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Attitudes to language
Questions 1-8: Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer In Reading Passage 1 ?
1. There are understandable reasons why arguments occur about language.
Keywords: understandable reasons, arguments, language
In the first paragraph, the writer argues that “It is not easy to be systematic and objective about language study. Popular linguistic debate regularly deteriorates into invective and polemic. Language belongs to everyone, so most people feel they have a right to hold an opinion about it. And when opinions differ, emotions can run high.” The writer lists some understandable reasons for why arguments occur about language.
– understandable ~ not easy to be systematic and objective about language.
2. People feel more strongly about language education than about small difference in language usage.
Keywords: more strongly, language education, small difference
At the end of paragraph 1, the writer indicates that “Arguments can start as easily over minor points of usage as over major policies of linguistic education.” This means that people feel strongly in both minor points of usage and major policies of linguistic education.
– language (n)=linguistic (a)
3. Our assessment of a person’s intelligence is affected by the way he or she uses language.
Keywords: assessment, affected, uses language
In paragraph 2, the writer says that “linguistic factors influence how we judge personality, intelligence, social status, educational standards, job aptitude, and many other areas of identity and social survival.” Therefore, how a person uses language is one of the ways which affects the way we judge that person in terms of intelligence and other factors.
– our assessment of a person‟s intelligence= how we judge intelligence
4. Prescriptive grammar books cost a lot of money to buy in the 18th century.
Keywords: grammar books, cost a lot, 18th century
The 18th century is mentioned in paragraphs 4 and 5. However, in this passage, the writer does not mention whether prescriptive grammar books cost a lot of money to buy in the 18th century. So, the
statement is NOT GIVEN.
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
5. Prescriptivism still exists today.
In paragraph 4, the writer says that “All the main languages have been studied prescriptively, especially in the 18 century approach to the writing of grammars and dictionaries…Some usages are “prescribed”, to be learnt and followed accurately; others are „proscribed‟, to be avoided. In this early period, there were no half-measures: usage was either right or wrong, and it was the task of the grammarian not simply to record alternatives, but to pronounce judgment upon them.
Then, in paragraph 5, the writer says that “These attitudes are still with us…” This means that prescriptivism still exists today
– still exists=are still with us
6. According to descriptivists, it is pointless to try to stop language change.
Keywords: stop language change
In paragraph 5, the writer indicates that “This approach is summarised in the statement that it is the task of the grammarian to describe, not prescribe – to record the facts of linguistic diversity, and not to attempt the impossible tasks of evaluating language variation or halting language change.”
– it is pointless to try = attempt the impossible tasks
7. Descriptivism only appeared after the 18th century.
In paragraph 5, the writer says that “This approach is summarised in the statement that it is the task of the grammarian to describe, not prescribe – to record the facts of linguistic diversity, and not to attempt the impossible tasks of evaluating language variation or halting language change. In the second half of the 18th century, we already find advocates of this view, such as Joseph Priestley, whose Rudiments of English Grammar (1761) insists that „the custom of speaking is the original and only just standard of any language”
8. Both descriptivists and prescriptivists have been misrepresented.
In the last paragraph, the writer argues that “In our own time, the opposition between descriptivists and prescriptivists has often become extreme, with both sides painting unreal pictures of the other.”
– misrepresented= painting unreal pictures of the other
Questions 9-12: Complete the summary using the list of words, A-I, below.
9-12. The language debate
According to 9….., there is only one correct form of language. Linguists who take this approach to language place great importance on grammatical 10…..Conversely, the view of 11…., such as Joseph Priestly, is that grammar should be based on 12…..
9. According to….., there is only one correct form of language.
Keywords: one correct form of language
In paragraph 3, “prescriptivism is the view that one variety of language has an inherently higher value than others, and that this ought to be imposed on the whole of the speech community.”
=>ANSWER: H (prescriptivists)
10. Linguists who take this approach to language place great importance on grammatical…..
Keywords: great importance in grammatical
In paragraph 4, the writer says that “All the main languages have been studied prescriptively, especially in the 18th century approach to the writings of grammars and dictionaries….The authoritarian nature of the approach is best characterised by its reliance on „rules‟ of grammar.”
=>ANSWER: F (rules)
11-12. Conversely, the view of 11…., such as Joseph Priestley, is that grammar should be based on 12…..
Keywords: view of, grammar, based on
In paragraph 5, the writer says that “Nevertheless, there is an alternative point of view that is concernedless with standards than the facts of linguistic usage. This approach is summarised in the statement that it is the task of the grammarian to describe, not prescribe – to record the facts of linguistic diversity, and not to attempt the impossible tasks of evaluating language variation or halting language change. In the second half of the 18th century, we already find advocates of this view, such as Joseph Priestley, whose Rudiments of English Grammar (1761) insists that „the custom of speaking is the original and only just standard of any language.”
– popular speech= the custom of speaking
=>ANSWER: 11. A (descriptivists)
12. C (popular speech)
Questions 13: Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
13. What is the writer’s purpose in Reading passage 1?
A. to argue in favour of a particular approach to writing dictionaries and grammar books
B. to present a historical account of differing views of language.
C. to describe the differences between spoken and written language.
D. to show how a certain view of language has been discredited
In this passage, the writer provides some views of language. The very first one is prescriptivism which is the view that one variety of language has an inherently higher value than others, and that this ought to be imposed on the whole of the speech community. Next is descriptivism which is summarised in the statement that it is the task of the grammarian to describe, not prescribe – to record the facts of linguistic diversity, and not to attempt the impossible tasks of evaluating language variation or halting language change. So, the writer‟s purpose in this passage is to present a historical account of differing views of language.
Questions 14-17: Reading Passage 2 has six paragraphs, A-F. Which paragraph contains the following information?
14. the location of the first test site
Keywords: first test site
In paragraph C, the writer says that “The first station is expected to be installed off Lynmouth in Devon shortly to test the technology in a venture jointly funded by the department of Trade and Industry and the European Union.”
15. the way of bringing the power produced on one site back into Britain.
Keywords: bringing power, back, Britain
In paragraph E, the writer argues that “Dr Bahaj has done most work on the Alderney site, where there are powerful currents. The single undersea turbine farm would produce far more power than needed for the Channel Islands and most would be fed into the French Grid and be re-imported into Britain via the cable under the Channel.”
– bring back=re-import
16. a reference to a previous attempt by Britain to find an alternative source of energy
Keywords: attempt, Britain, an alternative source of energy
In paragraph A, the writer indicates that “Unlike wind power, which Britain originally developed and then abandoned for 20 years allowing the Dutch to make it a major industry, undersea turbines could become a big export earner to island nations such as Japan and New Zealand”. So, the British made an earlier attempt to use wind power as an alternative source of energy, and then abandoned this attempt for 20 years.
17. mention of the possibility of applying technology from another industry.
Keywords: applying technology, another industry.
In paragraph C, the writer argues that “The technology for dealing with the hostile saline environment under the sea has been developed in the North Sea oil industry….”
18-22. Which FIVE of the following claims about tidal power are made by the writer?
In paragraph A, the writer says that “…unlike wind, the tides are predictable and the power input is constant.[Option A] This technology raises the prospect of Britain becoming self-sufficient in renewable energy and drastically reducing its carbon dioxide emissions[Option D]. If tides, wind and wave power are all developed, Britain would be able to close gas, coal and nuclear power plants [Option E] and export renewable power to other parts of Europe.”[Option F] This means that tidal power is a more reliable source of energy than wind power (Option A) and it would cut down on air pollution [Option D]. Besides, tidal power could contribute to the closure of many existing power stations in Britain[Option E] and could be a means of increasing national income because “undersea turbines could become a big export earner” (Option F).
– cut down on=reduce
– a means of increasing national income=export earner
Options B, C, G, H, I are either not mentioned or false.
At the end of paragraph C, the writer indicates that “The best sites are between islands or around heavily indented coasts where there are strong tidal currents.” This means that tidal power is best produced in the vicinity of coastlines with particular features – they are heavily indented and have strong tidal currents (Option J)
Questions 23-26: Label the diagram below.
23. Whole tower can be raised for…..and the extraction of seaweed from the blades.
Keywords: tower, raised, seaweed
At the end of paragraph D, the writer argues that “The towers will stick out of the water and be lit, to warn shipping, and also be designed to be lifted out of the water for maintenance and to clean seaweed from the blades.”
– be raised=be lifted
– the extraction of seaweed ~ to clean seaweed from the blades
24. Sea life not in danger due to the fact that blades are comparatively…
Keywords: sea life, not danger, blades, comparatively
In paragraph D, the writer indicates that “Fish and other creatures are thought unlikely to be at risk from the relatively slow-turning blades.”
– sea life ~ fish and other creatures
25-26. Air bubbles result from the 25…behind blades. This is known as 26…
Keywords: air bubbles, known as
In the last paragraph, the writer says that “One technical difficulty is cavitation, where low pressure behind a turning blade causes air bubbles.”
=>ANSWER: 25. low pressure
Information Theory- the Big Data
27-32. Which paragraph contains the following information?
27. an explanation of the factors affecting the transmission of information.
Keywords: factors, transmission of information
In paragraph D, the writer indicates that “Noise usually means unwanted sounds which interfere with genuine information. Information theory generalises this idea via theorems that capture the effects of noise with mathematical precision. In particular, Shannon showed that noise sets a limit on the rate at which information can pass along communication channels while remaining error-free…”
– transmission=pass along communication channels
28. an example of how unnecessary information can be omitted.
Keywords: unnecessary information, omitted
In paragraph F, the writer says that “Shannon also laid the foundations of more efficient ways of storing information, by stripping out superfluous (redundant) bits from data which contributed little real information. As mobile phone text messages like „I CN C U‟ show, it is often possible to leave out a lot of data without losing much meaning.”
– omit=strip out=leave out
29. a reference to Shannon‟s attitude to fame
Keywords: attitude to fame
In paragraph B, the writer argues that “While at Bell Laboratories, Shannon developed information theory, but shunned the resulting acclaim.”
30. details of a machine capable of interpreting incomplete information.
Keywords: machine, interpreting
In paragraph E, the writer says that “Other codes have become part of everyday life – such as the Universal Product Code, or bar code, which uses a simple error-detecting system that ensures supermarket check-out lasers can read the price even on, say, a crumpled bag of crisps.”
31. a detailed account of an incident involving information theory.
Keywords: incident, information theory
In the first paragraph, “In April 2002 an event took place which demonstrated one of the many applications of information theory. The space probe, Voyager I, launched in 1977, had sent back spectacular images of Jupiter and Saturn and then soared out of the Solar system on a one-way
mission to the stars.”
32. a reference to what Shannon initially intended to achieve in his research.
Keywords: initially intended to achieve
In paragraph C, the writer indicates that “He set out with an apparently simple aim: to pin down the precise meaning of the concept of ‘information’
– initially intended to = set out with
33-37. The Voyager I Space Probe
33-34. The probe transmitted pictures of both 33…..and….., then left the 34…..
Keywords: pictures, left
In paragraph A, the writer says that “The space probe, Voyager I, launched in 1977, had sent back spectacular images of Jupiter and Saturn and then soared out of the Solar System on a one-way mission to the stars.”
– transmitted=sent back
– left=soared out of
=>ANSWER: 33. Jupiter-Saturn 34. Solar System
35. Scientists feared that both the 35…..and…..were about to stop working.
Keywords: stop working
In paragraph A, the writer argues that “Sensors and circuits were on the brink of failing and NASA experts realised that they had to do something or lose contact with their probe forever.”
– were about to=were on the brink of
– stop working=failing
=>ANSWER: sensors – circuits
36. The only hope was to tell the probe to replace them with 36…..-but distance made communication with the probe difficult.
Keywords: the probe, replace
Also, in the first paragraph, the writer says that “The solution was to get a message to Voyager I to instruct it to use spares to change the failing parts.”
– replace=change the failing parts
37. A…..was used to transmit the message at the speed of light.
Keywords: transmit, speed of light
At the end of paragraph A, the writer argues that “By means of a radio dish belonging to NASA’s Deep Space Network, the message was sent out into the depths of space. Even traveling at the speed of light, it took over 11 hours to reach its target, far beyond the speed of Pluto.”
– transmit=sent out
=>ANSWER: radio dish
Questions 38-40: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3
38. The concept of describing something as true or false was the starting point for Shannon in his attempt to send messages over distance.
Keywords: describing, starting point, true or false
In paragraph C, the writer says that “He set out with an apparently simple aim: to pin down the precise meaning of the concept of „information‟. The most basic form of information, Shannon argued, is whether something is true or false – which can be captured in the binary unit, or „bit‟, of the form 1 or 0.”
– starting point=he set out with
39. The amount of information that can be sent in a given time period is determined with reference to the signal strength and noise level.
Keywords: the amount of information, sent, the signal strength and noise level
In paragraph D, “Shannon showed that noise sets a limit on the rate at which information can pass along communication channels while remaining error-free. This rate depends on the relative strengths of the signal and noise traveling down the communication channel, on its capacity (its “bandwidth”).” This is true, because the rate tells us how much information passes in a period of time.
40. Products have now been developed which can convey more information than Shannon had anticipated as possible.
Keywords: convey more information, Shannon anticipated.
At the end of paragraph E, the writer says that “As recently as 1993, engineers made a major breakthrough by discovering so-called turbo codes – which come very close to Shannon‟s ultimate limit for the maximum rate that data can be transmitted reliably, and now play a key role in the mobile video phone revolution.” So, the products are „turbo codes‟. These do NOT exceed the limit that Shannon suggested for the rate of reliable transmission of data, although they almost reach this limit.
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