

Based  on  the  question  and  particularly  the  key  words,  we  need  to  find  the  information  about whether  the  wheel  has  linked  two  canals  for  the  first  time.  According  to  paragraph  1,  “Opened  in 2002, it(The Falkirk Wheel) is  central  to  the ambitious £84.5 Millennium  LinkProject to  restore the navigability across Scotland by  reconnecting  the historic waterways of the Forth  and Clyde  and  the Union Canals”. This means that the connection between the two canals does not exist at the moment

and the Falkirk wheel is expected to (“is central to”) reconnect them.  In paragraph 2, it is confirmed that “Historically, the two canals  had  been  joined  near the town of Falkirk…..”, but  this connection “….had  been  dismantled  in  1933,  thereby  breaking  the  link”.  So,  that  “the  F  wheel  has  linked  the Forth and Clyde Canal with the Union Canal for the first time” is FALSE.


  1. There was some opposition to the design of the Falkirk Wheel at first.

=> Answer: NOT GIVEN

Keywords: opposition, design

Based  on the question and particularly the key words, we need to  find the  information  about  the opposition  to  the  design.  Obviously,  this  information  is  not  mentioned  in  the  text.  According  to paragraph 3, numerous ideas were submitted for the project but the author does not point out whether anyone opposed the plan that was adopted. So, this statement is NOT GIVEN


  1. The   Falkirk   Wheel   was   initially   put   together   at   the   location   where   its   components   were manufactured.

=> Answer: TRUE

Key words: put together, location, components, manufactured

Based  on the question and particularly the key words, we need to  find the information  about  the Wheel‟s  location.  According  to  paragraph  5,  “The  various  parts  of  the  Falkirk  Wheel  were  all constructed and assembled at Butterley Engineering‟s Steelworks in Derbyshire…”. So the statement and the information in the text have the same meaning.

  • put together = assembled
  • components = parts
  • manufactured = constructed

=> The statement is TRUE


  1. The  Falkirk  Wheel  is  the  only  boat  lift  in  the  world  which  has  steel  sections  bolted  together  by hand.

=> Answer: NOT GIVEN

Key words: only, by hand

Actually, the author did mention how steel sections of the Falkirk Wheel were bolted (at the end of paragraph 4 : “…to make the structure more robust, the steel sections were bolted rather than welded together. Over 45,000 bolt holes were matched with their bolts and each bolt was  hand-tightened”). However, he did not indicate whether this is unique or not. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.


  1. The weight of the gondolas varies according to the size of boat being carried

=> Answer: FALSE

Key words: weight, varies.

Based on the question and particularly the key words, we need to identify whether the gondolas‟ weight  is  influenced  by  the  size  of  boat  being  carried.  According  to  paragraph  5,  “These  gondolas always weigh the same, whether or not they are carrying boats”. So the statement is FALSE.


  1. The  construction  of  the  Falkirk  Wheel  site  took  into  account  the  presence  of  a  nearby  ancient monument

=> Answer: TRUE

Key words:  construction, monument

According to the last paragraph, “the Wheel could not be constructed to elevate boats over the full 35-metre difference betbeen the two canals, owing to the presence of historically important Antonine Wall” So the construction of the Wheel is influenced by the presence of an ancient monument. So the statement is TRUE.

  • ancient= historically important


  1. A pair of… are lifted in order to shut out water from canal basin.

=> Answer: gates

Key words: a pair, lifted, shut out water

According to the second sentence of paragraph 6,   “Two hydraulic steel gates are raised, so as to seal the gondola off from the water in the canal basin”

  • a pair of=two
  • lifted=raised
  • shut out water=seal off from water


  1. A… is taken out, enabling Wheel to rotate

=> Answer: clamp

Key words: taken out, rotate

According to the fourth sentence of paragraph 6 , “A hydraulic clamp…, is removed, allowing the Wheel to turn”

  • taken out = removed
  • rotate = turn


  1. Hydraulic motors drive…

=> Answer: axle

Key words: drive

According  to  paragraph  6,   “In  the  central  machine  room  an  array  of  ten  hydraulic  motors  then begins to rotate the central axle”. So, the hydraulic motors drive, or control the axle by rotating it.


  1. A range of different-sized…ensures boat keeps upright.

=> Answer: cogs

Key words: different-sized, upright

According to paragraph 6, “As the wheel rotates, the gondolas are kept in the upright position by a simple gearing system.” Then, the author describes the gearing system which includes many cogs of different sizes. So, the word in the blank is cogs.


  1. Boat reaches top Wheel, then moves directly onto…

=> Answer: aqueduct

Key words: moves directly onto

At the end of paragraph 6, the author indicates “when the gondola reaches the top, the boat passes straight onto the aqueduct situated 24 metres above the canal basin”. So “aqueduct” is the answer ( ” the aqueduct” is WRONG because only ONE word is needed)

  • move onto=pass onto
  • directly=straight


  1. Boat travels through tunnel beneath Roman…

=> Answer: wall

Key words: beneath, Roman

At the end of the text, “Boats travel  under this wall  via a tunnel…”. “This wall” means the wall built by the Romans in the second century AD. So, the word needed is “wall”

  • beneath=under


  1. ……….raise boat 11m to level of Union Canal

=>  Answer: locks

Key words: raise, reach

The final paragraph begins:   “The remaining 11 metres of lift needed to reach the Union Canal is

achieved by a pair of locks”.  So, the answer is “locks”.




27-29. Which paragraph contains the following information?

  1. mention of a geo-engineering project based on an earlier natural phenomenon.

=> Answer: D

We have to find out the information about a nature-based project. Obviously, at the beginning of paragraph D, the author describes a project which results in global dimming. Then, he explains “The idea is modelled on historic volcanic explosions, such as that of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines in o 1992,  which  led  to  a  short-term  cooling  of  global  temperatures  by  0.5  C.  So,  the  “earlier  natural

phenomenon” is “historic volcanic explosions”.

  • based on=modelled on
  • earlier=historic


  1. an example of a successful use of geo-engineering.

=> Answer: B

At the beginning of paragraph B, the author emphasizes that “Geo-engineering has been shown to work, at least on a small localised scale”. This means geo-engineering has been somewhat effective so far.  Then,  he  provides  a  successful  project  as  an  example.  It  is  “For  Decades,  May  Day  parades  in Moscow have taken place under clear blue skies,  aircraft having deposited dry ice, silver iodide and cement powder to disperse clouds”


  • be successful = work


  1. a common definition of geo-engineering

=>Answer: A

In paragraph A, “Consequently, an increasing number of scientists are beginning to explore the alternative   of   geo-engineering   –   a   term   which   generallyrefers   to   the   international   large-scale manipulation  of  the  environment.  “Refer  to”  is  usually  used  to  define  a  term,  so  we  need  to  pay attention to the passage containing it.

  • common=generally
  • refer to (v)=define (definition)


  1. to create a ……… that would reduce the amount of light reaching Earth.

At the end of paragraph  B, “His scheme would employ up to  16 trillion  minute spacecraft, each weighing about one gram, to  form a transparent, sunlight-refracting sunshade in  an orbit 1.5 million km  above  the  Earth.  This  could,  argues  Angel,  reduce  the  amount  of  light  reaching  the  Earth  by two per cent.

  • tiny=minute
  • create=form
  • far above Earth=1.5 million km above the Earth

=> Answer: sunshade


  1. place………in the sea
  2. to encourage …… form

We  need  to  find  out  a  project  which  relates  to  “the  sea”.  In  paragraph  C,  the  author  says  “The majority  of  geo-engineering  project  so  far  carried  out-which  include  planting  forests  in  deserts  and depositing iron in the ocean to stimulate the growth of algae – have focused on achieving a general cooling of the Earth.”


  • place=deposit


  • sea=ocean
  • encourage=stimulate

=> Answers: 31. iron

  1. algae


  1. to create ……….that would reduce the amount of light reaching Earth.

First,  we  need  to  find  out  the  paragraph  which  contains  the  information  about  aerosol  sprays (paragraph  D).  In  this  paragraph,  the  author  indicates  that  “The  concept  of  releasing  aerosol  sprays into  the  stratosphereabove  the  Arctic  has  been  proposed  by  several  scientists.  This  would  involve using sulphur or hydrogen sulphide aerosols so that sulphur dioxide would formclouds, which would, in turn, lead to a global dimming.”

  • create=form
  • reduce the amount of light reaching Earth= a global dimming

=> Answer: clouds


  1. fixstrong……to Greenland ice sheets

The  key  word  in  this  sentence  is  “Greenland”,  so  we  should  focus  on  paragraph  D.  In  this paragraph, the author argues “Scientists have also scrutinised whether it‟s possible to preserve the ice sheets of Greenland with reinforcedhigh-tension cables, preventing icebergs from moving into the sea”.

  • strong= reinforced

=> Answer: cables


  1. to allow the…… reflect radiation

According to the table, we need to find out the information about planting trees in Russian Arctic. At the end of paragraph D, the author argues “Meanwhile in the Russian Arctic, geo-engineering plans include the planting of millions of birch trees. Whereas the region‟s native evergreen pines shade the snow  and  absorb  radiation,  birches  would  shed  their  leaves  in  winter,  thus  enabling  radiation  to  be reflected by the snow.”


  • lose=shed
  • allow=enable

=> Answer: snow

  1. change the direction of ……….. to bring more cold water into ice-forming areas.

The key word is ice-forming areas, so we need to find out the information about ice-forming areas. At  the  end  of  paragraph  D,  the  author  indicates  that  “Re-routing  Russian  rivers  to  increase  cold water  flow  to  ice-forming  areas  could  also  be  used  to  slow  down  warming,  say  some  climate scientists.”

  • change the direction of =re-route


  • bring more=increase

=> Answer: rivers


37-40. We focus on the last four paragraphs which contain the scientists‟ statements

  1. The effects of geo-engineering may not be long-lasting.

Key words: effects, not long-lasting.

In the paragraph E, “I think all of us agree that if we were to end geo-engineering on a given day, then the planet would return to its pre-engineered condition very rapidly…” This means that once we end geo-engineering, the effects of it on the planet may end, too. In other words, “the effects of geo- engineering may not be long-lasting”

=> Answer: B


  1. Geo-engineering is a topic worth exploring

Key words: worth exploring

In  the  last  paragraph,  Dr  Martin  Sommerkorn  emphasizes  that  “Human-induced  climate  change has brought humanity to a position where we shouldn‟t exclude thinking thoroughly about this topic and its possibilities.”

  • worth exploring=shouldn‟t exclude thinking thoroughly

=> Answer: D


  1. It may be necessary to limitthe effectiveness of geo-engineering projects.

Key words: limit

In the paragraph G, “To avoid such a scenario, Lunt says Angel‟s project would have to operate at half  strength;  all  of  which  reinforces  his  view  that  the  best  option  is  to  avoid  the  need  for  geo- engineering altogether.”

  • limit the effectiveness=operate at half strength

=> Answer: C


  1. Research into non-fossil-based fuels cannot be replaced by geo-engineering.

In the paragraph E, Angel says that his plan is “no substitute for developing renewable energy”, renewable enegry is the only “permanent solution”.

  • non-fossil-based fuels=renewable energy
  • cannot be replaced=no substitute for

=> Answer: A


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