CAMBRIDGE IELTS 5 READING – TEST 4 – ANSWERS

CAMBRIDGE IELTS 5 READING – TEST 4 – ANSWERS

CAMBRIDGE IELTS 5 – TEST 4 – PASSAGE 1

Questions 1 – 3:   Choose the correct heading

=>ANSWER:      1. iii

  1. v
  2. ii

 

Explanation:

  1. i) The expansion of international tourism in recent years

Keywords: expansion, international tourism

At the beginning of paragraph 1, Section A, the writer says: “The market for tourism in remote areas is blooming as never before”. The writer only refers to the expansion of tourism in remote areas, not to international tourism.

=> Incorrect

 

  1. ii)  How local communities can balance their own needs with the demands of wilderness tourism.

Keywords: how, balance, needs, demands, wilderness tourism

Section  C  discusses  how  to  balance  the  needs  of  local  communities  and  demands  for  wilderness  tourism.   For  example:

Paragraph  6 states that “Although tourism inevitably affects the region in which it takes place, the cost to these fragile environments  and  their local  cultures  can  be  minimized. Indeed, it  can  even be  a  vehicle  for  reinvigorating local cultures, as has happened with the Sherpas of Nepal’s Khumbu Valley and some Alpine villages.”

+ minimized: reduced, controlled to an appropriate level or standard.

+ reinvigorating: strengthening, boosting

Then, in paragraphs 7, 8 and 9, the writer continues to discuss strategies, solutions and measures which have been taken in the Swiss Alps, Arctic tourist destinations and American Southwest regions.

In paragraph 10, the writer explains: “Merely restricting tourism cannot be the solution to the imbalance, because people’s desire  to  see  new  places  will  not  just  disappear.  Instead,  communities  in  fragile  environments  must  achieve  greater control over tourism ventures in their regions, in order to balance their needs and aspirations with the demands of tourism”.

=>   Section C

 

iii) Fragile regions and the reasons for the expansion of tourism there.

Keywords: fragile, reasons, expansion of tourism

Paragraph  1  of  Section  A  defines  fragile  regions  as:  ”  highly  vulnerable  to  abnormal  pressure)  not  just  in  terms  of  their ecology, but also in terms of the culture of their inhabitants. The three most significant types of fragile environment in  these respects,  and  also in  terms  of  the  proportion  of  the  Earth’s  surface they cover,  are  deserts,  mountains  and Arctic areas”

In paragraph 2 of  Section A, the writer explains that: “Tourists  are   drawn to these regions  by their natural  landscape beauty  and  the  unique  cultures  of  their  indigenous  people.  And  poor  governments  in  these  isolated  areas  have welcomed  the  new  breed  of  “ adventure  tourist”,  grateful  for  the  hard  currency  they  bring.  For several  years  now, tourism has been the prime source of foreign exchange in Nepal and Bhutan. Tourism is also a key element in the

economies of Arctic zones¼.”

=> Section A

 

  1. iv)  Traditional methods of food-supply in fragile regions

Keywords: traditional methods, food-supply

Although in Section B, the writer mentions a little about traditional methods of food-supply as “In Arctic and desert societies, year-round survival has traditionally depended on hunting animals and fish and collecting fruit over a relatively short season”, it is not the main idea of Section B. Section B discusses a lot more about the impacts of tourism on the fragile regions in general and on the traditional methods of food-supply in particular.

 

For example, in paragraph 3 of Section B, the writer argues the effects of tourism on the local community: “Once a location is established as a main tourist destination, the effects on the local community are profound.” And: ” The result has been that many people in these regions have turned to outside supplies of rice and other foods”

Paragraph 4 continues to argue that tourism also influences the hunting and collecting habits of the inhabitants “However, as some inhabitants become involved in tourism, they no longer have time to collect wild food; this has led to increasing dependence on bought food and stores”.

=>  Incorrect

 

  1. v) Some of the disruptive effects of wilderness tourism

Keywords: disruptive effects, wilderness tourism

disruptive effects = serious decline in farm output, undermine traditional survival systems, erosion.

Section B describes the impacts of wilderness tourism in detail:

In paragraph 3 of Section B, the writer says: ” In some hill-regions, this has led to a serious decline in farm output and a change  in  the  local  diet  because  there  is  insufficient  labour  to  maintain  terraces  and  irrigation  systems  and  tend  to crops.”

In  paragraph  4  of  Section  B,  the  writer  says:  “All  kinds  of  wage  labour  or  government  handouts,  tend  to  undermine traditional survival systems”.

In paragraph 5 of  Section B, the writer  says:  “much attention has focused on  erosion  along major trails, but  perhaps  more important are the deforestation and impacts on water supplies”

=> Section B

 

  1. vi) The economic benefits of mass tourism

Keywords: benefit, mass tourism

Mass tourism: the act of visiting a destination with large amounts of people at one time. It is not clearly mentioned in Passage 1 that mass tourism can bring about economic benefits to these regions.

In Section B, for example, we learn that:   “hill-farmers…can make more money in a few weeks working as porters for foreign trekkers than they can in a year working in the fields…”  However, as we have already seen from v) above, Section B is mostly about the “disruptive effects” of wilderness tourism.

=> Incorrect

 

Questions 4-9:   YES/NO/NOT GIVEN

 

4)  The low financial cost of setting up wilderness tourism makes it attractive to many countries

Keywords: low financial cost, wilderness, tourism, attractive

In  paragraph  1  of  Section  A,  the  writer  says:  “The  attraction  of  these  areas  is  obvious:  by  definition,  wilderness  tourism requires little or no initial investment”. low financial cost of setting up = little or no initial investment

=>ANSWER:      YES

 



5) Deserts, mountains and Arctic regions are examples of environments that are both ecologically and culturally fragile.

Keywords: deserts, mountains, Arctic, examples, ecologically, culturally, fragile.

In paragraph 1 of Section A, the writer says: “these areas are fragile (i.e. highly vulnerable to abnormal pressures) not just in terms of their ecology, but also in terms of the culture of their inhabitants. The three most significant types of fragile environment  in  these  respects,  and  also  in  terms  of  the  proportion  of  the  Earth‟s  surface  they  cover,  are  deserts, mountains and Arctic areas.”

+ both ecologically and culturally fragile = fragile not just in terms of their ecology but also in terms of the culture

=>ANSWER:         YES

 

6) Wilderness tourism operates throughout the year in fragile areas.

Keywords: operate, throughout the year, fragile

In paragraph 1 of Section A, the writer says: ” Consequently,  most human activities, including tourism, are limited to quite clearly defined parts of the year.”

+ are limited to a quite clear defined parts of the year: only take place in certain months or quarters of the year. So, wilderness tourism does not operate throughout the year in fragile areas.

=>ANSWER:          NO

 

7) The spread of tourism in certain hill-regions has resulted in a fall in the amount of food produced locally.

Keywords: spread, hill-regions, fall, food, produced, locally

In paragraph 4, Section B, the writer says:  “it is not surprising that they give up their farm-work, which is thus left to others members of the family. In some hill regions, this has led to a serious decline in farm output and a change in the local diet, because there is insufficient labour  to maintain terraces and irrigation systems and tend to crops. The result has been that many people in these regions have turned to outside supplies of rice and other foods.”

+ amount of food = farm output

+ has resulted in a fall in the amount of food produced locally = has led to a serious decline in farm output and a change in the local diet.

=>ANSWER:         YES

 

8) Traditional food gathering in desert societies was distributed evenly over the year.

Keywords: traditional, food gathering, desert, distributed, evenly, year

In paragraph 4, Section B, the writer says: “In Arctic and desert societies, year-round survival has traditionally depended on hunting animals and fish and collecting fruit over a relatively short season”.

+ traditional food gathering = hunting animals and fish and collecting fruit

+ distributed evenly over the year: took place regularly and frequently through the year >< a relatively short season

=>ANSWER:         NO

 



9) Government handouts do more damage than tourism does to traditional patterns of food-gathering

Keywords: handouts, dangerous, traditional patterns

In paragraph 2 of  Section B, the writer says: “Tourism is not always the culprit behind such changes. All kinds wage labour, or  government  handouts,  tend  to  undermine  traditional  survival  systems”.  This  means  that  besides  tourism, government  handouts  are  also  dangerous  to  traditional  survival  systems,  i.e.  the  patterns  of  food-gathering.  But  the writer does not compare what does more damage to the traditional systems, government handouts or tourism.

=>ANSWER:        NOT GIVEN

 

Questions 10 – 13:

Choose ONE word from the passage

 

10) revived production of ¼

Keywords: Swiss Pays d‟Enhaut, activity, revived, production.

Positive ways in which some local communities have responded to tourism.

In paragraph 7, Section C, the writer says: “Local concern about the rising number of second home developments in the Swiss

Pays “Enhaut resulted in limits being imposed on their growth. There has also been a renaissance in communal cheese production in the area”.

+ revived production = renaissance in communal cheese production

=>ANSWER:    cheese

 

11) operate …businesses

Keywords: Arctic communities, operate, businesses

=>ANSWER:   tourism/tourist/ tour

 

12) Produce and sell

Keywords: Acoma, San Ildefonso, produce, sell

In paragraph 9, Section C, the writer says: “The Acoma and San lldefonso pueblos have established highly profitable pottery businesses, while the Navajo and Hopi groups have been similarly successful with jewellery”

+ produce and sell = businesses

=>ANSWER:      pottery

 

13) Produce and sell¼

Keywords: Navajo and Hopi, produce, sell

In paragraph 9, Section C, the writer says: “The Acoma and San lldefonso pueblos have established highly profitable pottery businesses, while the Navajo and Hopi groups have been similarly successful with jewellery”

=>ANSWER:     jewellery/ jewelry

 



CAMBRIDGE IELTS 5 – TEST 4 – PASSAGE 2

Questions 14 -17:   Match each person with the correct statement

  1. G
  2. A
  3. H
  4. C

Explanations:

 

  1. suggests that publicity about nickel sulphide failure has been suppressed.

Keywords: publicity, nickel sulphide failure

In paragraph 3, the writer states that   “What  you hear  is  only the  “tip of  the iceberg”, says  Trevor Ford, a glass expert  at Resolve Engineering in Brisbane, Queenland. He believes the reason is simple: “No-one wants bad press””.

+ publicity = press

+ “Tip of the iceberg”:  a small part of the big problem. Treveor Ford implied that what the public knew about the nickel sulphide failure  was  only  a  small  part  of  the  big  problem.   In  other  words,  Trevor  Ford  suggests  that  publicity  about  nickel sulphide failure has been suppressed or hidden.

=>ANSWER 15:   A

 

  1. regularly sees cases of nickel sulphide failure

Keywords: regularly, see, failure

In paragraph 3, the writer states that:  “Others disagree. „On average I  see about  one or two buildings a month suffering from  nickel  sulphide  related  failures,‟  says  Barrie  Josie,  a  consultant  engineer  involved  in  the  Bishops  Walk investigation.  Other  experts  tell  of  similar  experiences.  Tony  Wilmott  of  London-based  consulting  engineers

Sandberg, and Simon Armstrong at CladTech Associates in Hampshire both say they know of hundreds of cases.” Barrie Josie, Tony Wilmott, Simon Armstrong see some cases of nickel sulphide related failures.

=>  incorrect

 

  1. Closely examined all the glass in one building

Keywords: examined, all, one building

In  paragraph  10,  the  writer  says  that:  “John  Barry,  an  expert  in  nickel  sulphide  contamination  at  the  University  of Queensland, analysed every glass pane in the building.”

+ examine = analyse

+ all = every

=>ANSWER:        17.C

 

  1. Was involved with the construction of Bishop Walk

Keywords: involve, construction, Bishop Walk

In paragraph 3, the writer says that Barrie Josie was a consultant engineer who was involved in the Bishop Walk investigation, not in the construction of Bishop Walk.

=>   incorrect

 

  1. Recommended the rebuilding of Waterfront Place

Keywords: recommend, rebuilding, Waterfront Place

In paragraph 10, the writer says that John Barry analysed every glass pane in the building of Waterfront Place and “discovered at least another 120 panes with potentially dangerous inclusions which were then replaced”. Barry did not recommend the rebuilding of Waterfront Place.

=>     incorrect

 

  1. thinks the benefits of toughened glass are exaggerated.

Keywords: benefits, exaggerated

In paragraph 9, the writer states: “if you experience one nickel sulphide failure in your building, that probably means you’ve got a problem in more than one pane. Josie says that in the last decade he has worked on over 15 buildings with the number of failures into double figures”. So, it is Josie who thinks the benefits of toughened glass are exaggerated, not Brian, Trevor, Graham, John Barry.

=>     incorrect

 

  1. Claims that nickel sulphide failure is very unusual

Keywords: nickel sulphide failure, unusual

In paragraph 2, Brian Waldron “insists that cases are few and far between. “It’s a very rare phenonmenon”, he says”.

+ unusual = few and far between/ rare phenonmenon

=>ANSWER:   14.G

 

  1. refers to the most extreme case of delayed failure

Keywords: extreme case, delayed failure

In  paragraph  8,  Graham  Dodd  says,  “the  oldest  pane  of  toughened  glass  known  to  have  failed  due  to  nickel  sulphide inclusions was in in Pilkington’s glass research building in Lathom, Lancashire. The pane was 27 years old”.

=>ANSWER:     16. H

 

Questions 18 -23:

Complete the summary with the list of words

 

18)  Toughened glass  is favoured by architects  because  it is  much stronger  than ordinary  glass, and the fragments  are  not as…when it breaks.

Keywords: toughened, architects, stronger, fragments, breaks.

In  paragraph  4,  the  writer  explains:  “Toughened  glass  is  found  everywhere…This  glass  has  five  times  the  strength  of standard glass, and when it does break it shatters into tiny cubes rather than large, razor-sharp shards. Architects love it because large panels can be bolted together to make transparent walls…”

=>ANSWER:    F. sharp

 



19) However, it has one disadvantage: it can shatter¼

Keywords: disadvantage, shatter

In paragraph 7, the writer explains:  “This leaves  unstable alpha crystals  in the glass,  primed like a coiled spring, ready to revert  to  the  beta  phase  without  warning.”

In  paragraph  8,  the  writer  continues:   “When  this  happens,  the  crystals expand…the  stresses  this  releases  can  shatter  the  whole  sheet…The  time  that  elapses  before  failure  occurs  is unpredictable.”

+ unexpectedly = without warning, unpredictable

=>ANSWER:     I. unexpectedly

 

20) Ordinary glass is first healed, then cooled very¼

Keywords: ordinary, healed, cooled,

In paragraph 5, the writer says how toughened glass is manufactured: “It is made by heating a sheet of ordinary glass to about 620oC to soften it slightly, allowing its structure to expand,  and then cooling it rapidly with jets of cold air.”

+ quickly = rapidly

=>ANSWER:    C. quickly

 

21) The outer layer … before the inner layer, and the tension between the two layers which is created because of this makes the glass stronger.

Keywords: outer layer, before, inner layer.

In paragraph 5, the writer says:  “This causes the outer layer of the pane to contract and solidify before the interior”.

=>ANSWER:    K. contracts

 

22) However, if the glass contains nickel sulphide impurities, crystals of nickel sulphide are formed. These are unstable, and can expand suddenly, particularly if the weather is…

Keywords: crystals, nickel sulphide, unstable, expand, weather

In paragraph 6, the writer says: “The problem starts when glass contains nickel sulphide impurities. Trace amounts¼ As the glass is heated, these atoms react to form tiny crystals of nickel sulphide”

=>ANSWER:        E. warm

 



23) The frequency with which such problems occur is… by glass experts.

Keywords:  frequency, experts

In paragraph 2, Brian Waldon says:  “it‟s a very rare phenomenon”.

In paragraph 3, Barrie Josie says: “On average I see about one or two buildings a month suffering from nickel sulphide related failures”; Tony Wilmott and Simon Armstrong say they know of hundreds of cases; Trevor Ford says: “what you hear is only the tip of the iceberg”.  These experts, therefore, argue about how common the problem is.

=>ANSWER:     L. disputed

 

Questions 24 -26:   TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN

 

24) Little doubt was expressed about the reason for the Bishops Walk accident.

Keywords: little, doubt, reason, Bishops Walk

In paragraph 1, the accident at Bishops Walk shopping centre is mentioned.  The fragments of the glass roof were examined by experts.   “They found that minute crystals of nickel sulphide trapped inside the glass had almost certainly caused the failure”.

+ little doubt = almost certainly

+ reason = caused

=>ANSWER:        TRUE

 

25) Toughened glass has the same appearance as ordinary glass.

Keywords: toughened glass, same, appearance, ordinary glass

In  paragraph  5,  the  writer  says:  ”  It  is  made  by  the  heating  a  sheet  of  ordinary  glass  to  about  620°C  to  soften  it  slightly, allowing its structure to expand, and then cooling it rapidly with jets of cold air.”

it = toughened glass

So, the writer only mentions the process of manufacturing toughened glass from ordinary glass. There is no information about the comparison of their appearance.

=>ANSWER:      NOT GIVEN

 

26) There is plenty of documented evidence available about the incidence of nickel sulphide failure.

Keywords: plenty, documented evidence, failure

In paragraph 9, the writer says: “Data showing the scale of the nickel sulphide problem is almost impossible to find. The picture is made more complicated by the fact that these crystals occur in batches.”

+ documented evidence = data

+ incidence = scale

+ plenty of documented evidence available >< almost impossible to find

=>ANSWER:      FALSE

 

CAMBRIDGE IELTS 5 – TEST 4 – PASSAGE 3

 



Questions 27-33:   TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN

27, There is plenty of scientific evidence to support photoperiodism

Keywords: plenty, scientific evidence, photoperiodism

In paragraph 2, the writer says: “The seasonal impact of day length on physiological responses is called photoperiodism, the amount of experimental evidence for this phenomenon is considerable.”

scientific evidence = experimental evidence

plenty = considerable

=>ANSWER:         TRUE

 

28) Some types of bird can be encouraged to breed out of season

Keywords: bird, encouraged, breed out of season

In paragraph 2, the writer says: “For example, some species of birds‟ breeding can be induced even in midwinter simply by increasing day length artificially (Wolfson 1964)”.

+ types = species

+ out of season = even in midwinter

=>ANSWER:        TRUE

 

29) Photoperiodism is restricted to certain geographic areas

Keywords: Photoperiodism, restricted, geographic

In paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 the writer refers to temperate zones – those parts of the world with a temperate climate. However, there is no mention of any geographical restriction of photoperiodism.

 

30)  Desert annuals are examples of long-day plants

Keywords: desert annuals, long-day plants

In  paragraph  4,  the  writer  says:  “Day-neutral  plants  have  an  evolutionary  advantage  when  the  connection  between  the favourable period for reproduction and day length is much less certain. For example, desert annuals germinate, flower and seed whenever suitable rainfall occurs, regardless of the day length” desert annuals are examples of day-neutral plants, not long-day plants.

 



31) Bamboos flower several times during their life cycle

Keywords: bamboo, flower, several, life cycle

In  paragraph 5, the writer says:  “Bamboos  are perennial  grasses that  remain in a vegetative state for  many years  and  then suddenly flower, fruit and die” Bamboos flower only once in their life, then die.

=>ANSWER:    FALSE

 

32) Scientists have yet to determine the cue for Chusquea abietifolia‟s seasonal rhythm

Keywords: scientists, Chusquea abietifolia,  cue, seasonal rhythm

In paragraph 5, the writer says: “Every bamboo of the species Chusquea abietifolia …set seed and died during 1884. The next generation of bamboo flowered and died between 1916 and 1918, which suggests a vegetative cycle of about 31 years.

The climatic trigger for this flowering cycle is not yet known, but the adaptive significance is clear. The simultaneous production of masses of bamboo seeds…. is more than all the seed-eating animals can cope with at the time, so that some seeds escape being eaten and grow up to form the next generation (Evans 1976)”.

+ yet to determine = not yet known

+ cue = trigger

+ seasonal rhythm = cycle

=>ANSWER:     TRUE

 

33) Eastern hemlock is a fast growing plant

Keywords: hemlock, fast growing

In paragraph 7, the writer states: “Shade-tolerant plants have lower photosynthetic rates  and hence have lower growth rates than those of shade-intolerant species”, and “For example, eastern hemlock seedlings are shade-tolerant.”

+ fast growing plant ><have lower growth rates

=>ANSWER:   FALSE

 

Questions 34-40:

Complete the sentences.  Choose no more than three words from the passage.

 

34) Day length is a useful cue for breeding in areas where … are unpredictable

Keywords: day length, cue, breeding

In paragraph 2, the writer states: “Day length is an excellent cue, because it provides a perfectly predictable pattern of change within  the  year.  In  the  temperate  zone  in  spring,  temperatures  fluctuate  greatly  from  day  to  day,  but  day  length increases steadily by a predictable amount”.

+ unpredictable = fluctuate greatly from day to day

=>ANSWER:   temperatures

 



35) Plants which do not respond to light levels are referred to as …

Keywords: plants, not respond, light levels

In paragraph 2, the writer states: “Plants which flower after a period of vegetative growth,  regardless of photoperiod, are known as day-neutral plants”

+ not respond to light levels = regardless of photoperiod

=>ANSWER:   day-neutral plants/day-neutral

 

36) Birds in temperate climates associate longer day with nesting and the availability of ¼

Keywords: bird, temperate, associate, longer day, nesting, availability

In paragraph 3, the writer states: “Thus many temperate-zone birds use the increasing day lengths in spring as a cue to begin the nesting cycle, because this is a point when adequate food resources will be assured”

birds in temperate climates = temperate-zone birds

=>ANSWER:     food/ food resources/ adequate food/ adequate food resources

 

37) Plants that flower when days are long often depend on ¼. to help them reproduce.

Keywords: plant, long, depend, reproduce

In paragraph 4, the writer states: “Long-day plants are adapted for situations that require fertilization by insects, or a long period of seed ripening”.

=>ANSWER:   insects/ fertilization by insects

 

38)  Desert annuals respond to … as a signal for reproduction.

Keywords: desert annual, signal, reproduction

In  paragraph  4,  the  writer  states:  “Day-neutral  plants  have  an  evolutionary  advantage  when  the  connection  between  the favourable period for reproduction and day length is much less certain. For example, desert annuals germinate, flower and seed whenever suitable rainfall occurs, regardless of the day length”

+ a signal for reproduction = germinate, flower and seed

=>ANSWER:     rainfall/ suitable rainfall

 

39) There is no limit to the photosynthetic rate in plants such as¼

Keywords: no limit, photosynthetic rate

In paragraph 6, the writer states: ” Some plants reach maximum photosynthesis at one quarter full sunlight, and others, like sugarcane, never reach maximum, but continue to increase photosynthesis rate as light intensity rises.”

+ no limit = never reach maximum

=>ANSWER:   sugarcane

 

40) Tolerance to shade is one criterion for the¼¼.of plants in forestry and horticulture.

Keywords: tolerance to shade, criterion, forestry, horticulture.

In paragraph 7, the  writer states: “Plants in general can be divided into two groups: shade-tolerant species and shade-intolerant species. This classification is commonly used in forestry and horticulture.”

=>ANSWER:     Classification

 

 

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