Cambridge IELTS 11 – Test 1 – Passage 1

Key words in questionsSimilar words in the textMeaning
Alreadynot new, in vogue for
some time
a method which is used now by some people.
grown indoorshot house productiongrown inside, in controlled conditions of heat and light.
Locatedsituatedbuilt in a particular place
Distancetransportationtransportation of food means that it
is carried for some distance.
ProduceReturnas part of the process, energy is
produced from composting plants,
and this energy is returned to the
national system (the grid).
consumptionUsethe amount of energy that we use.
Cutreducewe would use less energy than before by introducing vertical farming.
vehiclestractorstractors are the type of farm vehicles which are most commonly
used, often with a piece of machinery called a plough to
prepare the land for planting crops.
Needrequireartificial light is necessary.
disadvantagedrawbackthe worst thing about vertical farming is that artifical light must be used to grow plants.
One formOne variationone different method which is used to grow plants.
plantGrowwhen we plant something, we put it into the soil in order to grow.
not fixedmove on railsif something is not fixed, it can be
moved to a new position.
most probablefar more likelymore food will probably be grown
in towns and cities.
towns and citiesUrbanthe adjective for anything which
relates to towns and cities is ‘urban’.
destructiondespoilbecause of the way that we have
treated some land, it can no longer
be used to grow crops.

Cambridge IELTS 11 – Test 1 – Passage 2

Words in the questionsWords in the textMeaning
put togetherassembledin a factory, when different pieces are used to make a
complete thing, like a car, for
example, they are
componentspartsvarious parts of which
something is made
manufacturedconstructedmade, usually by machinery
ancienthistorically importantvery old
a pair oftwotwo, usually of similar
things, like shoes/hands.
liftedraisedmoved to a higher level
shut out waterseal off from waterthe gates are closed to prevent water entering the
canal basin
taken outremovedthe wheel turns when the clamp is removed
rotateturnwhen something rotates, it turns but remains in the same place
move on topass on tothe boat moves to the
aqueduct from the wheel
directlystraightit moves to the aqueduct without any other step in the
beneathunderin a lower position than something /somebody, in this case – the wall

Cambridge IELTS 11 – Test 1 – Passage 3

Keywords in the QuestionsWords in the textMeaning
based onmodelled onto have a basis –in this case, past volcanic explosions now provide a basis or model on which to test the
effects of releasing aerosol sprays into the stratosphere.
earlierhistoricin the past
be successfulworkgeo-engineering has been shown
to be effective and function or operate well = to work.
commongenerallybecause most scientists often use
this definition, the definition is said to be common, or generally used.
refer todefine (definition)to state or set forth the meaning of
(a word, phrase, etc.), in this case
the meaning of the term ‘geo-engineering
tinyminutevery small
createformTo cause to exist; bring into being:
sulphur dioxide from aerosols
would result in the development =
creation/formation of clouds.
placedepositto put or set in a particular place, p
osition, situation, – putting iron
into the sea/ocean.
seaoceanthe vast body of salt water that cov
ers almost three fourths of the
earth's surface
encouragestimulateto promote the development of
something, in this case the growth
of algae in the ocean.
strongreinforcedthe cables attached to the icesheets would be made extra strong so that they would not break =
loseshedthe leaves fall from the trees [= the
trees shed their leaves] in the
allowenablein the passage, these words = make possible: after the trees
lose/shed their leaves, the radiation of heat from the snow is possible.
change the direction ofre-routein the passage, the direction of
some Russian rivers would be
changed = they would be rerouted.
bring moreincreasethe action of re-routing Russian
rivers would result in a greater flow of cold water into areas where ice is formed.

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