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Passage 1: Australia’s sporting success
Questions 1-7: Which paragraph contains the following information?
1. A reference to the exchange of expertise between different sports
Keywords: exchange, expertise, different sports
In paragraph B, the writer says: “AIS scientists work across a number of sports, applying skills learned in one – such as building muscle strength in golfers – to others, such as swimming and squash”.
+ expertise = skills
=> ANSWER: B
2. An explanation of how visual imaging is employed in investigation
Keywords: how, visual imaging, investigation
In paragraph C, the writer states that: “It (refers to “SWAN system” mentioned in the previous sentence) collects images from digital cameras running at 50 frames a second and breaks down each part of a swimmer’s performance into factors that can be analysed individually – stroke length, stroke frequency, average duration of each stroke, velocity, start, lap and finish times, and so on.”
+ investigate =analyse
=> ANSWER: C
3. A reason for narrowing the scope of research activity
Keywords: narrowing, scope, research activity
In paragraph B, the writer says: “They (refers to technicians mentioned in the previous sentence) all focus on one aim: winning. “We can‟t waste our time looking at ethereal scientific questions that don‟t help the coach work with an athlete and improve performance..”
=> ANSWER: B
4. How some AIS ideas have been reproduced
Keywords: AIS ideas, reproduced
The last paragraph F is all about the replication of AIS ideas by other countries: ” Of course, there‟s nothing to stop other countries copying – and many have tried. Some years ago, the AIS unveiled coolant-lined jackets for endurance athletes. …The same has happened to the altitude tent, developed by AIS to replicate the effect of altitude training at sea level..”
+ to copy= to replicate ~to reproduce
=> ANSWER: F
5. How obstacles to optimum achievement can be investigated
Keywords: obstacles, optimum achievement
In paragraph D, the writer gives an example of analyzing the data on the swimmers: “He points out the data on the swimmers in second and third place, which shows that the one who finished third actually swam faster…..His turn times were 44 hundredths of a second behind the other guy, says Mason. If he can improve on his turn, he can do much better”.
The writer also adds some other examples (about sensors, protein level tests) which are used to optimize athletes‟ achievement.
=> ANSWER: D
6. An overview of the funded support of athletes
Keywords: funded support,
The writer mentions in paragraph A: “Another body, the Australian Sports Commission (ASC), finances programmes of excellence in a total of 96 sports for thousands of sportsmen and women.”
+ athletes = sportsmen and women
+ funded support = financing
=> ANSWER: A
7. How performance requirements are calculated before an event
Keywords: performance requirements, calculated, before an event
In paragraph E, the writer says: “Well before a championship, sports scientists and coaches start to prepare the athlete by developing a “competition model”, based on what they expect will be the winning times.”
+ event = championship
=> ANSWER: E
Classify the following techniques according to whether the writer states they:
A : are currently exclusively used by Australians
B: will be used in the future by Australians
C: are currently used by both Australians and their rivals.
scan this word and find it in paragraph C: “Mason’s contribution to sport also includes the development of the SWAN system now used in Australian national competitions. It collects images from digital cameras …”
scan and find it in paragraph D: “With the Cooperative Research Centre for Micro Technology in Melbourne, they are developing unobtrusive sensors that…” In this case, these sensors are still being developed, for use in the future.
=> ANSWER: B
10. Protein tests:
scan and find it in paragraph D: “…AIS and the University of Newcastle in New South Wales developed a test that measures how much of the immune-system protein immunoglobin is present in athletes‟ saliva….Since the tests were introduced, AIS athletes in all sports have been remarkably successful at staying healthy.”
=> ANSWER: A
11. Altitude tests:
scan and find it in paragraph F: “…Now everyone uses them. The same (refers to the copying of AIS ideas by other countries) has happened to the altitude tent.”
=> ANSWER: C
Questions 12 and 13:Answer the questions.
Choose no more than THREE words and/or a number from the passage for each answer.
12. What is produced to help an athlete plan their performance in an event?
Keywords: What, plan, performance
In paragraph E: “Well before a championship, sports scientists and coaches start to prepare the athlete by developing a “competition model”, based on what they expect will be the winning times.”
=> ANSWER: (a) competition model
13. By how much did some cyclists’ performance improve at the 1996 Olympic Games?
Keywords: how much, cyclists’ performance, improve , 1996 Olympic Games
Scanning the phrase “the 1996 Olympic Games”, find it in paragraph F: “At the Atlanta Olympic Games in 1996, these sliced as much as two per cent off cyclists’ and rowers‟ times.”
=> ANSWER: (by) 2 per cent/%
Passage 2: Delivering The Goods
Questions 14-17: Which paragraph contains the following information?
14. A suggestion for improving trade in the future
Keywords: suggestion, improving trade
The keyword “a suggestion” give us a clue down to the last paragraph, where the writer usually gives his own opinion, advice or suggestion. Thus, in paragraph I, the writer talks about the barriers in transportation in most countries then concludes: “Bringing these barriers down would help the world‟s economies grow even closer.”
=> ANSWER: I
15. The effects of the introduction of electronic delivery
Keywords: electronic delivery
In paragraph F, the writer says: “Computer software can be „exported‟ without ever loading it onto a ship, simply by transmitting it over telephone lines from one country to another, so freight rates and cargo-handling schedules become insignificant factors in deciding where to make the product.”
=> ANSWER: F
16. The similar cost involved in transporting a product from abroad or from a local supplier
Keywords: cost, abroad, local supplier
In paragraph E, the writer reports that: “Computer manufacturers in Japan or Texas will not face hugely bigger freight bills if they import drives from Singapore rather than purchasing them on the domestic market.”
+ a local supplier = the domestic market
=> ANSWER: E
17. The weakening relationship between the value of goods and the cost of their delivery
Keywords: value of goods, cost of delivery
In paragraph D, it is stated that: “As a result, less transportation is required to every dollar‟s worth of imports or exports.”
=> ANSWER: D
Questions 18-22: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2 ?
18. International trade is increasing at a greater rate than the world economy.
Keywords: International trade ,world economy, rate
In the first paragraph: “While the global economy has been expanding at a bit over 3% a year, the volume of trade has been rising at a compound annual rate of about twice that.” So, the statement is true.
+ the world economy = the global economy
+ to increase = to expand = to rise
=> ANSWER: TRUE
19. Cheap labour guarantees effective trade conditions.
Keywords: cheap, labour
In paragraph B, the writer says that: “Cheap labour may make Chinese clothing competitive in America, but if delays in shipment tie up working capital and cause winter coats to arrive in spring, trade may lose its advantages.” So, cheap labour does not guarantee effective trade conditions, because other factors such as delays in transport may damage the trade.
=> ANSWER: FALSE
20. Japan imports more meat and steel than France.
Keywords: Japan, meat and steel, France
Scan these keywords, then find out that all the related information is in paragraph C. However, there is no information about whether Japan imports more meat and steel than France, because the countries are not compared with each other.
=> ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
21. Most countries continue to prefer to trade with their nearby nations.
Keywords: countries, nearby nations
It is mentioned in paragraph D that: “Countries still trade disproportionately with their geographic neighbours.” This is definitely similar to the given statement.
+ nearby nations = geographic neighbours
=> ANSWER: TRUE
22. Small computer components are manufactured in Germany.
Keywords: computer components, Germany
All information related to computer components is given in paragraph E. The small computer components are disk drives which, we are told “…are small and light”. Also: “Most of the world‟s disk-drive manufacturing is concentrated in South-east Asia”. However, Germany is not mentioned throughout the paragraph.
+ computer components = disk drives
=> ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
Questions 23-26: Complete the summary using the list of words
23. Modern cargo-handling methods have had a significant effect on … as the business of moving freight around the world becomes increasingly streamlined.
Keywords: Modern cargo-handling methods, business of moving freight
The passage is about the “vast expansion in international trade” and “the explosion in international commerce (paragraph B)” In the beginning of the passage, it is stated that: “The vast expansion in international trade owes much to a revolution in the business of moving freight.” The “revolution in the business of moving freight” refers to “modern cargo-handling methods” (including electronic delivery, containerization specified in paragraphs E and F respectively). Therefore, we can easily choose the word “trade” among the given ones to fill in the space.
=> ANSWER: G
24. Manufacturers of computers, for instance, are able to import …from overseas, rather than having to rely on a local supplier.
Keywords: Manufacturers of computers
“….lightweight components” of manufactured goods are mentioned in paragraph D. Computers are then referred to in paragraph E, where the writer says that: “Computer manufacturers in Japan or Texas will not face hugely bigger freight bills if they import drives from Singapore rather than purchasing them on the domestic market.” Among the given list of words, “components”is the best choice.
=> ANSWER: B
25. The introduction of …… has meant that bulk cargo can be safely and efficiently moved over long distances.
Keywords: bulk cargo, safely and efficiently moved
Bulk cargo means transported goods that are heavy or large. Moving to paragraph G, we find that: “Forty years ago, the process of exporting or importing involved a great many stages of handling, which risked portions of the shipment being damaged or stolen along the way. The invention of the container crane made it possible to load and unload containers without capsizing the ship…” So the answer should be “container ships”.
+ introduction = invention
=> ANSWER: C
26. While international shipping is now efficient, there is still a need for governments to reduce ….. in order to free up the domestic cargo sector.
Keywords: governments, domestic cargo sector
In paragraph H, it is said that: “The shipping container transformed ocean shipping into a highly efficient, intensely competitive business. But getting the cargo to and from the dock was a different story. National governments, by and large, kept a much firmer hand on truck and railroad tariffs than on charges for ocean freight….airlines, then road hauliers and railways were freed from restrictions….Big productivity gains resulted…” Then the writer gives examples and gives his own advice in the rest of the passage. So the most suitable word is “tariffs”
+ The shipping container transformed ocean shipping into a highly efficient = While international shipping is now efficient
+ the domestic cargo sector = getting the cargo to and from the dock
=> ANSWER: A
Passage 3: Climate Change and the Inuit
Questions 27-32: Matching headings
27. Paragraph B
The whole paragraph indicates how Inuit people react to climate change: “…they are not content simply to stand back and let outside experts tell them what‟s happening …they believe their best hope of survival in this changing environment lies in combining their ancestral knowledge with the best of modern science.” So, the correct heading for this paragraph is “the reaction of Inuit people to climate change”
=> ANSWER: i
28. Paragraph C
In this paragraph, the writer describes how hard the Arctic environment is, for example: “The Canadian Arctic is a vast, treeless polar desert that‟s covered with snow for most of the year…. Farming is out of question and nature offers meagre pickings…. The environment tested them to the limits: sometimes the colonists were successful, sometimes they failed and vanished.”
So, the correct heading for this paragraph is “a difficult landscape”
=> ANSWER: vi
29. Paragraph D
Some alternative sources of essential supplies are mentioned in this paragraph: “Provisions available in local shops have to be flown into Nunavut on one of the most costly air networks in the world, or brought by supply ship during the few ice-free weeks of summer. It would cost a family around £7,000 a year to replace meat they obtained themselves through hunting with imported meat. “
So, the correct heading for this paragraph is “alternatives sources of essential supplies”
=> ANSWER: iii
30. Paragraph E
Negative effects of climate change on the Inuit people‟s life is the main idea of this paragraph. In the first sentence (topic sentence), the writer claims that: “While the Inuit may not actually starve if hunting and trapping are curtailed by climate change, there has certainly been an impact on people‟s health.” After that, the writer lists a variety of detrimental effects, including obesity, heart disease, diabetes, crisis of identity and a high incidence of depression. So, the correct heading for this paragraph is “Negative effects on well-being”
=> ANSWER: vii
31. Paragraph F
The paragraph is about the Inuit’s role in comparison with outside scientists in researching climate change: “With so much at stake, the Inuit are determined to play a key role in teasing out the mysteries of climate change in the Arctic.” To be more specific, the writer then talks about the growth of Inuit opinion represented by John Amagoalik, an Inuit leader and politician: ” In the early days, scientists ignored us…. But in recent years, IQ has had much more credibility and weight.” In fact, the Inuit are “helping to set the research agenda”. So, the correct heading for this paragraph should be ” Respect for Inuit opinion grows”
=> ANSWER: iv
32. Paragraph G
In this paragraph, the writer concludes: “There are still huge gaps in our environmental knowledge, and despite the scientific onslaught, many predictions are no more than best guesses.” This means “understanding of climate change remains limited.”
=> ANSWER: ii
Questions 33-40: Complete the summary of paragraph C and D. Choose no more than TWO words from these paragraphs.
33. It would clearly be impossible for the people to engage in…. as a means of supporting themselves.
Keywords: impossible, a means
Looking at paragraph C, we find that: “Farming is out of the question…” So the missing word is “farming”
+ impossible = out of the question
=> ANSWER: farming
34. & 35. For thousands of years they have had to rely on catching … and …as a means of sustenance.
Keywords: rely on , catching
The co-ordinator “and” gives us a sign to find two parallel words. Continuing to read paragraph C, we have: “Humans first settled in the Arctic a mere 4,500 years ago, surviving by exploiting sea mammals and fish.” So the missing word is “sea mammals” and “fish”.
+ thousands of years ~ 4,500 years
+ catching = exploiting
+ sea mammals and fish = a means of sustenance
=> ANSWER: sea mammals, fish
36. The …. people were an example of the latter and for them the environment did not prove unmanageable.
Keywords: the latter, environment, unmanageable
In the end of paragraph C, it is stated that: “But around a thousand years ago, one group emerged that was uniquely well adapted to cope with the Arctic environment. These Thule people moved in from Alaska, …. They are the ancestors of today‟s Inuit people.” Therefore, the Thule people are the latter.
=> ANSWER: Thule
37. The territory of Nuvanut consists of little more than ice, rock and a few…
Keywords: Nuvanut, ice, rock and..
“Ice, rock” cannot be paraphrased, so we merely have to scan these words. Moving to paragraph D, we find that: “Nuvanut is 1.9 million square kilometres of rock and ice, and a handful of islands around the North Pole.” So the missing word is “islands”.
+ a few = a handful of
=> ANSWER: islands
38 & 39. In recent years, many of them have been obliged to give up their …lifestyle, but they continue to depend mainly on ….for their food and clothes.
Keywords: give up, lifestyle, food and clothes.
The fourth sentence in paragraph D is : “Over the past 40 years, most have abandoned their nomadic ways and .., but they still rely heavily on nature to provide food and clothing. “
+ over the past 40 years = in recent years
+ many of them = most
+ give up = abandon
+ still = continue to
+ depend (mainly) on = rely (heavily) on
+ Life style = ways
So the missing words are “nomadic” and “nature”.
=> ANSWER: nomadic, nature
40. …produce is particularly expensive.
This keyword directs us to the sentence: “It would cost a family around £7,000 a year to replace meat they obtained themselves through hunting with imported meat. ” The amount of £7,000 means that the produce is particularly expensive, so the missing word is “imported”.
=> ANSWER: imported