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Children with auditory problems
1-6. Which section contains the following information?
1. An account of a national policy initiative.
Keywords: national policy initiative
In paragraph H, the writer states that “Objective 3 of the New Zealand Disability Strategy is to” Provide the Best Education for Disabled People‟ by improving education so that all children, youth learners and adult learners will have equal opportunities to learn and develop within their already existing school.” So, this is a national policy initiative for New Zealand.
– policy initiative=strategy
2. A description of a global team effort
Keywords: global team effort
In paragraph C, the writer says that “The International Institute of Noise Control Engineering (I- INCE), on the advice of the World Health Organization, has established an international working party, which includes New Zealand, to evaluate noise and reverberation control for school rooms.”
– a global team= an international working party
3. A hypothesis as to one reason behind the growth in classroom noise.
Keywords: reason, the growth, classroom noise
In paragraph B, the writer indicates that “Education researchers Nelson and Soli have also suggested that recent trends in learning often involve collaborative interaction of multiple minds and tools as much as individual possession of information. This all amounts to heightened activity and noise levels, which have the potential to be particularly serious for children experiencing auditory function deficit.”
– growth in classroom noise=heightened noise levels
4. a demand for suitable world-wide regulations.
Keywords: worldwide regulations
In paragraph I, the writer argues that “It is imperative that the needs of these children are taken into account in the setting of appropriate international standards to be promulgated in future.”
– suitable = appropriate
– worldwide = international
5. a list of medical conditions which place some children more at risk from noise than others.
Keywords: medical conditions, more at risk
In paragraph D, the writer says that “While the detrimental effects of noise in classroom situations are not limited to children experiencing disability, those with a disability that affects their processing of speech and verbal communication could be extremely vulnerable. The auditory function deficits in question include hearing impairment, autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), and attention deficit
– at risk=vulnerable
6. the estimated proportion of children in New Zealand with auditory problems.
Keywords: proportion, auditory problems
In paragraph A, the writer indicates that “The New Zealand Ministry of Health has found from research carried out over two decades that 6-10% of children in that country are affected by hearing loss.”
– Auditory problems = hearing loss
Questions 7-10: Answer the questions below.
7. For what period of time has hearing loss in school children been studied in New Zealand?
Keywords: period of time
In paragraph A, “The New Zealand Ministry of Health has found from research carried out over two decades that 6-10% of children in that country are affected by hearing loss.”
=>ANSWER: two decades
8. In addition to machinery noise, what other type of noise can upset children with autism?
Keywords: machinery, type of noise, autism
In paragraph E, the writer argues that “Autistic spectrum disorders often result in major difficulties in comprehending verbal information and speech processing. Those experiencing these disorders often find sounds such as crowd noise and the noise generated bymachinerypainful and distressing.”
– upset=find painful, distressing
=>ANSWER: crowd noise
9. What term is used to describe the hearing problems of schoolchildren which have not been diagnosed?
Keywords: term, hearing problems, not been diagnosed
At the end of paragraph G, “It is probable that many undiagnosed children exist in the education
system with „invisible‟ disabilities.”
– have not been diagnosed = undiagnosed
10. What part of the New Zealand Disability Strategy aims to give schoolchildren equal opportunities?
Keywords: New Zealand Disability Strategy, part, equal opportunities
In paragraph H, the writer says that “Objective 3 of the New Zealand Disability Strategy is to” Provide the Best Education for Disabled People‟ by improving education so that all children, youth learners and adult learners will have equal opportunities to learn and develop within their already existing school.”
=>ANSWER: Objective 3
Questions 11-12: Choose TWO letters, A-F.
11-12. Which TWO are mentioned by the writer of the passage?
A. current teaching methods
B. echoing corridors
C. cooling system
D. large class sizes
E loud-voiced teachers
F. playground games
In paragraph B, the writer argues that “Modern teaching practices, the organisation of desks in the classroom, poor classroom acoustics, and mechanical means of ventilation such as air- conditioning units all contribute to the number of children unable to comprehend the teacher’s voice.”
– current teaching methods = modern teaching practices
– cooling system = mechanical means of ventilation (such as air-conditioning)
Obviously, options B, D, E, and F are not given in the text.
Questions 13: Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
13.What is the writer’s overall purpose in writing this article?
A. to compare different methods of dealing with auditory problems
B. to provide solutions for overly noisy learning environments
C. to increase awareness of the situation of children with auditory problems
D. to promote New Zealand as a model for other countries to follow
At the beginning of the text, the writer argues that “Hearing impairment or other auditory function deficit in young children can have a major impact on their development of speech and communication, resulting in a detrimental effect on their ability to learn at school. This is likely to have major consequences for the individual and the population as a whole.” Then the writer details the situation of auditory function deficit in young children in New Zealand by discussing the reasons, consequences and solutions to this problem. Therefore, overall, the writer’s purpose is to “increase awareness of the situation of children with auditory problems”.
Options A, B, D do not represent the GENERAL purpose of the writer.
Venus in transit
14-17 Which paragraph contains the following information?
14. Examples of different ways in which the parallax principle has been applied
Keywords: examples, parallax principle
In paragraph F, the writer indicates that “Johann Franz Encke, Director of the Berlin Observatory, finally determined a value for the AU based on all these parallax measurements: 153,340,000 km….The AU is a cosmic measuring rod, and the basis of how we scale the Universe today. The parallax principle can be extended to measure the distances to the stars.” So, the parallax principle has been applied to determine a value for the AU and to measure the distances to the stars.
15. a description of an event which prevented a transit observation.
Keywords: event, prevented transit observation
In paragraph D, the writer says that “He was thwarted by the fact that the British were besieging his observation site at Pondicherry in India. Fleeing on a French warship crossing the Indian Ocean, Le Gentil saw a wonderful transit – but the ship‟s pitching and rolling ruled out any attempt at making accurate observations.”
– prevented=ruled out any attempt at
16. a statement about potential future discoveries leading on from transit observations.
Keywords: future discoveries, transit observations.
In paragraph G, the writer indicates that “such transits have paved the way for what might prove to be one of the most vital breakthroughs in the cosmos – detecting Earth-sized planets orbiting other stars.”
– leading on from=paved the way for
17. a description of physical states connected with Venus which early astronomical instruments failed to overcome.
Keywords: instruments, physical states, Venus, failed
In paragraph E, the writer argues that “While the early transit timings were as precise as instruments would allow, the measurements were dogged by the „black drop‟ effect. When Venus begins to cross the Sun‟s disc, it looks smeared not circular – which makes it difficult to establish timings. The second problem is that Venus exhibits a halo of light when it is seen just outside the Sun‟s disc. While this showed astronomers that Venus was surrounded by a thick layer of gases refracting sunlight around it, both effects made it impossible to obtain accurate timings.”
– physical states= the ‘black drop’ effect, a halo of light
– failed to overcome=made it impossible
18-21: Match each statement with the correct person.
18. He calculated the distance of the Sun from the Earth based on observations of Venus with a fair degree of accuracy.
Keywords: distance, observations of Venus, accuracy
In paragraph F, the writer indicates that “Johann Franz Encke, Director of the Berlin Observatory, finally determined a value for the AUbased on all these parallax measurements: 153,340,000 km. Reasonably accurate for the time, that is quite close to today‟s value of 149,597,870 km.”
– the distance of the Sun from the Earth=the AU
– with a fair degree of accuracy=reasonably accurate
19. He understood that the distance of the Sun from the Earth could be worked out by comparing observations of a transit.
Keywords: distance, worked out bycomparing observations
In paragraph B, “He (Edmond Halley) realised that from different latitudes, the passage of the planet across the Sun‟s disc would appear to differ. By timing the transit from two widely-separated locations, teams of astronomers could calculate the parallax angle – the apparent difference in position of an astronomical body due to a difference in the observer’s position. Calculating this angle would allow astronomers to measure what was then the ultimate goal: the distance of the Earth from the Sun.”
– work out=calculate, measure
20. He realised that the time taken by a planet to go around the Sun depends on its distance from the Sun.
Keywords: time, around the Sun, distance from the Sun
In paragraph C, the writer argues that “Johannes Kepler, in the early 17th century, had shown that the distances of the planets from the Sungoverned their orbital speeds, which were easily measurable.”
– go around = orbit (orbital)
21. He witnessed a Venus transit but was unable to make any calculations.
Keywords: Venus transit, unable, calculations
In paragraph D, “Fleeing on a French warship crossing the Indian Ocean, Le Gentil saw a wonderful transit – but the ship’s pitching and rolling ruled out any attempt at making accurate observations”.
– unable=ruled out
– make any calculations=making accurate observations
Questions 22-26: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2 ?
22. Halley observed one transit of the planet Venus.
Keywords: Halley, transit, Venus
In paragraph B, the writer indicates that “In November 1677, Halley observed a transit of the innermost planet, Mercury, from the desolate island of St Helena in the South Pacific…..Nevertheless, he accurately predicted that Venus would cross the face of the Sun in both 1761 and 1769 – though he didn‟t survive to see either”.
23. Le Gentil managed to observe a second Venus transit.
Keywords: managed, second Venus transit.
In paragraph D, the writer states that “Undaunted, he remained south of the equator ….before setting off to observe the next transit in the Philippines. Ironically, after traveling nearly 50,000 kilometers, his view was clouded out at the last moment, a very dispiriting experience. ” This means that Le Gentil did not succeed in observing a second Venus transit in the Philippines.
24. The shape of Venus appears distorted when it starts to pass in front of the Sun.
Keywords: shape, distorted, pass in front of the sun
In paragraph E, the writer says that “While the early transit timings were as precise as instruments would allow, the measurements were dogged by the ‘black drop’ effect. When Venus begins to cross the Sun’s disc, it looks smeared not circular.”
– pass in front of the Sun=cross the Sun‟s disc
– distorted=smeared not circular
25. Early astronomers suspected that the atmosphere on Venus was toxic.
Keywords: atmosphere on Venus, toxic
In this passage, Venus’s atmosphere is not mentioned by the writer, so it is not known whether it is toxic or not. Therefore, the statement is NOT GIVEN.
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
26. The parallax principle allows astronomers to work out how far away distant stars are from the Earth.
Keywords: parallax principle, how far, stars, Earth
In paragraph F, “The parallax principle can be extended to measure the distances to the stars. If we look at a star in January – when Earth is at one point in its orbit – it will seem to be in a different position from where it appears six month later. Knowing the width of Earth‟s orbit, the parallax shift lets astronomers calculate the distance.”
A neuroscientist reveals how to think differently
Questions 27-31: Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
27. Neuroeconomics is a field of study which seeks to
Keywords: Neuroeconomics, seeks to
In the first paragraph, the writer argues that “These discoveries have led to the field known as neuroeconomics which studies the brain’s secrets to success in an economic environment that demands innovation and being able to do things differently from competitors.” In other words, neuro economics is a field of study which seeks to understand how the brain is linked to achievement in competitive fields.
28. According to the writer, iconoclasts are distinctive because
Keywords: iconoclasts, distinctive
In paragraph 2, the writer says that “This definition implies that iconoclasts are different from other people, but more precisely, it is their brains that are different in three distinct ways: perception, fear response, and social intelligence.” So, iconoclasts are distinctive because their brains are different, in other words, their brains function differently.
29. According to the writer, the brain works efficiently because
Keywords: brain, efficiently
In paragraph 3, the writer indicates that “For example, when confronted with information streaming from the eyes, the brain will interpret this information in the quickest way possible. Thus it will draw on both past experience and any other source of information” So, the brain works efficiently because it relies on previous events.
– efficiently = in the quickest way
– relies on = draw on
– previous events=past experience
30. The writer says that perception is
At the end of paragraph 3, the writer says that “More than the physical reality of photons and sound waves, perception is a product of the brain.”
31. According to the writer, an iconoclastic thinker
Keywords: iconoclastic thinker
In paragraph 4, the writer says that “Iconoclasts, either because they were born that way or through learning, have found ways to work around the perceptual shortcuts that plague most people.” In other words, an iconoclast thinker can avoid cognitive traps.
Questions 32-37: Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 3 ?
32. Exposure to different events forces the brain to think differently.
Keywords: different events, think differently
In paragraph 5, the writer says that “The best way to see things differently to other people is to bombard the brain with things it has never encountered before. Novelty releases the perceptual process from the chains of past experience and forces the brain to make new judgments.”
– different events = things it (the brain) has never encountered before = novelty
– think differently=make new judgments
33. Iconoclasts are unusually receptive to new experiences.
Keywords: receptive, new experiences
In paragraph 5, the writer says that “Successful iconoclasts have an extraordinary willingness to be exposed to what is fresh and different. Observation of iconoclasts shows that they embrace novelty while most people avoid things that are different.”
– are unusually receptive to = have an extraordinary willingness to be exposed to
– new experiences=what is fresh and different
34. Most people are too shy to try different things.
Keywords: too shy, different things
In this passage, the writer does not mention whether most people are too shy to try different things. He just says that “most people avoid things that are different” So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
35. If you think in an iconoclastic way, you can easily overcome fear.
Keywords: think, iconoclastic, overcome fear.
In paragraph 6, the writer argues that “Fear is a major impediment to thinking like an iconoclast and stops the average person in his tracks.” This means that fear prevents people from thinking in an iconoclast way. So, the statement’s meaning is opposite to that in the text.
36. When concern about embarrassment matters less, other fears become irrelevant.
Keywords: embarrassment, less, fears, irrelevant
In paragraph 6, “fear of public ridicule” is mentioned. It we interpret this as “embarrassment”, still we are not told if other fears then become irrelevant. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
37. Fear of public speaking is a psychological illness.
Keywords: fear, public speaking, a psychological illness
In paragraph 6, the writer indicates that “But fear of public speaking, which everyone must do from time to time, afflicts one-third of the population. This makes it too common to be considered a mental disorder. It is simply a common variant of human nature, one which iconoclasts do not let inhibit their reactions.” So, fear of public speaking is not a psychological illness, it is just a common variant of human nature.
– a psychological illness= a mental disorder
Questions 38-40: Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-E, below.
38. Thinking like a successful iconoclast is demanding because it
Keyword: successful, demanding
In paragraph 7, the writer argues that “to be successful iconoclasts, individuals must sell their ideas to other people. This is where social intelligence comes in…Perception is important in social cognition too…Understanding how perception becomes intertwined with social decision making shows why successful iconoclasts are so rare.” This means that thinking like a successful iconoclast is demanding because it requires both perceptual and social intelligence skills.
39. The concept of the social brain is useful to iconoclasts because it
Keywords: social brain, useful,
In paragraph 7, the writer indicates that “In the last decade there has been an explosion of knowledge about the social brain and how the brain works when groups coordinate decision making. Neuroscience has revealed which brain circuits are responsible for functions like understanding what other people think, empathy, fairness, and social identity. These brain regions play key roles in whether people convince others of their ideas.” So, the concept of the social brain is useful to iconoclasts because it focuses on how groups decide on an action.
– groups = circuits
– groups decide on an action=groups coordinate decision making
40. Iconoclasts are generally an asset because their way of thinking
Keywords: an asset, way of thinking
In the last paragraph, “Iconoclasts create new opportunities in every area from artistic expression to technology to business. They supply creativity and innovation not easily accomplished by committees. Iconoclasts face alienation and failure, but can also be an asset to any organisation.” So, iconoclasts are generally an asset because their way of thinking works in many fields, both artistic and scientific.
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