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ADVANTAGES OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT
Questions 1-5: Matching headings
1. Paragraph A
In this paragraph, the writer refers to the role of politics in determining transport strategy: “The more democratic the process, the more public transport is favored.” He citesPortland, Oregon as a successful exercise in public power: “Some years ago, federal money was granted to build a new road.
However, local pressure groups forced a referendum over whether to spend the money on light rail instead. The rail proposal won and the railway worked spectacularly well.” Therefore, the correct heading for this paragraph is “A successful exercise in people power.”
2. Paragraph B
The paragraph is about travel time: “In the UK, travel times to work had been stable for at least six centuries,… However, public infrastructure did not keep pace with urban sprawl, causing massive congestion problems which now make commuting times far higher.” So “Increases in travelling time” is the appropriate heading for the paragraph.
3. Paragraph C
The relation between wealth and car use is the main topic in this paragraph. In the first sentence, the writer states: “There is a widespread belief that increasing wealth encourages people to live farther out where cars are the only viable transport.”
However, by giving examples of some European and Asian cities, he shows that higher incomes need not mean more cars: “They are often wealthier than their American counterparts but have not generated the same level of car use. In Stockholm, car use has actually fallen in recent years as the city has become larger and wealthier. …Developing cities in Asia, such as Jakarta and Bangkok, make more use of the car than wealthy Asian cities such as Tokyo and Singapore.”
4. Paragraph D
In this paragraph, the writer refers to Newman‟s report, which suggests using rail transport to avoid the problem of an overcrowded city centre: “It found that pushing everyone into the city centre was not the best approach. Instead, the proposal advocated the creation of urban villages at hundreds of sites, mostly around railway stations.”
The best choice for the paragraph’s heading is “Avoiding an overcrowded centre.”
5. Paragraph E
Though the writer mentions “telecommunications” in the first sentence of the paragraph, its main idea is actually the benefits of working together in the city: “…it is valuable to place people working in related fields together. The new world will largely depend on human creativity, and creativity flourishes where people come together face-to-face.”
So, the correct heading for this paragraph is “The benefits of working together in the city”
Questions 6-10: TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN
6. The ISTP study examined public and private systems in every city of the world.
Keywords: ISTP study, public and private systems
Scan the word “ISTP” and find it in the first paragraph: “A new study conducted for the World Bank by Murdoch University‟s Institute for Science and Technology Policy (ISTP) has demonstrated that public transport is more efficient than cars. The study compared the proportion of wealth poured into transport by thirty- seven cities around the world.”
It is clear that the ISTP study examined only thirty-seven cities around the world, not every city of the world. public system ~ public transport private system ~ cars
7. Efficient cities can improve the quality of life for their inhabitants.
Keywords: Efficient cities, quality of life
Moving to the second paragraph, it is reported that: “…these more efficient cities were able to put the difference into attracting industry and jobs or creating a better place to live.” improving the quality of life ~ creating a better place to live
8.An inner-city tram network is dangerous for car drivers.
Keywords: an inner-city tram network, dangerous
The inner-city tram network is mentioned in the third paragraph: “Melbourne‟s large tram network has made car use in the inner city much lower, but the outer suburbs have the same car-based structure as most other Australian cities.”
However, there is no information about whether an inner-city tram network is dangerous for car drivers.
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
9. In Melbourne, people prefer to live in the outer suburbs.
Keywords: Melbourne, outer suburbs
In the last sentence of the third paragraph, the writer says that: “The explosion in demand for accommodation in the inner suburbs of Melbourne suggests a recent change in many people‟s preferences as to where they live.” This means that more and more people in Melbourne now prefer to live in the inner suburbs.
10. Cities with high levels of bicycle usage can be efficient even when public transport is only averagely good.
Keywords: bicycle usage, public transport, averagely good
In the fifth paragraph, it is stated that: “Bicycle use was not included in the study but Newman noted that the two most “bicycle friendly” cities considered – Amsterdam and Copenhagen -were very efficient, even though their public transport systems were “reasonable but not special”.”
Thus, the given statement is true.
+ Cities with high levels of bicycle usage = bicycle friendly cities
+ averagely good = reasonable but not special
Questions 11-13: Matching names: Match each city with correct description
In the second paragraph, the writer says: “…the Western Australian city of Perth is a good example of a city with minimal public transport. As a result, 17% of its wealth went into transport costs. Some European and Asian cities, on the other hand, spent as little as 5%.”
The proportion of wealth poured into transport of Perth is 17%,while the figure for some other cities is only 5%. So, Perth is inefficient due to a limited public transport system.
+ a limited public transport system = minimal public transport
Auckland is mentioned in the seventh paragraph as : “…it would be hard for a city as hilly as Auckland to develop a really good rail network.” This means that Auckland is hilly and inappropriate for a good rail transport system.
+ rail transport system = rail network
In paragraph A, the writer gives an example about Portland: “Some years ago, federal money was granted to build a new road. However, local pressure groups forced a referendum over whether to spend the money on light rail instead. The rail proposal won and the railway worked spectacularly well.”
This means that Portland profitably moved from road to a light rail transport system
GREYING POPULATION STAYS IN THE PINK
Questions 14-22: Complete the summary using the given list of words
14 &15. Research carried out by scientists in the United States has shown that the proportion of people over 65 suffering from the most common age-related medical problems is (14)…and that the speed of this change is (15)…
Keywords: the United States, 65, most common age-related medical problems, speed, change
In paragraph 2, the writer discusses the health of the over 65 age group. The writer says: “Researchers … sayarthritis, high blood pressure and circulation problems – the major medical complaints in this age group -are troubling a smaller and smaller proportion every year. …the rate at which diseases are declining continues to accelerate.”
+ The major medical complaints in this age group = the most common age-related medical problems
+ The rate at which diseases are declining = the speed of this change
+ to accelerate = to increase
So the missing word in number 14 and 15 is “falling” and “increasing”, respectively.
=>ANSWER: 14. B 15. I
16. It also seems that these diseases are affecting people … in life than they did in the past.
It is stated in the first paragraph that: “…the diseases associated with old age are afflicting fewer and fewer people and when they do strike, it is much later in life.”
This means that these age-related diseases are affecting people later in life than they did in the past.
+ to affect ~to afflict
17 & 18. This is largely due to developments in (17) …, but other factors such as improved (18)…may also be playing a part.
Keywords: developments, improved, factors
In the fourth paragraph, the writer says: “Clearly, certain diseases are beating a retreat in the face of medical advances. But there may be other contributing factors.Improvements in childhood nutrition …gave today‟s elderly people a better start in life than their predecessors.”
So among the given list of words, “medicine” and “nutrition” are the best choices.
+ due to = in the face of
+ playing a part = contributing (factors)
=>ANSWER: 17. M ; 18. J
19. Increases in some other illnesses may be due to changes in personal habits and to ….
Keywords: increase, changes, personal habits
It is clear that “changes in personal habits” and the missing words are parallel, so the former is a clue.
In paragraph 5, the writer says: ” An increase in some cancers and bronchitis may reflect changing smoking habits and poorer air quality….”
“changes in personal habits” refers to “changing smoking habits”. So the most suitable word to refer to “poorer air quality” is pollution.
20. The research establishes a link between levels of ……..and life expectancy.
Keywords: link, life expectancy
In paragraph 6, it is shown that: “One interesting correlation Manton uncovered is that better-educated people are likely to live longer.” So, the research establishes a link between levels of education and life expectancy.
+ link = correlation
21 & 22. It also shows that there has been a considerable reduction in the number of elderly people who are (21)…., which means that the (22) ….involved in supporting this section of the population may be less than previously predicted.
Keywords: elderly, reduction, population
The missing word in number 21 and 22 must be an adjective and a noun, respectively.
In the seventh paragraph, the writer states that: “That represents a siginificant dropin the number of disabled old people in the population. …slowing the trend has saved…more than $200 billion, suggesting that the greying of America‟s population may prove less of a financial burden than expected.”
So the missing words are “disabled” and “cost”.
+ a considerable reduction = a significant drop
+ elderly people = old people
+ the number of… old people in the population = the greying of America‟s population
+ predicted = expected
=>ANSWER: 21. G; 22. A
Questions 23-26: Complete each sentence with the correct ending
23. Home medical aids
Scan this keyword to find it in paragraph 8: “The increasing self-reliance of many elderly people is probably linked to a massive increase in the use of simple home medical aids.” This means that home medical aids allow old people to be more independent.
+ independence = self-reliance
24. Regular amounts of exercise
In paragraph 9, the writer says: “Maintaining a level of daily physical activity may help mental functioning,.., may prevent the brains of active humans from deteriorating”, which means that regular amounts of exercise may help prevent mental decline.
+ regular amount of exercise = level of daily physical activity
25. Feelings of control over life
The connection between feeling of control and stress is mentioned in paragraph 10: “… found a connection between self-esteem and stress in people over 70. In laboratory simulations of challenging activities such as driving, those who felt in control over their lives pumped out lower levels of stress hormones such as cortisol.”
So feelings of control over life can reduce stress in difficult situations.
+ difficult situations= challenging activities
26. Feelings of loneliness
In paragraph 11, the writer says: ” …elderly people who felt emotionally isolated maintained higher levels of stress hormones even when asleep.”
This means that feelings of loneliness may cause rises in levels of stress hormones.
+ feelings of loneliness ~ to feel emotionally isolated
Questions 27-31: Complete each sentence with the correct ending.
27. A developed system of numbering
In the second paragraph, it is stated that: “As they (refer to “early humans” mentioned in the previous sentence) began to settle, grow plants and herd animals, the need for a sophisticated number system became paramount.”
+ farming = settle, grow plants and herd animals
+ a developed system of numbering = a sophisticated number system
+ necessary = paramount
So, a developed system of numbering was necessary when people began farming.
28.An additional hand signal
An additional hand signal is mentioned in paragraph 3: “… The word many would mean, Look at my hands and see how many fingers I am showing you. This basic approach is limited in the range of numbers,…, but this range will generally suffice when dealing with the simpler aspects of human existence.”
Thus, an additional hand signal was used when the range of number words was restricted.
+ restricted = limited
29.In seventh-century Europe, the ability to count to a certain number
Scan the keyword “seventh-century Europe” then find it in paragraph 4. It is also written that: “In fact, to qualify as a witness in a court of law a man had to be able to count to nine!”
“a witness in a court of law” is a civic role and “to be able to count to nine” refers to the ability to count to a certain number. So the ability to count to a certain number was necessary in order to fulfil a civic role.
30.Thinking about numbers as concepts separate from physical objects
In the fifth paragraph, the writer says: “… a number is really an abstract idea instead of a simple attachment to a group of particular objects…. When the number 4 can be registered in the mind as a specific word, independent of the object being referenced, the individual is ready to take the first step toward the development of a notational system for numbers and, from there, to arithmetic.” So thinking about numbers as concepts separate from physical objects was necessary for the development of arithmetic.
+ separate from = independent of
+ concept = abstract idea
31.Expressing number differently according to class of item
In paragraph 6, the writer reports: “Traces of the very first stages in the development of numeration can be seen in several living languages today. The numeration system of …for numbers according to the class of the item….”. In short, this way of expressing number was a characteristic of early numeration systems.
Questions 32-40: TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN
32.For the earliest tribes, the concept of sufficiency was more important than the concept of quantity.
Keywords: earliest tribes, sufficiency, quantity
The period of time “earliest tribes” is mentioned in the second paragraph: “Even the earliest of tribes…..their considerations would have been more of the kind Is this enough?rather than How many?…….” “Is this enough?” refers to the concept of sufficiency, while “How many?” refers to the concept of quantity. So, the statement is true.
33.Indigenous Tasmanians used only four terms to indicate numbers of objects.
Keywords: Indigenous Tasmanians
It is stated in the third paragraph that: “The indigenous peoples of Tasmania were only able to count one, two, many….” So there are only three terms: one, two and many.
+ The statement is false.
+ Tasmanians = peoples of Tasmania
34.Some peopled with simple number systems use body language to prevent misunderstanding of expressions of numbers.
Keywords: body language, misunderstanding
It is stated in the third paragraph that: “But in real situations the number and words are often accompanied by gestures to help resolve any confusion.” The writer then describes a specific example of a situation using body language to express number.
+ body language ~ gestures
+ prevent misunderstanding ~ resolve any confusion
So the statement is true.
35.All cultures have been able to express large numbers clearly.
Keywords: cultures, large numbers
In paragraph 4, the writer points out that: “The lack of ability of some cultures to deal with large numbers is not really surprising.”
Therefore, some cultures have not been able to express large numbers clearly.
+ express large numbers = deal with large numbers
36.The word “thousand” has Anglo-Saxon origins.
Keywords: thousand, Anglo-Saxon
The writer refers to the Anglo-Saxon language in paragraph 4.He makes a list of words and their origins. Only the numbers 10 and 100 are mentioned, but “thousand” is not referred to.
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
37.In general, people in seventh-century Europe had poor counting ability.
Keywords: seventh-century Europe, counting ability
Continue to examine paragraph 4, and we find that: “The average person in the seventh century in Europe was not as familiar with numbers as we are today. In fact, to qualify as a witness in a court of law a man had to be able to count to nine.” So, people in seventh-century Europe had poor counting ability.
38.In the Tsimshian language , the number for long objects and canoes is expressed with the same word.
Keywords: Tsimshian, long objects , canoes
In paragraph 6, it is written that: “The numeration system of the Tsimshian language….contains seven distinct sets of words..: .for long objects and trees, for canoes…” So the words expressing the number for long objects and canoes are different.
39.The Tsimshian language contains both older and newer systems of counting.
Keywords: Tsimshian, older and newer
After listing seven distinct sets of words for numbers according to the class of item inthe Tsimshian language, the writer says: “It seems that the last is a later development while the first six groups show the relics of an older system.” The last set is used “…for counting when no particular object is being numerated”.
+ system of counting = numeration system
So the Tsimshian language contains both older and newer systems of counting.
40.Early peoples found it easier to count by using their fingers rather than a group of pebbles.
Keywords: fingers, pebbles
These are mentioned in the last paragraph: “…it is possible to count by matching the items being counted against a group of pebbles,….or the counter‟s fingers.”Although early peoples found this necessary, the passage does not say which of these was easier to use for counting purposes.
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
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