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Passage 1: Why pagodas don’t fall down
Questions 1-4 YES, NO, NOT GIVEN
1. Only two Japanese pagodas have collapsed in 1400 years.
Keywords: only , two, collapsed, 1400 years
In the first paragraph, the writer says: ” Records show that only two have collapsed during the past 1400 years.”
=> ANSWER: YES
2. The Hanshin earthquake of 1995 destroyed the pagoda at the Toji temple
Keywords: Hanshin earthquake, 1995, destroyed, Toji temple
In the first paragraph, the writer states: ” The disastrous Hanshin earthquake in 1995 killed 6400 people…. Yet it left the magnificent five-storey pagoda at the Toji temple in nearby Kyoto unscathed….” This means the Hanshin earthquake did not destroy the pagoda at the Toji temple as it left the pagoda unscathed.
+ unscathed = not damaged
=> ANSWER: NO
3. The other buildings near the Toji pagoda had been built in the last 30 years.
Keywords: other buildings, near, Toji pagoda, 30 years
Information about buildings near the Toji pagoda can only be found in paragraph 1, in which the writer reports: “Yet it left the magnificent five-storey pagoda at the Toji temple in nearby Kyoto unscathed, though it levelled a number of buildings in the neighbourhood.” The writer only indicates that the buildings near the Toji temple were levelled – they fell to the ground -as a result of the earthquake. No information relating to the date of these buildings is mentioned.
+ near=in the neighbourhood
=> ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
4 .The builders of pagodas knew howto absorb some of the power produced by severe weather conditions.
Keywords: builders of pagodas, knew, absorb, power, weather conditions
In paragraph 4, the writer says: “When the pagoda reached Japan, however, its architecture was freely adapted to local conditions – they were built less high…made mainly of wood…Because of the typhoons that batter Japan in the summer, Japanese builders learned to extend the eaves of buildings further beyond the walls. This prevents rain water gushing down the walls.
+ severe weather conditions=typhoons [storms with powerful rain and winds]
+ batter=hit powerfully
=> ANSWER: YES
Questions 5-10 Classify the following as typical of
A. Both Chinese and Japanese pagodas
B. Only Chinese pagodas
C. Only Japanese pagodas
Information about Japanese pagodas is mainly found in paragraph 4.
5. Easy interior access to top
In paragraph 4, the writer says: ” The Chinese built their pagodas in brick or stone, with inner staircases… When the pagoda reached Japan…(it was) made mainly of wood and the staircase was dispensed with because the Japanese pagoda did not have any particular use but became more of an art object.” This indicates that only Chinese pagodas have staircases, which allow easy interior access to the top, so that it was easy to reach the top and use the pagoda as a watchtower. In Japanese pagodas, no staircases were built.
+ Dispense with (st) = stop using something because it’s no longer needed = do away with it It should be noticed here that we don’t necessarily need to know the meaning of “dispense ” to learn that Japanese pagodas don‟t have stairs. The writer states that the main use of Japanese pagodas is as an art object, so we can guess that they don‟t need staircases.
+ interior access=inner staircases
=> ANSWER: B
6. tiles on eaves
In the last sentence of paragraph 5, the writer says: ” For the same reason, the builders of Japanese pagodas seem to have further increased their weight by choosing to cover these extended eaves not with the porcelain tiles of many Chinese pagodas but with much heavier earthenware tiles” So, although they have different types of tiles, both Chinese and Japanese pagodas have tiles on eaves.
=> ANSWER: A
7. Use as observation post
In paragraph 4, the writer says: ” The Chinese built their pagodas… and used them in later centuries as watch towers.” On the other hand, as mentioned above, we see that Japanese pagodas served only as an art object.
+ observation post = watchtower
+ observe = watch
=> ANSWER: B
8. Size of eaves up to half the width of the building
In paragraph 5, the writer says: “The roof of a Japanese temple building can be made to overhang the sides of the structure by fifty percentor more of the building‟s overall width”, and doesn‟t mention Chinese pagodas.
+ pagoda=temple building
+ eaves = roof
+ up to half = by fifty per cent
=> ANSWER: C
9. Original religious purpose
In paragraph 4, the writer states: ” The multi-storey pagoda came to Japan from China in the sixth century. As in China, they were first introduced with Buddhism and were attached to important temples.” This means that multi-storey pagodas accompanied the spread of Buddhism from China to Japan, and were attached to existing important temples . Thus, the pagodas in Japan and China were built with a religious purpose, associated with Buddhism.
+ original=first introduced
=> ANSWER: A
10. Floors fitting loosely over each other.
In paragraph 7, the writer says about Japanese pagodas: “What those early craftsmen had found by trial and error was that under pressure a pagoda’s loose stack of floors could be made to slither to and fro….”This means that only in Japanese pagodas, can we find floors not actually connected, but placed on top of each other/stacked.
=> ANSWER: C
11. In a Japanese pagoda, the shinbashira
Keywords: Japanese, shinbashira
In paragraph 6, the writer says: ” Is the answer that , like a tall pine tree, the Japanese pagoda – with its massive trunk-like central pillar known as shinbashira -simply flexes and sways during a typhoon or earthquake? …But the answer is not so simple because the startling thing is that the shinbashira actually carries no load at all.” So it can be concluded that A and B are not correct.
+ bend corresponds to flex and sway
+ bear =carry
+ weight = load
The writer continues : ” In fact, in some pagoda designs, it does not even rest on the ground, but is suspended from the top of the pagoda…..” This means that it will not connect the floor with the foundations, as it does not even rest on the ground.
+ foundation: a construction below the ground distributing the load of a building. So C is not correct.
In paragraph 7, the writer says : ” The shinbashira, running up through a hole in the centre of the building, constrained individual storeys from moving too far….”
+ stop = constrain = hold back, restrict
+ floor = storey
So the answer is D: stops the floors moving too far.
=> ANSWER: D
12. Shuzo Ishida performs experiments in order to
Keywords: Shuzo Ishida, experiments
In paragraph 7, the writer indicates: ” Mr Ishida, known to his students as “Professor Pagoda” because of his passion to understand the pagoda, has built a series of models and tested them on a “shaketable” in his laboratory.” So the purpose of the experiment is to understand the pagoda. The possible answers are C.Learn about the dynamics of pagodas D. understand ancient mathematics.
However, in the following sentences, the writer says: “The ancient craftsmen, apparently without the assistance of very advanced mathematics…” This means that there were no “ancient mathematics” to understand here. So D is not correct. The correct answer is C: learn about the dynamics of pagodas.
=> ANSWER: C
13. The storeys of a Japanese pagoda are
Keywords: storeys, Japanese
From Question 10, we can easily find that answer C is correct: fitted loosely on top of each other. Now we look at other answers to check for sure
In paragraph 6, the last sentence, the writer states: “The shinbashira, running up through a hole in the central of the building,constrained individual storeys from moving too far because, after moving a certain distance, they banged into it, transmitting energy away along the column.” This means the floors could move away from the shinbashira, known as the central pillar, then banged into it. So it can be inferred that the storeys couldn‟t be fastened to the central pillar as otherwise, they wouldn‟t have moved away a certain distance then banged into it. So B is not correct. In paragraph 8, the writer says: ” Another strange feature of the Japanese pagoda is that, because of the building tapers,with each successive floor plan being smaller than the one below, none of the vertical pillars that carry the weight of the building is connected to its corresponding pillar above.”
This means floors are not connected to each other through weight, because none of the pillars carrying the weight is connected to its corresponding pillar. So D is not correct . No information relating to A can be found. However, in paragraph 8 we learn that: “…the individual storeys of a Japanese pagoda…are not actually connected to each other. They are simply stacked one on top of another like a pile of hats”.
=> ANSWER: C
Passage 2: The True Cost of Food
Questions 14-17 Which paragraph contains the following information ?
14. a cost involved in purifying domestic water
Keywords: cost, purifying, water
Skimming through the passage, it can be seen that information relating to “the cost ” is mainly in paragraph E. We don‟t need to know the meaning of “bug”. When the writer says ” removal of (something) from drinking water”, we can rely on ” drinking water” to guess that we need to remove something “unhealthy”, so that the water can be “drink-able.”And this process of removal is called “purifying.” In paragraph E, the writer says: ” The costs included: …£23m for the removal of the bug cryptosporidium from drinking water by water companies; …”
+ bug :a common name used to refer to bacteria, parasites or viruses
+ purify = removal of the parasite in order to make drinking water clean
=> ANSWER: E
15. the stages in the development of the farming industry
Keywords: stages, farming
The words ” stages” can be related to the process of the development of the farming industry. Skimming through the whole passage, it can be noticed that in paragraph B lie a number of words indicating a “process” : first, then, then, and now. Particularly, the writer says : ” First mechanisation, then mass use of chemical fertiliser and pesticides, then….and now genetic engineering – the onward march of intensive farming has seemed unstoppable in the last…”
+ development = onward march
+ march = steady forward movement or progression
=> ANSWER: B
16. the term used to describe hidden costs
Keywords: term, hidden costs
In paragraph C, the writer explains: ” That is mainly because the costs of all this damage are what economists refer to as externalities: they are outside the main transaction…To many, the costs may not even appear to be financial at all, but merely aesthetic…” The costs that are outside the main transaction can be understood as hidden costs So the term here is “externalities”
=> ANSWER: C
17. One effect of chemicals on water sources
Keywords: effect, chemicals, water
Information relating to “effect” is mainly found in paragraph B.
In paragraph B, the writer says: ” Natural soil fertility is dropping … while the growth of algae is increasing in lakes because of the fertiliser run-off”
+ effect corresponds to ” the growth of algae is increasing”
+ water corresponds to lakes
+ chemicals corresponds to fertiliser
+ fertiliser: a kind of chemical added to soil or water to increase its productivity
=> ANSWER: B
Questions 18-21 YES, NO, NOT GIVEN
18. Several species of wildlife in the British countryside are declining
Keywords: species of wildlife, British countryside, declining
In paragraph B, the writer says: “In Britain, for example, many of our best-loved farmland birds, such as the skylark, the grey partridge, the lapwing and the corn bunting, have vanished from huge stretches countryside, as have even…insects” In the text, the writer says many birds have vanished so it can be inferred that their numbers are declining
+ several species of wildlife corresponds to many farmland birds
+ vanish= disappear in a sudden/mysterious way.
+ decline = decrease in number
=> ANSWER: YES
19.The taste of food has deteriorated in recent years.
Keywords: taste, deteriorated, recent
A reference to the cost of food in recent years can be found in paragraph A. But no sentences indicate the quality of food, especially the taste.
=> ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
20.The financial costs of environmental damage are widely recognized.
Keywords: financial costs, enviromental, widely
In paragraph C, the writer says: ” To many, the costs may not even appear to be financial at all, but merely aesthetic- a terrible shame, but nothing to do with money.” The cost here is the cost of environmental damage as listed in paragraph B.
In paragraph C, the writer explains: “That is mainly because the costs of all this damage are…” So it can be inferred that many people fail to make a connection between environmental damage, in turning the British countryside into a battlefield, with the price that they pay for food as consumers. Therefore the financial costs are not widely recognized.
=> ANSWER: NO
21. One of the costs calculated by Professor Pretty was illness caused by food.
Keywords: costs, Professor Pretty, illness caused by food
In paragraph E, on listing the costs according to Professor Pretty, the writer mentions : “… £169 m from food poisoning” Thus, because the use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides and the introduction of monocultures has resulted in the production of food which is harmful to human health, the costs of medical treatment for food poisoning have to be considered as part of the ‘true cost’ of food.
=> ANSWER: YES
Questions 22-26 Complete the summary
22. Professor Pretty concludes that our… are higher than most people realise, because we make three different types of payment.
Keywords: our, Professor Pretty, higher, three different types of payment
From keywords, especially the words ” three types of payment”, we can skim through and infer that the content of the sentence is from paragraph E, where the writer says: ” Professor Pretty draws a simple but memorable conclusion from all this: our foodbills are actually threefold. We are paying for our supposedly cheaper food in three separate ways: once over the counter, secondly through our taxes… and thirdly to clean up the mess that modern farming leaves behind.”
+ higher corresponds to threefold = three times as much/ triple
+ conclude = draw a conclusion
+ three different types= three seperate ways
+ make payment = pay for
+ over the counter: in the shops
We need a noun here, something “ours” that is higher, so the word needed is ” foodbills”
=> ANSWER: Foodbills
23. He feels it is realistic to suggest that Britain should reduce its reliance on….
Keywords: realistic, Britain, reduce,reliance on
In paragraph F, the writer argues: ” Breaking away from industrial agriculture as the solution to hunger maybe very hard for some countries, but in Britain, where the immediate need to supply food is less urgent, and the costs and the damage of intensive farming have been clearly seen, it may be more feasible.” This means that Pretty feels that breaking away from industrial agriculture is realistic, as the need for food in Britain is less urgent, while the damage of intensive farming is more obvious.
+ reduce its reliance corresponds to break away from
+realistic corresponds to feasible = possible, likely
We need a noun here, for something which Britain should rely less on, or in other words, break away from. So the possible answer is industrial agriculture or intensive farming
=> ANSWER: industrial agriculture/ intensive farming
24-25. Although most farmers would be unable to adapt to…, Professor Pretty wants the government to initiate change by establishing what he refers to as a…
Keywords: farmers, unable to adapt to, government, change, he refers to as a
This is a suggestion of Professor Pretty, so we can guess that information we need to find is from the next paragraph. Specifically, in paragraph G, the writer states: ” Professor Pretty feels that organic farming would be too big a jump in thinking and in practices for many farmers.” This means that it will be difficult for many farmers to change to organic farming. Here we need a noun-something that many farmers would find difficult to adapt to. So the answer is “organic farming”
=> ANSWER: 24. organic farming
Then in the next sentence, we find a “suggestion” of Professor Pretty: ” He is recommending the immediate introduction of a “Greener Food Standard”, which would push the market towards more sustainable environmental practices…”
+ introduction can be understood as “initiate change”
+ initiate = bring about, or cause to occur, some new change or policy.
We need a noun- something new that Professor Pretty suggests.So the answer is a “Greener Food Standard.”
=> ANSWER: 25.Greener Food Standard
26. He feel this would help to change the attitudes of both …and…
Keywords: change, attitudes , both
In the next sentences in paragraph G, the writer says: ” It could go a long way, he says, to shifting consumers as well as farmers towards a more sustainable system of agriculture.” “It” here is the Greener Food Standard.
+ change = shift
+ the attitude can be understood as a more sustainable system of agriculture.
We need 2 nouns, 2 things/people whose attitudes should be changed as a result of the introduction of the new standard. So the answer is consumers and farmers.
=> ANSWER: 26. consumers/ farmers
Passage 3: Makete Integrated Rural Transport Project
Questions 27-30 Choose the correct heading
27. Section B
This section consists of 2 small paragraphs.In the first sentence of paragraph 1, the writer states: ” When the project began, Makete District was virtually totally isolated during the rainy season” then he lists several problems. In the first sentence of paragraph 2, he says: ” Before solutions could be proposed, the problems had to be understood.” So we can infer that in this section, the writer is going to deal with finding what is the problem with transport. Therefore, the most suitable heading should be ii, identifying the main transport problems
+ identify the problem = understand the problem
=> ANSWER: ii:identifying the main transport problems
28. Section C
In the first sentence of this section, the writer says: “Having determined the main transport need, possible solutions were identified which might reduce the time and burden.” So we could guess that this section is about solutions. Then, in the following sentences, he goes into more detail about the “solutions”. During Phase II, from January to February 1991, a number of approaches were implemented in an effort to improve mobility and access to transport.” In paragraph 4 of Section C, the writer refers to various “means of transport” and the plan to use more donkeys and locally-made wheelbarrows. Looking back at the heading list, it can be seen that heading v contains keywords like: „improvement, mobility, transport‟, and its content matches the section‟s as well: “Initial improvements in mobility and transport modes”
transport mode = means of transport
=> ANSWER: v: initial improvements in mobility and transport modes
29. Section E
In the first sentence of the section the writer argues : “It would have been easy to criticise the MIRTP for using in the early phases a top-down approach… but it was necessary to start the process from the level of the governmental authorities of the district.”
Here we have quite a long sentence and it is better to focus on the main clause. The author indicates that the process needs governmental authorities of the district to be involved from the beginning. Looking back at the heading list, the possible answers that contain keywords are
iv. Government authorities’s instructions
x. Cooperation of district officials
However, heading iv deals with “instructions”, while in the text the author mentions nothing relating to instructions. On the other hand, heading x deals with “the cooperation” of district officials, which matches the content of the text: “It would have been difficult to respond to the requests of villagers and other rural inhabitants without the support and understanding of district authorities.”
+ cooperation = support and understanding
+ officials = authorities
+ district officials = governmental authorities of the district
=> ANSWER: x: cooperation of district officials
30. Section F
This section consists of 2 small paragraphs. In the first paragraph,we can infer that it deals with the success of MIRTP through the keywords : ” result of dedicated work”. Then, in the second paragraph, the writer says: “The experiences from Makete will help this initiative, and Makete District will act as a reference for future work.” So it can be concluded that the writer implies that, due to its success, MIRTP could be a model for future work. The most suitable heading should be i. MIRTP as a future model
+ model =reference = something to look for information/ advice or to follow
+ a future model = a reference for future work
=> ANSWER: i: MIRTP as a future model
Questions 31-35 YES, NO, NOT GIVEN
31. MIRTP was divided into five phases.
Keywords: MIRTP, five phases
Skimming through the passages, it can be seen that there are only 3 phases mentioned when talking about the MIRTP. Phase I is mentioned in Section B; Phase II in Sections C and D; Phase III is referred to in Section D. The answer is, therefore, NO.
=> ANSWER: NO
32. Prior to the start of MIRTP the Makete district was almost in accesible during the rainy season
Keywords: prior to, Makete, inaccessible, rainy season
In the first sentence of Section B, the writer says: “When the project began, Makete district was virtually totally isolated during the rainy season. The regional road was in such bad shape that access to the main towns was almost impossible for about three months of the year.”
+ almost = virtually
+isolated = inaccessible = without much contact with other places/people; difficult to reach
=> ANSWER: YES
33.Phase I of MIRTP consisted of a survey of household expenditure on transport.
Keywords: Phase I, survey, household expenditure, transport
From the keyword ” phase I”, we can easily identify that the information needs to be found in paragraph 2 of Section B, where the writer says: “The socio-economic survey of more than 400 households in the district indicated that a household in Makete spent on average, seven hours a day on transporting themselves and their goods, a figure which seemed…Africa.” So this means that the survey is on the daily hours spent on transport by each household.The survey, therefore, was a survey of time expended – 7 hours per day – and not of money spent by each household.
+ expenditure on = spent on
=> ANSWER: NO
34. The survey concluded that one-fifth or 20% of the household transport requirement as outside the local area.
Keywords: 20%, transport requirement, outside, local
In paragraph 2 of Section B, the writer says : “Interesting facts regarding transport were found: 95% was on foot; 80% was within the locality…” 80% was within the locality, which means that the other 20 % was out of the local area, in other words: 20% of transport was outside the local area.
+ local area = locality
=> ANSWER: YES
35. MIRTP hoped to improve the movement of goods from Makete district to the country’s capital.
Keywords: MIRTP, improve, movement of goods, capital
In section C,the writer argues: “However, the difference from the conventional approach was that this time consideration was given to local transport needs outside the road network. This means that the aim of MIRTP is to make the transport of goods safer and less arduous by improving the paths, or in other words improve the movement of goods – their import and export – from Makete district. But the author does not mention where the goods will be transported to, and the capital of the country is nowhere referred to in the text .
+ movement =transport
=> ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
Questions 36-39 Complete each sentence with the correct ending
36. Construction of footbridges, steps and handrails
Keywords: footbridges, steps, handrails
In Section C, the writer says : “Most goods were transported along the paths that provide short-cuts up and down the hillsides, but the paths were a real safety risk and made the journey on foot even more arduous. It made sense to improve the paths by building steps, handrails and footbridges.” On the other hand, skimming through the list given, it can be seen that D. “Improved paths used for transport up and down hillsides” consists of words in the above text :paths, handrails and footbridges, improve, up and down hillsides. In addition, its content matches the content of the text, in particular: construction = building
=> ANSWER: D: improved paths used for transport up and down hillsides
37. Frequent breakdown of buses and trucks in Makete
Keywords: breakdown, buses, trucks
In section D, the writer argues: ” The efforts to improve the efficiency of the existing transport services were not very successful because most of the motorised vehicles in the district broke down and there were no resources to repair them.” So it can be inferred that the clause after because corresponds to the given content . We need to find the content which matches one in the other clause of this text.Skimming through the list, it can be seen that I. Hindered attempts to make the existing transport services more efficient matches.
+ motorised vehicles = buses and trucks
+ attempt = effort
+ make the existing transport services more efficient=improve the efficiency of the existing transport services
=> ANSWER: I: hindered attempts to make the existing transport services more efficient
38. The improvement of secondary roads and paths
Keywords: improvement, secondary roads, paths
In section D, the writer says: ” Paths and secondary roads were improvedonly at the request of communities who were willing to participate in construction and maintenance.”
So we need to find the answer that matches the content of this sentence. The most suitable answer is G. „Was done only at the request of local people who were willing to lend a hand‟
+ local people = communities
+ participate in = lend a hand
=> ANSWER: G: was done only at the request of local people who were willing to lend a hand
39. The isolation of Makete for part of the year
Keywords: isolation, part of the year
The word “isolation” leads us to look at section B, where the writer explains:”When the project began, Makete district was virtually totally isolated during the rainy season. The regional road was in such bad shape that access to the main towns was impossible for about three months of the year” This means that the road was in such a bad condition (=shape) that Makete district was isolated for part of the year, specifically during the rainy season which lasts about 3 months. The results of improvements are referred to in Section D. “The road improvements and accompanying maintenance system had helped make the district centre accessible throughout the year.”
+ part of the year = rainy season/ three months of the year
So the best answer to complete the sentence that matches the content of this text is E.
=> ANSWER: E: was no longer a problem once the roads had been improved
Question 40.Which of the following phrases best describes the main aim of Reading Passage 3?
Reading though the passage and from the above answers, we can see that the passage deals with the whole process of MIRTP, from how it was implement and executed ( from section A-D) to the final positive result of it (Section E, F). So the best answer is B. To describe how MIRTP was implemented and how successful it was. A is not correct because although in section F, the writer considers MIRTP “as a reference for future work”, it doesn‟t mean MIRTP is needed in other countries. In fact, “future work” here refers to a transport program about to start in Tanzania: “The concept of intergrated rural transport is now well established in Tanzania, where a major program of rural transport is just about to start. This experiences from Makete will help this initiative,and Makete District will act as a reference for future work.” C is not correct because this the use of donkeys is just a small part of the content of the passage, not the main aim of the author D is not correct because clearly the author argues in Section F that MIRTP “will act as a reference for future work”, so it cannot have serious problems.
=> ANSWER: B: To describe how MIRTP was implemented and how successful it was.