1-6. Which section contains the following information?

  1. An account of a national policy initiative.

Keywords: national policy initiative

In  paragraph  H,  the  writer  states  that  “Objective  3  of  the  New  Zealand  Disability Strategy  is  to” Provide the Best Education for Disabled People‟ by improving education so that all children, youth learners and adult  learners will  have  equal  opportunities  to  learn  and  develop  within their already existing school.” So, this is a national policy initiative for New Zealand.

–     policy initiative=strategy




  1. A description of a global team effort

Keywords: global team effort

In paragraph C, the writer says that “The  International  Institute of Noise  Control Engineering (I- INCE),  on  the  advice  of  the  World  Health Organization,  has  established  an  international  working party,  which  includes  New  Zealand,  to  evaluate  noise  and  reverberation  control  for  school rooms.”

–     a global team= an international working party



  1. A hypothesis as to one reason behind the growth in classroom noise.

Keywords: reason, the growth, classroom noise

In  paragraph  B,  the  writer  indicates  that  “Education  researchers  Nelson  and  Soli  have  also suggested that recent trends in learning often involve collaborative interaction of multiple minds and tools  as  much  as  individual  possession  of  information.  This  all  amounts  to  heightened  activity  and

noise  levels,  which  have  the  potential  to  be  particularly  serious  for  children  experiencing  auditory function deficit.”

–     growth in classroom noise=heightened noise levels



  1. a demand for suitable world-wide regulations.

Keywords: worldwide regulations

In paragraph  I, the writer argues that “It  is  imperative  that the needs of  these children are taken into account in the setting of appropriate international standards to be promulgated in future.”

–     suitable = appropriate

–     worldwide = international

–     regulations=standards



  1. a list of medical conditions which place some children more at risk from noise than others.

Keywords: medical conditions, more at risk

In paragraph D, the writer says that “While the detrimental effects of noise in classroom situations are not limited to children experiencing disability, those with a disability that affects their processing of speech and verbal communication could be extremely vulnerable. The auditory function deficits in question include hearing impairment, autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), and attention deficit

disorders (ADD/ADHD).

–     at risk=vulnerable



  1. the estimated proportion of children in New Zealand with auditory problems.

Keywords: proportion, auditory problems

In paragraph A, the writer indicates that “The New Zealand Ministry of Health has found from research carried out over two decades that 6-10% of children in that country are affected by hearing loss.”

–     Tỷ lệ =% [percentage]

–     Auditory problems = hearing loss



  1. For what period of time has hearing loss in schoolchildren been studied in New Zealand?

Keywords: period of time

In paragraph A, “The New Zealand Ministry of Health has found from research  carried out over two decades that 6-10% of children in that country are affected by hearing loss.”

=>ANSWER: two decades


  1. In addition to machinery noise, what other type of noise can upset children with autism?

Keywords: machinery, type of noise, autism

In paragraph E, the writer argues that “Autistic spectrum disorders often result in major difficulties in comprehending verbal information and speech processing. Those experiencing these disorders often find sounds such as crowd noise and the noise generated bymachinerypainful and distressing.”

–     upset=find painful, distressing

=>ANSWER: crowd noise


  1. What  term  is  used  to  describe  the  hearing  problems  of  schoolchildren  which  have  not  been diagnosed?

Keywords: term, hearing problems, not been diagnosed

At the end of paragraph G, “It is probable that many undiagnosed children exist in the education

system with „invisible‟ disabilities.”

–     have not been diagnosed = undiagnosed

=>ANSWER: invisible


  1. What part of the New Zealand Disability Strategy aims to give schoolchildren equal opportunities?

Keywords: New Zealand Disability Strategy, part, equal opportunities

In paragraph H, the writer says that “Objective  3 of the New  Zealand  Disability Strategy  is to” Provide the Best  Education for  Disabled People‟  by improving education  so that all  children,  youth learners and adult  learners will  have  equal  opportunities  to  learn  and  develop  within their already existing school.”

=>ANSWER: Objective 3


11-12. Which TWO are mentioned by the writer of the passage?

  1. current teaching methods
  2. echoing corridors
  3. cooling system
  4. large class sizes

E loud-voiced teachers

  1. playground games

In paragraph B, the  writer argues that “Modern  teaching practices, the organisation of desks  in the   classroom,   poor   classroom   acoustics,   and   mechanical   means   of   ventilation   such   as   air- conditioning units all contribute to the number of children unable to comprehend the teacher‟s voice.”

–     current teaching methods = modern teaching practices

–     cooling system = mechanical means of ventilation (such as air-conditioning)

Obviously, options B, D, E, and F are not given in the text.



  1. What is the writer‟s overall purpose in writing this article?
  2. to compare different methods of dealing with auditory problems
  3. to provide solutions for overly noisy learning environments
  4. to increase awareness of the situation of children with auditory problems
  5. to promote New Zealand as a model for other countries to follow

At the beginning of the text, the writer argues that “Hearing impairment or other auditory function deficit   in   young   children   can   have   a   major   impact   on   their   development   of   speech   and communication, resulting in a detrimental effect on their ability to learn at school. This is likely to have  major  consequences  for  the  individual  and  the  population  as  a  whole.”    Then  the  writer details  the situation of auditory function deficit  in  young children in  New Zealand by discussing the reasons,  consequences  and solutions  to  this  problem.  Therefore,  overall,  the  writer’s  purpose  is  to “increase  awareness  of  the  situation  of  children  with  auditory  problems”.

Options  A,  B,  D  do  not represent the GENERAL purpose of the writer.






14-17 Which paragraph contains the following information?

  1. Examples of different ways in which the parallax principle has been applied

Keywords: examples, parallax principle

In paragraph F, the writer indicates that “Johann Franz Encke, Director of the Berlin Observatory, finally determined a value for the AU based on all these parallax measurements: 153,340,000 km….The AU is a cosmic  measuring  rod,  and  the  basis  of  how  we  scale  the  Universe  today.  The  parallax  principle  can  be extended to measure the distances to the stars.” So, the parallax principle has been applied to determine a value for the AU and to measure the distances to the stars.



  1. a description of an event which prevented a transit observation.

Keywords: event, prevented transit observation

In  paragraph  D,  the  writer  says  that  “He  was  thwarted  by  the  fact  that  the  British  were  besieging  his observation site at Pondicherry in India. Fleeing on a French warship crossing the Indian Ocean, Le Gentil saw  a  wonderful  transit  –  but  the  ship‟s  pitching  and  rollingruled  out  any attempt  at  making  accurate observations.”

–     prevented=ruled out any attempt at



  1. a statement about potential future discoveries leading on from transit observations.

Keywords: future discoveries, transit observations.

In paragraph G, the writer indicates that “such transits have paved the way for what might prove to be one of the most vital breakthroughs in the cosmos – detecting Earth-sized planets orbiting other stars.”

–     discoveries=breakthroughs

–     leading on from=paved the way for



  1. a  description  of  physical  states  connected  with  Venus  which  early  astronomical  instruments  failed  to overcome.

Keywords: instruments, physical states, Venus, failed

In  paragraph  E,  the  writer  argues  that  “While the  early  transit  timings  were  as  precise  as  instruments would  allow,  the  measurements  were  dogged  by  the  „black  drop‟  effect.  When  Venus  begins  to  cross  the Sun‟s disc, it looks smeared not circular – which makes it difficult to establish timings. The second problem is that Venus exhibits a halo of light when it is seen just outside the Sun‟s disc. While this showed astronomers that  Venus  was  surrounded  by  a  thick  layer  of  gases  refracting  sunlight  around  it,  both  effects  made it impossible to obtain accurate timings.”

–     physical states= the „black drop‟ effect, a halo of light

–     failed to overcome=made it impossible



18-21 Match each statement with the correct person.

  1. He calculated the distance of the Sun from the Earth based on observations of Venus with a fair degree of accuracy.

Keywords: distance, observations of Venus, accuracy

In paragraph F, the writer indicates that “Johann Franz Encke, Director of the Berlin Observatory, finally determined  a  value  for  the  AUbased  on  all  these  parallax  measurements:  153,340,000  km.  Reasonably accurate for the time, that is quite close to today‟s value of 149,597,870 km.”

–     the distance of the Sun from the Earth=the AU


–     with a fair degree of accuracy=reasonably accurate



  1. He understood that the distance of the Sun from the Earth could be worked out by comparing observations of a transit.

Keywords: distance, worked out bycomparing observations

In paragraph B, “He (Edmond Halley) realised that from different latitudes, the passage of the planet across the Sun‟s disc would appear to differ. By timing the transit from two widely-separated locations, teams of astronomers could calculate the parallax angle – the apparent difference in position of an astronomical body due  to  a  difference  in  the  observer‟s  position.  Calculating  this  angle  would  allow  astronomers  to  measure what was then the ultimate goal: the distance of the Earth from the Sun.”

–     work out=calculate, measure



  1. He realised that the time taken by a planet to go around the Sun depends on its distance from the Sun.

Keywords: time, around the Sun, distance from the Sun

In  paragraph  C,  the  writer  argues  that  “Johannes  Kepler,  in  the  early  17th    century,  had  shown  that  the distances of the planets from the Sungoverned their orbital speeds, which were easily measurable.”

–     go around = orbit (orbital)



  1. He witnessed a Venus transit but was unable to make any calculations.

Keywords: Venus transit, unable, calculations

In paragraph D, “Fleeing on a French warship crossing the Indian Ocean, Le Gentil saw a wonderful transit – but the ship‟s pitching and rolling ruled out any attempt at making accurate observations”.

–     unable=ruled out


–     make any calculations=making accurate observations



  1. Halley observed one transit of the planet Venus.

Keywords: Halley, transit, Venus

In paragraph B, the writer indicates that “In November 1677, Halley observed a transit of the innermost planet,  Mercury,  from  the  desolate  island  of  St  Helena  in  the  South  Pacific…..Nevertheless,  he  accurately predicted that Venus would cross the face of the Sun in both 1761 and 1769 – though he didn‟t survive to see either”.



  1. Le Gentil managed to observe a second Venus transit.

Keywords: managed, second Venus transit.

In paragraph D, the writer states that “Undaunted, he remained south of the equator ….before setting off to observe  the  next  transit  in  the  Philippines.  Ironically,  after  traveling  nearly  50,000  kilometers,  his  view was clouded  out  at  the  last  moment,  a  very  dispiriting  experience.  ”  This  means  that  Le  Gentil  did  not succeed in observing a second Venus transit in the Philippines.



  1. The shape of Venus appears distorted when it starts to pass in front of the Sun.

Keywords: shape, distorted, pass in front of the sun

In paragraph E, the writer says that “While the early transit timings were as precise as instruments would allow, the measurements were dogged by the „black drop‟ effect. When Venus begins to cross the Sun‟s disc, it looks smeared not circular.”

–     pass in front of the Sun=cross the Sun‟s disc

–     distorted=smeared not circular



  1. Early astronomers suspected that the atmosphere on Venus was toxic.

Keywords: atmosphere on Venus, toxic

In this passage, Venus‟s atmosphere is not mentioned by the writer, so it is not known whether it is toxic or not. Therefore, the statement is NOT GIVEN.



  1. The parallax principle allows astronomers to work out how far away distant stars are from the Earth.

Keywords: parallax principle, how far, stars, Earth

In paragraph F, “The parallax principle can be extended to measure the distances to the stars. If we look at a star in January – when Earth is at one point in its orbit – it will seem to be in a different position from where it appears six month later. Knowing the width of Earth‟s orbit, the parallax shift lets astronomers calculate the distance.”





  1. Neuroeconomics is a field of study which seeks to

Keywords: Neuroeconomics, seeks to

In  the  first  paragraph,  the  writer  argues  that  “These  discoveries  have  led  to  the  field  known  as neuroeconomics  which  studies  the  brain‟s  secrets  to  success  in  an  economic  environment  that demands  innovation  and  being  able  to  do  things  differently  from  competitors.”  In  other  words, neuro economics is a field of study which seeks to understand how the brain is linked to achievement in competitive fields.

–     achievement=success



  1. According to the writer, iconoclasts are distinctive because

Keywords: iconoclasts, distinctive

In  paragraph  2,  the  writer  says  that  “This  definition  implies  that  iconoclasts  are  different  from other  people,  but  more  precisely,  it  is  their  brains  that  are  different  in  three  distinct  ways: perception, fear response, and social intelligence.” So, iconoclasts are distinctive because their brains

are different, in other words, their brains function differently.

–     distinctive=different



  1. According to the writer, the brain works efficiently because

Keywords: brain, efficiently

In   paragraph   3,   the   writer   indicates   that   “For   example,   when   confronted   with   information

streaming from the eyes, the brain will interpret this information in the quickest way possible. Thus it will  draw  on  both  past  experience  and  any  other  source  of  information”  So,  the  brain  works efficiently because it relies on previous events.

–     efficiently = in the quickest way

–     relies on = draw on

–     previous events=past experience



  1. The writer says that perception is

Keyword: perception

At  the  end  of  paragraph  3,  the  writer  says  that  “More  than  the  physical  reality  of  photons  and

sound waves, perception is a product of the brain.”



  1. According to the writer, an iconoclastic thinker

Keywords: iconoclastic thinker

In paragraph 4, the writer says that “Iconoclasts, either because they were born that way or through learning,  have  found  ways  to  work  around  the  perceptual  shortcuts  that  plague  most  people.”  In other words, an iconoclast thinker can avoid cognitive traps.

–     cognitive=perceptual



  1. Exposure to different events forces the brain to think differently.

Keywords: different events, think differently

In paragraph 5, the writer says that “The best way to  see things differently to other people is to bombard  the  brain  with  things  it  has  never  encountered  before.  Novelty  releases  the  perceptual process from the chains of past experience and forces the brain to make new judgments.”

–     different events = things it (the brain) has never encountered before = novelty

–     think differently=make new judgments



  1. Iconoclasts are unusually receptive to new experiences.

Keywords: receptive, new experiences

In paragraph 5, the writer says that “Successful iconoclasts have an extraordinary willingness to be  exposed  to  what  is  fresh  and  different.  Observation  of  iconoclasts  shows  that  they  embrace novelty while most people avoid things that are different.”

–     are unusually receptive to = have an extraordinary willingness to be exposed to

–     new experiences=what is fresh and different



  1. Most people are too shy to try different things.

Keywords: too shy, different things

In this passage, the writer does not mention whether most people are too shy to try different things. He just says that “most people avoid things that are different” So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.



  1. If you think in an iconoclastic way, you can easily overcome fear.

Keywords: think, iconoclastic, overcome fear.

In paragraph 6, the writer argues that “Fear is  a major impediment  to  thinking like an iconoclast and stops the average person in his tracks.” This means that fear prevents people from thinking in an

iconoclast way. So, the statement‟s meaning is opposite to that in the text.


  1. When concern about embarrassment matters less, other fears become irrelevant.

Keywords: embarrassment, less, fears, irrelevant

In paragraph 6, “fear of public ridicule” is mentioned.  It we interpret this as “embarrassment”, still we are not told if other fears then become irrelevant.  So, the statement is NOT GIVEN



  1. Fear of public speaking is a psychological illness.

Keywords: fear, public speaking, a psychological illness

In  paragraph  6,  the  writer  indicates  that  “But  fear  of  public  speaking, which  everyone  must  do from time to time, afflicts one-third of the population. This makes it too common to be considered a mental disorder. It is simply a common variant of human nature, one which iconoclasts do not let inhibit their reactions.” So, fear of public speaking is not a psychological illness, it is just a common variant of human nature.

–     a psychological illness= a mental disorder



  1. Thinking like a successful iconoclast is demanding because it

Keyword: successful, demanding

In paragraph 7, the writer argues that “to be successful iconoclasts, individuals must sell their ideas to  other  people.  This  is  where  social  intelligence  comes  in…Perception  is  important  in  social cognition  too…Understanding  how  perception  becomes  intertwined  with  social  decision  making shows why successful iconoclasts are so rare.” This means that thinking like a successful iconoclast is demanding because it requires both perceptual and social intelligence skills.



  1. The concept of the social brain is useful to iconoclasts because it

Keywords: social brain, useful,

In  paragraph  7,  the  writer  indicates  that  “In  the  last  decade  there  has  been  an  explosion  of knowledge  about  the  social  brain  and  how  the  brain  works  when  groups  coordinate  decision making.   Neuroscience   has   revealed   which   brain   circuits   are   responsible   for   functions   like

understanding what other people think, empathy, fairness, and social identity. These brain regions play key  roles  in  whether  people  convince  others  of  their  ideas.”  So,  the  concept  of  the  social  brain  is useful to iconoclasts because it focuses on how groups decide on an action.

–     groups = circuits

–     groups decide on an action=groups coordinate decision making



  1. Iconoclasts are generally an asset because their way of thinking

Keywords: an asset, way of thinking

In   the   last   paragraph,   “Iconoclasts   create   new   opportunities  in   every   area   from  artistic expression to technology to business. They supply creativity and innovation not easily accomplished by committees. Iconoclasts face alienation and failure, but can also be an asset to any organisation.” So, iconoclasts are generally an asset because their way of thinking works in many fields, both artistic and scientific.



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