Cambridge IELTS 11 – Test 1 – Passage 1
|Key words in questions||Similar words in the text||Meaning|
|Already||not new, in vogue for|
|a method which is used now by some people.|
|grown indoors||hot house production||grown inside, in controlled conditions of heat and light.|
|Located||situated||built in a particular place|
|Distance||transportation||transportation of food means that it|
is carried for some distance.
|Produce||Return||as part of the process, energy is|
produced from composting plants,
and this energy is returned to the
national system (the grid).
|consumption||Use||the amount of energy that we use.|
|Cut||reduce||we would use less energy than before by introducing vertical farming.|
|vehicles||tractors||tractors are the type of farm vehicles which are most commonly|
used, often with a piece of machinery called a plough to
prepare the land for planting crops.
|Need||require||artificial light is necessary.|
|disadvantage||drawback||the worst thing about vertical farming is that artifical light must be used to grow plants.|
|One form||One variation||one different method which is used to grow plants.|
|plant||Grow||when we plant something, we put it into the soil in order to grow.|
|not fixed||move on rails||if something is not fixed, it can be|
moved to a new position.
|most probable||far more likely||more food will probably be grown|
in towns and cities.
|towns and cities||Urban||the adjective for anything which|
relates to towns and cities is ‘urban’.
|destruction||despoil||because of the way that we have|
treated some land, it can no longer
be used to grow crops.
Cambridge IELTS 11 – Test 1 – Passage 2
|Words in the questions||Words in the text||Meaning|
|put together||assembled||in a factory, when different pieces are used to make a|
complete thing, like a car, for
example, they are
|components||parts||various parts of which|
something is made
|manufactured||constructed||made, usually by machinery|
|ancient||historically important||very old|
|a pair of||two||two, usually of similar|
things, like shoes/hands.
|lifted||raised||moved to a higher level|
|shut out water||seal off from water||the gates are closed to prevent water entering the|
|taken out||removed||the wheel turns when the clamp is removed|
|rotate||turn||when something rotates, it turns but remains in the same place|
|move on to||pass on to||the boat moves to the|
aqueduct from the wheel
|directly||straight||it moves to the aqueduct without any other step in the|
|beneath||under||in a lower position than something /somebody, in this case – the wall|
Cambridge IELTS 11 – Test 1 – Passage 3
|Keywords in the Questions||Words in the text||Meaning|
|based on||modelled on||to have a basis –in this case, past volcanic explosions now provide a basis or model on which to test the|
effects of releasing aerosol sprays into the stratosphere.
|earlier||historic||in the past|
|be successful||work||geo-engineering has been shown|
to be effective and function or operate well = to work.
|common||generally||because most scientists often use|
this definition, the definition is said to be common, or generally used.
|refer to||define (definition)||to state or set forth the meaning of|
(a word, phrase, etc.), in this case
the meaning of the term ‘geo-engineering
|create||form||To cause to exist; bring into being:|
sulphur dioxide from aerosols
would result in the development =
creation/formation of clouds.
|place||deposit||to put or set in a particular place, p|
osition, situation, – putting iron
into the sea/ocean.
|sea||ocean||the vast body of salt water that cov|
ers almost three fourths of the
|encourage||stimulate||to promote the development of|
something, in this case the growth
of algae in the ocean.
|strong||reinforced||the cables attached to the icesheets would be made extra strong so that they would not break =|
|lose||shed||the leaves fall from the trees [= the|
trees shed their leaves] in the
|allow||enable||in the passage, these words = make possible: after the trees|
lose/shed their leaves, the radiation of heat from the snow is possible.
|change the direction of||re-route||in the passage, the direction of|
some Russian rivers would be
changed = they would be rerouted.
|bring more||increase||the action of re-routing Russian|
rivers would result in a greater flow of cold water into areas where ice is formed.