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The story of silk
Questions 1-9: Complete the notes below.
Paragraph 1: Silk is a fine….
Paragraph 2: Originally, silkworm farming….
Paragraph 3: Demand for this exotic fabric….
Paragraph 4: With the mulberry silkworm….
Paragraph 5: The nineteenth century….
1-2. Around 3000 BC, according to legend:
– silkworm cocoon fell into emperor’s wife’s 1……
– emperor’s wife invented a 2…..to pull out silk fibres
Keywords: 3000 BC, fell into, invented, emperor’s wife
In the first paragraph, the writer says that “Legend has it that it was Lei Tzu, wife of the Yellow Emperor, ruler of China in about 3000 BC, who discovered silkworms. […] It just so happened that while she was sipping some tea, one of the cocoons that she had collected landed in the hot tea and started to unravel into a fine thread. […] She also devised a special reel to draw the fibres from the cocoon into a single thread so that they would be strong enough to be woven into fabric.”
fell into=landed in
=>ANSWER: 1. tea
3. Only…..were allowed to produce silk
Keywords: only, produce silk
In the second paragraph, the writer states that “Originally, silkworm farming was solely restricted to women, and it was they who were responsible for the growing, harvesting and weaving.”
produce silk ~ the growing, harvesting and weaving
4. Only…..were allowed to wear silk
Keywords: only, wear silk
In the second paragraph, the writer indicates that “Silk quickly grew into a symbol of status, and originally, only royalty were entitled to have clothes made of silk.”
were allowed=were entitled
wear ~ have clothes made of silk
5. Silk used as a form of…..
– e.g. farmers’ taxes consisted partly of silk
Keywords: a form of, farmers, taxes
In the second paragraph, the writer says that “Sometime during the Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD), silk was so prized that it was also used as unit of currency. Government officials were paid their salary in silk, and farmers paid their taxes in grain and silk.
6. Silk used for many purposes
-e.g. evidence found of….made from silk around 168 AD
Keywords: 168 AD, many purposes, evidence
At the end of paragraph 2, the writer says that “The earliest indication of silk paper being used was discovered in the tomb of a noble who is estimated to have died around 168 AD”
evidence = indication
7. Merchants use Silk Road to take silk westward and bring back…..and precious metals.
Keywords: Silk Road, bring back
In paragraph 3, the writer explains that “Demand for this exotic fabric eventually created the lucrative trade route now known as the Silk Road, taking silk westward and bringing gold, silver and wool to the East.”
precious metals ~ gold, silver
8. 550 AD: …..hide silkworm eggs in canes and take them to Constantinople
Keywords: 550 AD, hide, eggs, canes, Constantinople
In paragraph 4, the writer indicates that “According to another legend, monks working for the Byzantine emperor Justinian smuggled silkworm eggs to Constantinople in 550 AD, concealed inside hollow bamboo walking canes.”
9. 20 century: …..and other man made fibres cause decline in silk production
Keywords: 20 century, manmade fibres, decline, silk production
In the last paragraph, the writer says that “The nineteenth century and industrialisation saw the downfall of the European silk industry[…] Then in the twentieth century, new man made fibres, such as nylon, started to be used in what had traditionally been silk products, such as stockings and parachutes.”
Questions 10-13: Do the following statements agree with the information in Reading Passage 1?
10. Gold was the most valuable material transported along the Silk Road
Keywords: gold, most valuable material
In paragraph 3, the writer says that “Demand for this exotic fabric eventually created the lucrative trade route now known as the Silk Road, taking silk westward and bringing gold, silver and wool to the East. It was named the Silk Road after its most precious commodity, which was considered to be worth more than gold.” So, gold is not the most valuable material, it’s silk.
11. Most tradesmen only went along certain sections of the Silk Road.
Keywords: tradesmen, certain sections
At the end of paragraph 3, the writer indicates that “The Silk Road stretched over 6,000 kilometers from Eastern China to the Mediterranean Sea. Few merchants traveled the entire route; goods were handled mostly by a series of middlemen.” This means that the Silk Road was too long for merchants to travel along; therefore, they only went along certain sections.
12. The Byzantines spread the practice of silk production across the West.
Keywords: The Byzantines spread
In paragraph 4, the writer says that “The Byzantines were as secretive as the Chinese, however, and for many centuries the weaving and trading of silk fabric was a strict imperial monopoly. Then in the seventh century, the Arabs conquered Persia, capturing their magnificent silks in the process. Silk production thus spread through Africa, Sicily and Spain as the Arabs swept through these lands.” This means that the Arabs, not the Byzantines, spread the practice of silk production across the West.
the West~Africa, Sicily and Spain
13. Silk yarn makes up the majority of silk currently exported from China.
Keywords: silk yarn, the majority, exported, China
In the last paragraph, the writer says that “in more recent decades, China has gradually recaptured its position as the world‟s biggest producer and exporter of silk and silk yarn.” So, whether silk yarn makes up the majority of silk currently exported from China is not mentioned, we only know that both silk and silk yarn are exported.
currently=in more recent decades
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
Paragraph 1: Animal migration, however…..
Paragraph 2: An Arctic tern….
Paragraph 3: But migration is a complex issue….
Paragraph 4: But daily vertical movements….
Paragraph 5: Dingle is an evolutionary….
Paragraph 6: Human behaviour, however….
Paragraph 7: Conservation scientists….
Questions 14-18: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2 ?
14. Local gulls and migrating arctic terns behave in the same way when offered food.
Keywords: Local gulls, migrating arctic terns, same way
In the second paragraph, the writer says that “An arctic tern, on its 20,000 km flight from the extreme south of South America to the Arctic circle will take no notice of a nice smelly herring offered from a bird- watcher’s boat along the way. While local gulls will dive voraciously for such handouts, the tern flies on.”
This means that local gulls and migrating arctic terns behave in different ways when offered food.
15. Experts’ definitions of migration tend to vary according to their area of study.
Keywords: definitions of migration, vary, study
In paragraph 3, the writer indicates that “But migration is a complex issue, and biologists define it differently, depending on what sorts of animals they study.”
according to=depending on
16. Very few experts agree that the movement of aphids can be considered migration.
Keywords: few experts, agree, movement of aphids, migration
Aphids are referred to in paragraph 5. Among the experts, we only know that Dingle and Berger have different definitions of migration. In this passage, the writer does not mention whether very few experts agree that the movement of aphids can be considered migration. So, the statement is not given
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
17. Aphids’ journeys are affected by changes in the light that they perceive.
Keywords: Aphids’ journeys, changes, light
In paragraph 5, the writer says that “They allow for the fact that, for example, aphids will become sensitive to blue light (from the sky) when it’s time for takeoff on their big journey, and sensitive to yellow light (reflected from tender young leaves) when it’s appropriate to land.” So, the statement is true
18. Dingle’s aim is to distinguish between the migratory behaviors of different species.
Keywords: Dingle, distinguish, migratory behaviours
In paragraph 5, the writer says that “His definition is more intricate than Berger’s, citing those five features that distinguish migration from other forms of movement.” Dingle does not aim to study the migration of different species, he aims to study what makes migration different from other forms of animal movement. So, the statement is false.
Questions 19-22: Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-G, below.
19. According to Dingle, migratory routes are likely to
Keywords: Dingle, migratory routes
In the first paragraph, the writer says that “The biologist Hugh Dingle has identified five characteristics that apply, in varying degrees and combinations, to all migrations. They are prolonged movements that carry animals outside familiar habitats; they tend to be linear, not zigzaggy.” This means that according to Dingle, migratory routes are likely to follow a straight line.
20. To prepare for migration, animals are likely to
In the first paragraph, the writer states that “they (migrations) involve special behaviour concerning preparation (such as overfeeding) and arrival.” This means that to prepare for migration, animals eat more than they need for immediate purposes.
eat more than they need=overfeed
21. During migration, animals are unlikely to
Keywords: during migration, unlikely
At the end of the first paragraph, the writer explains that “And one more: migrating animals maintain an intense attractiveness to the greater mission, which keeps them undistracted by temptations and undeterred by challenges that would turn animals aside.” This means that during migration, animals are unlikely to be discouraged by difficulties.
22. Arctic terns illustrate migrating animals‟ ability to
Keywords: Arctic terns, ability
In paragraph 2, the writer says that “An arctic tern, on its 20,000 km flight from the extreme south of South America to the Arctic circle will take no notice of a nice smelly herring offered from a bird- watcher’s boat along the way. While local gulls will dive voraciously for such handouts, the tern flies on.
The arctic tern resists distraction because it is driven at the moment by an instinctive sense of something we humans find admirable: larger purpose.” This means that arctic terns illustrate migrating animals‟ ability to ignore distractions.
Questions 23-26: Complete the summary below.
23. Pronghorns rely on their eyesight and…..to avoid predators.
Keywords: pronghorns, eyesight, avoid predators
In paragraph 6, the writer says that “Pronghorn, dependent on distance vision and speed to keep safe from predators.”
rely on=be dependent on
avoid=keep safe from
24. One particular population’s summer habitat is a national park, and their winter home is on the….., where they go to avoid the danger presented by the snow at that time of year.
Keywords: winter home, danger, snow
In paragraph 6, the writer indicates that “If they (pronghorns) can‟t pass through again in autumn, escaping south onto those windblown plains, they are likely to die trying to overwinter in the deep snow.”
danger~likely to die
25. However, their route between these two areas contains three 25…..
Keywords: route, contains three
In paragraph 6, the writer explains that “These pronghorns are notable for the invariance of their migration route and the severity of its constriction at three bottlenecks.”
26. One problem is the construction of new homes in a narrow 26…..of land on the pronghorns’ route.
Keywords: construction, homes, narrow
At the end of paragraph 6, the writer indicates that “At one of the bottlenecks, forested hills rise to form a V, leaving a corridor of open ground only about 150 metres wide, filled with private homes.”
narrow~only about 150 metres wide
31. mention of different focuses of books about mathematics
Keywords: different focuses, books
In paragraph B, the writer states that "Some [books] present the lives of colourful mathematicians. Others describe important applications of mathematics. Yet others go into mathematical procedures, but assume that the reader is adept in using algebra."
32. a contrast between reading this book and reading other kinds of publication.
In paragraph E, the writer says that "This book presents details that illustrate the mathematical style of thinking, which involves sustained, step-by-step analysis, experiments, and insights. You will turn these pages much more slowly than when reading a novel or a newspaper."
other kinds of publication ~ a novel, a newspaper
33. a claim that the whole of the book is accessible to everybody
Keywords: accessible to everybody
In paragraph A, the writer says that "There are some discoveries in advanced mathematics that do not depend on specialized knowledge, not even on algebra, geometry, or trigonometry. Instead, they may involve, at most, a little arithmetic, such as 'them sum of two odd numbers is even', common sense. Each of the eight chapters in this book illustrates this phenomenon. Anyone can understand every step in the reasoning."
the whole of the book~each of the eight chapters
34. a reference to different categories of intended readers of this book.
Keywords: intended readers
In paragraph F, the writer explains that "As I wrote, I kept in mind two types of readers: those who enjoyed mathematics until they were turned off by an unpleasant episode, usually around fifth grade, and mathematics aficionados, who will find much that is new throughout the book. This book also serves readers who simply want to sharpen their analytical skills."
Questions 35-40: Complete the sentences below.
35. Some areas of both music and mathematics are suitable for someone who is a.....
Keywords: areas, music and mathematics, suitable
In the first paragraph, the writer argues that "Occasionally, in some difficult musical compositions, there are beautiful, but easy parts - parts so simple a beginner could play them. So it is with mathematics as well."
36. It is sometimes possible to understand advanced mathematics using no more than a limited knowledge of.....
Keywords: understand, advanced mathematics, limited knowledge
In paragraph A, the writer claims that "There are some discoveries in advanced mathematics that do not depend on specialized knowledge, not even on algebra, geometry, or trigonometry. Instead, they may involve, at most, a little arithmetic, such as „the sum of two odd numbers is even‟, and common sense."
no more than a limited knowledge of arithmetic~a little arithmetic
37. The writer intends to show that mathematics requires.....thinking, as well as analytical skills.
Keywords: mathematics requires, analytical
In paragraph C, the writer says that "As the chapters will illustrate, mathematics is not restricted to the analytical and numerical; intuition plays a significant role." So, besides analytical skills, mathematics requires intuition, or intuitive thinking.
38. Some books written by.....have had to leave out the mathematics that is central to their theories.
Keywords: written by, leave out, theories
In paragraph D, the writer says that "Other scientists have written books to explain their fields to non-scientists, but have necessarily had to omit the mathematics, although it provides the foundation of their theories.
is central to= provides the foundation of
39. The writer advises non-mathematical readers to perform.....while reading the book
Keywords: non-mathematical readers, perform
In paragraph E, the writer argues that "Still, non-mathematical readers can go far in understanding mathematical reasoning [...] It may help to have a pencil and a paper ready to check claims and carry out experiments."
40. A lawyer found that studying.....helped even more than other areas of mathematics in the study of law.
Keywords: lawyer, studying, helped, law
In paragraph G, a lawyer indicates that "Although I had no background in law - not even one political science course - I did well at one of the best law schools. I attribute much of my success there to having learned, through the study of mathematics, and, in particular, theorems, how to analyze complicated principles."
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