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Passage 1: THE POWER OF THE BIG SCREEN
Questions 1-5: Which paragraph contains the following information?
1. The location of the first cinema
Keywords: location, first cinema
In paragraph A, the writer refers to a cinema called “Cinematographe” together with its location: “at 14 Boulevard des Capucines in Paris” as well as its early time of formation which is “on December 8, 1895”
2.How cinema came to focus on stories
Keywords: how, stories
In paragraph I, it is stated that “…it (refers to cinema) became, overwhelmingly, a medium for telling stories.”
3.The speed with which cinema has changed
Keywords: speed, changed
The change taking place in the cinema is clearly the main idea of paragraph J: “And it has all happened so quickly…it is a mere 100 years since……”
4.How cinema teaches us about other cultures.
Keywords: teaches, cultures
In paragraph E, the writer says that: “One effect of this realism was to educate the world about itself…….Long before people travelled to America or anywhere else, they knew what other places look like; they knew how other people worked and lived…”
+ to teach = to educate
How other places look like, how other people worked and lived ~ other cultures
5.The attraction of actors in films
Keywords: attraction, actors
The actor who holds attraction for audiences, or “star”, is mentioned in paragraph G: ” The „star‟ was another natural consequence of cinema….Film personalities have such an immediate presence that, inevitably, they become super-real”.
+ actors~stars~film personalities
Questions 6-9: YES/NO/NOT GIVEN
6.It is important to understand how the first audience reacted to the cinema.
Keywords: first audience, understand, reacted.
In paragraph B, the writer says that “…But it is worth trying, for to understand the initial shock of those images is to understand the extraordinary power and magic of cinema…”
“The initial shock of those images” refers to “how the first audience reacted to the cinema”. So the given statement agrees with the view of the writer.
+ important = worth trying
+first = initial
7.The Lumiere Brothers‟ film about the train was one of the greatest films ever made
Keywords: Lumiere Brothers‟ film, train, greatest films
Scan the keyword in capitals “Lumiere Brothers” then find it in paragraph C: “One of the Lumiere Brothers‟ earliest films was a 30 second piece which showed a section of a railway platform flooded with sunshine.
A train appears …. Yet the Russian director Andrei Tarkovsky, one of the greatest of all film artists described the film as a „work of genius‟.” The writer only says the director Andrei Tarkovsky is one of the greatest of all film artists. Only the opinion of this director is mentioned, so we are not told if this film was one of the greatest films ever made.
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
8.Cinema presents a biased view of other countries
Keywords: a biased view, other countries
All the information about the cinema‟s presentation of other countries is in paragraph E. Because of the influence of the American film industry: “American imagery – the cars, the cities, the cowboys – became the primary imagery of film. Film carried American life and values around the globe.” Thus, we are only told that most cinema audiences watched images of American life. We do not know if the cinema presents a biased view of other countries.
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
9.Storylines were important in very early cinema
Keywords: storylines, early cinema
In paragraph H, the writer mentions that: “All that mattered at first was the wonder of movement.” So movement, not storyline, was important in very early cinema.
+ in very early cinema = at first
+ important ~ mattered
Questions 10-13: Multiple choices
10.The writer refers to the film of the train in order to demonstrate
Keywords: film of the train
In paragraph C, the film of the train, “one of the Lumiere Brothers‟ earliest films”, is described: “As the train approached, panic started in the theatre: people jumped and ran away…….they feared that a real train was about to crush them.” So the writer refers to the film of the train in order to demonstrate the impact of early films.
11.In Tarkovsky‟s opinion, the attraction of the cinema is that it
Keywords: Tarkovsky, attraction of cinema
In paragraph D: “For Tarkovsky, the key to that magic was the way in which cinema created a dynamic image of the real flow of events….. in cinema, the real, objective flow of time was captured.”
+ attraction = magic
It means the attraction of the cinema is that it illustrates the passing of time.
=>ANSWER: Answer: C
12.When cinema first began, people thought that
Keywords: cinema first began
In paragraph H, the writer says that: “When the Lumiere Brothers and other pioneers began showing off this new invention, it was by no means obvious how it would be used. Indeed, some said that……cinema would fade away.” So when cinema first began, people thought that its future was uncertain.
13.What is the best title for this passage
The whole passage presents the introduction, development and impact of the cinema and only mentions in one or two paragraphs other topics such as stars, the comparison between cinema and novels, or the domination of Hollywood. So the best choice for its title is “The power of the big screen”.
Passage 2: Motivating Employees under Adverse Conditions
Questions 14-18: Matching headings
14.Key Point Two
This key point suggests an effective way of meeting the challenge to management : “The literature on goal-setting theory suggests that managers should ensure that all employees have specific goals and receive comments on how well they are doing in those goals.” So the main idea of this key point is: „establish targets and give feedback‟.
+ establish targets= setting goals
+ feedback = comments
15.Key Point Three
This key point shows that managers must ensure targets are realistic: “…..goals are achievable…managers must be sure…..that employees feel confident that their efforts can lead to performance goals.”
+ achievable = realistic ~ their efforts can lead to performance goals
+ to be sure ~ to ensure
16.Key Point Four
The main idea of this key point is about matching rewards to individuals: “managers could use their own knowledge of each employee to personalise the rewards over which they have control.”
+ each employee = individuals
+ personalise the rewards = match rewards to individuals
17.Key Point Five
In the topic sentence of this paragraph, the writer points out that: “Managers need to make rewards contingent on performance.” This means that managers must link rewards to achievement.
+ achievement = performance
18.Key Point Six
Continuing to talk about rewards, the writer states: “The way rewards are distributed should be transparent ….” then suggests a method of weighing inputs and outcomes according to employee group to make this key point feasible. So the correct heading of this key point is “ensure the reward system is fair.”
+ transparent ~ fair, so that everyone can understand clearly
Questions 19-24: YES/NO/NOT GIVEN
19.A shrinking organization tends to lose its less skilled employees rather than its more skilled employees.
Keywords: shrinking organization, skilled employees
In the first paragraph, the writer says that: “When an organization is shrinking, the best and most mobile workers are prone to leave voluntarily. …they are the ones….with the highest skills and experience.” So the given statement is opposite to the writer‟s view. The more skilled employees are the most likely to leave.
20.It is easier to manage a small business than a large business.
Keywords: small business, large business.
Small and large businesses are mentioned in Key Point One: “For example, if the job is running a small business or an autonomous unit within a larger business…..”, but there is no information about whether it is easier to manage a small business rather than a large business. Instead, the paragraph deals only with matching people to jobs.
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
21.High achievers are well suited to team work.
Keywords: High achievers, team work.
In the paragraph of Key Point One, the writer says: ” …high achievers will do best … where there is independence …” So, high achievers are well suited to work independently, not to team work.
22.Some employees can feel manipulated when asked to participate in goal-setting.
Keywords: manipulated, participate in goal-setting
Look at the paragraph of Key Point Two, in which it is said that: “If participation (in goal-setting) and the culture are incongruous, employees are likely to perceive the participation process as manipulative …” So, this means that some employees can feel manipulated when asked to participate in goal-setting.
23.The staff appraisal process should be designed by employees.
Keywords: staff appraisal process
“The staff appraisal process” is only mentioned in the paragraph of Key Point Three: “For managers, this means that employees must have the capability of doing the job and must regard the appraisal process as valid.” However, the writer does not say anything about whether this process should be designed by employees or not.
+ staff = employees
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
24.Employees‟ earnings should be disclosed to everyone within the organization.
Keywords: earnings, disclosed
In the paragraph of Key Point Five, the writer suggests that: “Eliminating the secrecy surrounding pay by openly communicating everyone‟s remuneration, publicising performance bonuses ….will make rewards more visible …….” So, the statement agrees with the view of the writer.
+ earnings = pay, remuneration
+ disclose = eliminate the secrecy, openly communicate, publicise
Questions 25-27: Match each group with the correct description.
In Key Point Two, the writer states that: “For those with high achievement needs… the existence of goals is less important because high achievers are already internally motivated.” So high achievers have less need of external goals, because they have high internal motivation.
In Key Point Six, the writer points out: “The clerical workers considered factors such as quality of work performed and job knowledge near the top of their list” (the list of inputs and outcomes placed in degree of importance). So they think that the quality of their work is important.
In Key Point Six, the writer also states that: “…production workers rated advancement very highly…” It means that they judge promotion to be important.
+ promotion = advancement
Passage 3: The Search for the Anti-aging Pill
Questions 28-32: YES/NO/NOT GIVEN
28.Studies show drugs available today can delay the process of growing old.
Keywords: drugs available today
In the first sentence of the passage, the writer states: “As researchers on aging noted recently, no treatment on the market today has been proved to slow human aging…”. It is similar to the given statement.
+drugs available ~ treatment on the market
+ delay = slow
+ the process of growing old= human aging
29.There is scientific evidence that eating fewer calories may extend human life.
Keywords: scientific evidence, eating fewer calories
In the first paragraph, it is reported that: “But one intervention, consumption of a low-calorie yet nutritionally balanced diet, works incredibly well in a broad range of animals, increasing longevity and prolonging good health.” Furthermore, in paragraphs 4, 5 and 6, the writer describes scientists‟ experiments studying the benefits of a caloric-restricted diet for rats and monkeys. So, there is scientific evidence that eating fewer calories may extend human life.
+ extend human life = increasing longevity
30.Not many people are likely to find a caloric-restricted diet attractive.
Keywords: a caloric-restricted diet, attractive
It is stated in the second paragraph: “Few mortals could stick to that harsh a regimen….”, which means few people would like such a harsh caloric-restricted diet. So, the given statement is similar to the writer‟s view.
+ people = mortals
+ diet = regimen
31.Diet-related diseases are common in older people.
Keywords: Diet-related diseases , older people.
Age-related diseases are mentioned in the second paragraph: ” Could such a caloric-restriction mimetic….enable people to stay healthy longer, postponing age-related disorders (such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis) …..” However, the writer does not say anything about diet-related diseases in old age.
+ disease =disorder
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
32.In experiments, rats who ate what they wanted led shorter lives than rats on a low-calorie diet.
Keywords: experiments, rats, low-calorie diet
The experiment on rats is reported in the third and fourth paragraphs: “…they found that rats fed a low-calorie diet lived longer on average than free-feeding rats…” So, rats who ate what they wanted led shorter lives than rats on a low-calorie diet. rats who ate what they wanted = free-feeding rats
Questions 33-37: Classify the following descriptions as relating to:
- Caloric-restricted monkeys
- Control monkeys
- Neither caloric-restricted monkeys nor control monkeys
The comparison between caloric-restricted monkeys and control ones (ones that eat normally) is reported in paragraphs 5 and 6. The caloric-restricted monkeys: “have lower body temperature and levels of the pancreatic hormone insulin”; “have lower blood pressure and triglyceride levels (signifying a decreased likelihood of heart disease)….;”have more normal blood glucose levels (pointing to a reduced risk for diabetes)” and “have less chronic disease”.
33.Monkeys were less likely to become diabetic
34.Monkeys experienced more chronic disease.
35.Monkeys have been shown to experience a longer than average life span
In the sixth paragraph, the writer says: “They (refers to caloric-restricted monkeys) and the other monkeys must be followed still longer, however, to know whether low-calorie intake can increase both average and maximum lifespan in monkeys.” It means that we do not yet know whether caloric-restricted monkeys experience a longer than average life span than the control monkeys.
36.Monkeys enjoyed a reduced chance of heart disease.
37.Monkeys produced greater quantities of insulin.
Questions 38-40: Choose no more than TWO words from the passage to complete the flow-chart:
How a caloric- restriction mimetic works
Less 38……is produced
Productions of ATP is decreased
Theory 1: Theory 2:
Cells less damaged by disease because fewer Cel ls focus on 40…..because food is in short supply 39……are emitted
38.In the last paragraph, the writer says that: “.caloric restriction minimizes the amount of glucose entering cells…..” This means that less glucose is produced than normal.
39.According to the last paragraph, there are two “explanations for why interruption of glucose processing and ATP production might retard aging.”
In which, “one possibility relates to the ATP-making machinery‟s emission of free radicals ….Reduced operation of the machinery should limit their production and thereby constrain the damage.”The words “their production” refers to “the ATP-making machinery‟s emission of free radicals”. So, the damage is constrained because of limited emission of free radicals, or fewer free radicals are emitted.
=>ANSWER: free radicals
40.It is also stated in the last paragraph that: “Another hypothesis suggests that decrease processing of glucose could indicate to cells that food is scarce and induce them to shift into an anti-aging mode that emphasizes preservation of the organism…”
+ in short supply = scarce
+ focus on = emphasize