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Passage 1: The Impact of Wilderness Tourism
Questions 1 – 3: Choose the correct heading
i) The expansion of international tourism in recent years
Keywords: expansion, international tourism
At the beginning of paragraph 1, Section A, the writer says: “The market for tourism in remote areas is blooming as never before”. The writer only refers to the expansion of tourism in remote areas, not to international tourism.
ii) How local communities can balance their own needs with the demands of wilderness tourism.
Keywords: how, balance, needs, demands, wilderness tourism
Section C discusses how to balance the needs of local communities and demands for wilderness tourism. For example: Paragraph 6 states that “Although tourism inevitably affects the region in which it takes place, the cost to these fragile environments and their local cultures can be minimized. Indeed, it can even be a vehicle for reinvigorating local cultures, as has happened with the Sherpas of Nepal’s Khumbu Valley and some Alpine villages.”
+ minimized: reduced, controlled to an appropriate level or standard.
+ reinvigorating: strengthening, boosting
Then, in paragraphs 7, 8 and 9, the writer continues to discuss strategies, solutions and measures which have been taken in the Swiss Alps, Arctic tourist destinations and American Southwest regions.
In paragraph 10, the writer explains: “Merely restricting tourism cannot be the solution to the imbalance, because people’s desire to see new places will not just disappear. Instead, communities in fragile environments must achieve greater control over tourism ventures in their regions, in order to balance their needs and aspirations with the demands of tourism”.
=> Section C
iii) Fragile regions and the reasons for the expansion of tourism there.
Keywords: fragile, reasons, expansion of tourism
Paragraph 1 of Section A defines fragile regions as: ” highly vulnerable to abnormal pressure) not just in terms of their ecology, but also in terms of the culture of their inhabitants. The three most significant types of fragile environment in these respects, and also in terms of the proportion of the Earth’s surface they cover, are deserts, mountains and Arctic areas”
In paragraph 2 of Section A, the writer explains that: “Tourists are drawn to these regions by their natural landscape beauty and the unique cultures of their indigenous people. And poor governments in these isolated areas have welcomed the new breed of “ adventure tourist”, grateful for the hard currency they bring. For several years now, tourism has been the prime source of foreign exchange in Nepal and Bhutan. Tourism is also a key element in the economies of Arctic zones…”
=> Section A
iv: Traditional methods of food-supply in fragile regions
Keywords: traditional methods, food-supply
Although in Section B, the writer mentions a little about traditional methods of food-supply as “In Arctic and desert societies, year-round survival has traditionally depended on hunting animals and fish and collecting fruit over a relatively short season”, it is not the main idea of Section B. Section B discusses a lot more about the impacts of tourism on the fragile regions in general and on the traditional methods of food-supply in particular.
For example, in paragraph 3 of Section B, the writer argues the effects of tourism on the local community: “Once a location is established as a main tourist destination, the effects on the local community are profound.” And: ” The result has been that many people in these regions have turned to outside supplies of rice and other foods”
Paragraph 4 continues to argue that tourism also influences the hunting and collecting habits of the inhabitants “However, as some inhabitants become involved in tourism, they no longer have time to collect wild food; this has led to increasing dependence on bought food and stores”.
v. Some of the disruptive effects of wilderness tourism
Keywords: disruptive effects, wilderness tourism
disruptive effects = serious decline in farm output, undermine traditional survival systems, erosion.Section B describes the impacts of wilderness tourism in detail:
In paragraph 3 of Section B, the writer says: ” In some hill-regions, this has led to a serious decline in farm output and a change in the local diet because there is insufficient labour to maintain terraces and irrigation systems and tend to crops.”
In paragraph 4 of Section B, the writer says: “All kinds of wage labour or government handouts, tend to undermine traditional survival systems”.
In paragraph 5 of Section B, the writer says: “much attention has focused on erosion along major trails, but perhaps more important are the deforestation and impacts on water supplies”
=> Section B
vi: The economic benefits of mass tourism
Keywords: benefit, mass tourism
Mass tourism: the act of visiting a destination with large amounts of people at one time. It is not clearly mentioned in Passage 1 that mass tourism can bring about economic benefits to these regions.
In Section B, for example, we learn that: “hill-farmers…can make more money in a few weeks working as porters for foreign trekkers than they can in a year working in the fields…” However, as we have already seen from v) above, Section B is mostly about the “disruptive effects” of wilderness tourism.
Questions 4-9: YES/NO/NOT GIVEN
4) The low financial cost of setting up wilderness tourism makes it attractive to many countries
Keywords: low financial cost, wilderness, tourism, attractive
In paragraph 1 of Section A, the writer says: “The attraction of these areas is obvious: by definition, wilderness tourism requires little or no initial investment”. low financial cost of setting up = little or no initial investment
5) Deserts, mountains and Arctic regions are examples of environments that are both ecologically and culturally fragile.
Keywords: deserts, mountains, Arctic, examples, ecologically, culturally, fragile.
In paragraph 1 of Section A, the writer says: “these areas are fragile (i.e. highly vulnerable to abnormal pressures) not just in terms of their ecology, but also in terms of the culture of their inhabitants. The three most significant types of fragile environment in these respects, and also in terms of the proportion of the Earth‟s surface they cover, are deserts, mountains and Arctic areas.”
+ both ecologically and culturally fragile = fragile not just in terms of their ecology but also in terms of the culture
6) Wilderness tourism operates throughout the year in fragile areas.
Keywords: operate, throughout the year, fragile
In paragraph 1 of Section A, the writer says: ” Consequently, most human activities, including tourism, are limited to quite clearly defined parts of the year.”
+ are limited to a quite clear defined parts of the year: only take place in certain months or quarters of the year. So, wilderness tourism does not operate throughout the year in fragile areas.
7) The spread of tourism in certain hill-regions has resulted in a fall in the amount of food produced locally.
Keywords: spread, hill-regions, fall, food, produced, locally
In paragraph 4, Section B, the writer says: “it is not surprising that they give up their farm-work, which is thus left to others members of the family. In some hill regions, this has led to a serious decline in farm output and a change in the local diet, because there is insufficient labour to maintain terraces and irrigation systems and tend to crops. The result has been that many people in these regions have turned to outside supplies of rice and other foods.”
+ amount of food = farm output
+ has resulted in a fall in the amount of food produced locally = has led to a serious decline in farm output and a change in the local diet.
8) Traditional food gathering in desert societies was distributed evenly over the year.
Keywords: traditional, food gathering, desert, distributed, evenly, year
In paragraph 4, Section B, the writer says: “In Arctic and desert societies, year-round survival has traditionally depended on hunting animals and fish and collecting fruit over a relatively short season”.
+ traditional food gathering = hunting animals and fish and collecting fruit
+ distributed evenly over the year: took place regularly and frequently through the year >< a relatively short season
9) Government handouts do more damage than tourism does to traditional patterns of food-gathering
Keywords: handouts, dangerous, traditional patterns
In paragraph 2 of Section B, the writer says: “Tourism is not always the culprit behind such changes. All kinds wage labour, or government handouts, tend to undermine traditional survival systems”. This means that besides tourism, government handouts are also dangerous to traditional survival systems, i.e. the patterns of food-gathering. But the writer does not compare what does more damage to the traditional systems, government handouts or tourism.
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
Questions 10 – 13: Choose ONE word from the passage
10) revived production of …
Keywords: Swiss Pays d‟Enhaut, activity, revived, production.
Positive ways in which some local communities have responded to tourism.
In paragraph 7, Section C, the writer says: “Local concern about the rising number of second home developments in the Swiss Pays “Enhaut resulted in limits being imposed on their growth. There has also been a renaissance in communal cheese production in the area”.
+ revived production = renaissance in communal cheese production
11) operate …businesses
Keywords: Arctic communities, operate, businesses
=>ANSWER: tourism/tourist/ tour
12) Produce and sell
Keywords: Acoma, San Ildefonso, produce, sell
In paragraph 9, Section C, the writer says: “The Acoma and San lldefonso pueblos have established highly profitable pottery businesses, while the Navajo and Hopi groups have been similarly successful with jewellery”
+ produce and sell = businesses
13) Produce and sell….
Keywords: Navajo and Hopi, produce, sell
In paragraph 9, Section C, the writer says: “The Acoma and San lldefonso pueblos have established highly profitable pottery businesses, while the Navajo and Hopi groups have been similarly successful with jewellery”
=>ANSWER: jewellery/ jewelry
Passage 2: Flawed Beauty: the problem with toughened glass
Questions 14 -17: Match each person with the correct statement
A. suggests that publicity about nickel sulphide failure has been suppressed.
Keywords: publicity, nickel sulphide failure
In paragraph 3, the writer states that “What you hear is only the “tip of the iceberg”, says Trevor Ford, a glass expert at Resolve Engineering in Brisbane, Queenland. He believes the reason is simple: “No-one wants bad press””.
+ publicity = press
+ “Tip of the iceberg”: a small part of the big problem. Treveor Ford implied that what the public knew about the nickel sulphide failure was only a small part of the big problem. In other words, Trevor Ford suggests that publicity about nickel sulphide failure has been suppressed or hidden.
=>ANSWER 15: A
B. regularly sees cases of nickel sulphide failure
Keywords: regularly, see, failure
In paragraph 3, the writer states that: “Others disagree. „On average I see about one or two buildings a month suffering from nickel sulphide related failures,‟ says Barrie Josie, a consultant engineer involved in the Bishops Walk investigation. Other experts tell of similar experiences. Tony Wilmott of London-based consulting engineers Sandberg, and Simon Armstrong at CladTech Associates in Hampshire both say they know of hundreds of cases.” Barrie Josie, Tony Wilmott, Simon Armstrong see some cases of nickel sulphide related failures.
C. Closely examined all the glass in one building
Keywords: examined, all, one building
In paragraph 10, the writer says that: “John Barry, an expert in nickel sulphide contamination at the University of Queensland, analysed every glass pane in the building.”
+ examine = analyse
+ all = every
D. Was involved with the construction of Bishop Walk
Keywords: involve, construction, Bishop Walk
In paragraph 3, the writer says that Barrie Josie was a consultant engineer who was involved in the Bishop Walk investigation, not in the construction of Bishop Walk.
E. Recommended the rebuilding of Waterfront Place
Keywords: recommend, rebuilding, Waterfront Place
In paragraph 10, the writer says that John Barry analysed every glass pane in the building of Waterfront Place and “discovered at least another 120 panes with potentially dangerous inclusions which were then replaced”. Barry did not recommend the rebuilding of Waterfront Place.
F. thinks the benefits of toughened glass are exaggerated.
Keywords: benefits, exaggerated
In paragraph 9, the writer states: “if you experience one nickel sulphide failure in your building, that probably means you’ve got a problem in more than one pane. Josie says that in the last decade he has worked on over 15 buildings with the number of failures into double figures”. So, it is Josie who thinks the benefits of toughened glass are exaggerated, not Brian, Trevor, Graham, John Barry.
G. Claims that nickel sulphide failure is very unusual
Keywords: nickel sulphide failure, unusual
In paragraph 2, Brian Waldron “insists that cases are few and far between. “It’s a very rare phenomenon”, he says”.
+ unusual = few and far between/ rare phenonmenon
H. refers to the most extreme case of delayed failure
Keywords: extreme case, delayed failure
In paragraph 8, Graham Dodd says, “the oldest pane of toughened glass known to have failed due to nickel sulphide inclusions was in in Pilkington’s glass research building in Lathom, Lancashire. The pane was 27 years old”.
=>ANSWER: 16. H
Questions 18 -23: Complete the summary with the list of words
18) Toughened glass is favoured by architects because it is much stronger than ordinary glass, and the fragments are not as…when it breaks.
Keywords: toughened, architects, stronger, fragments, breaks.
In paragraph 4, the writer explains: “Toughened glass is found everywhere…This glass has five times the strength of standard glass, and when it does break it shatters into tiny cubes rather than large, razor-sharp shards. Architects love it because large panels can be bolted together to make transparent walls…”
=>ANSWER: F. sharp
19) However, it has one disadvantage: it can shatter…
Keywords: disadvantage, shatter
In paragraph 7, the writer explains: “This leaves unstable alpha crystals in the glass, primed like a coiled spring, ready to revert to the beta phase without warning.”
In paragraph 8, the writer continues: “When this happens, the crystals expand…the stresses this releases can shatter the whole sheet…The time that elapses before failure occurs is unpredictable.”
+ unexpectedly = without warning, unpredictable
=>ANSWER: I. unexpectedly
20) Ordinary glass is first healed, then cooled very…
Keywords: ordinary, healed, cooled,
In paragraph 5, the writer says how toughened glass is manufactured: “It is made by heating a sheet of ordinary glass to about 620 oC to soften it slightly, allowing its structure to expand, and then cooling it rapidly with jets of cold air.”
+ quickly = rapidly
=>ANSWER: C. quickly
21) The outer layer … before the inner layer, and the tension between the two layers which is created because of this makes the glass stronger.
Keywords: outer layer, before, inner layer.
In paragraph 5, the writer says: “This causes the outer layer of the pane to contract and solidify before the interior”.
=>ANSWER: K. contracts
22) However, if the glass contains nickel sulphide impurities, crystals of nickel sulphide are formed. These are unstable, and can expand suddenly, particularly if the weather is…
Keywords: crystals, nickel sulphide, unstable, expand, weather
In paragraph 6, the writer says: “The problem starts when glass contains nickel sulphide impurities. Trace amounts… As the glass is heated, these atoms react to form tiny crystals of nickel sulphide”
=>ANSWER: E. warm
23) The frequency with which such problems occur is… by glass experts.
Keywords: frequency, experts
In paragraph 2, Brian Waldon says: “it‟s a very rare phenomenon”.
In paragraph 3, Barrie Josie says: “On average I see about one or two buildings a month suffering from nickel sulphide related failures”; Tony Wilmott and Simon Armstrong say they know of hundreds of cases; Trevor Ford says: “what you hear is only the tip of the iceberg”. These experts, therefore, argue about how common the problem is.
=>ANSWER: L. disputed
Questions 24 -26: TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN
24) Little doubt was expressed about the reason for the Bishops Walk accident.
Keywords: little, doubt, reason, Bishops Walk
In paragraph 1, the accident at Bishops Walk shopping centre is mentioned. The fragments of the glass roof were examined by experts. “They found that minute crystals of nickel sulphide trapped inside the glass had almost certainly caused the failure”.
+ little doubt = almost certainly
+ reason = caused
25) Toughened glass has the same appearance as ordinary glass.
Keywords: toughened glass, same, appearance, ordinary glass
In paragraph 5, the writer says: ” It is made by the heating a sheet of ordinary glass to about 620°C to soften it slightly, allowing its structure to expand, and then cooling it rapidly with jets of cold air.”
it = toughened glass
So, the writer only mentions the process of manufacturing toughened glass from ordinary glass. There is no information about the comparison of their appearance.
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
26) There is plenty of documented evidence available about the incidence of nickel sulphide failure.
Keywords: plenty, documented evidence, failure
In paragraph 9, the writer says: “Data showing the scale of the nickel sulphide problem is almost impossible to find. The picture is made more complicated by the fact that these crystals occur in batches.”
+ documented evidence = data
+ incidence = scale
+ plenty of documented evidence available >< almost impossible to find
Passage 3: The effect of light on plants and animal species
Questions 27-33: TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN
27. There is plenty of scientific evidence to support photoperiodism
Keywords: plenty, scientific evidence, photoperiodism
In paragraph 2, the writer says: “The seasonal impact of day length on physiological responses is called photoperiodism, the amount of experimental evidence for this phenomenon is considerable.”
scientific evidence = experimental evidence
plenty = considerable
28) Some types of bird can be encouraged to breed out of season
Keywords: bird, encouraged, breed out of season
In paragraph 2, the writer says: “For example, some species of birds‟ breeding can be induced even in midwinter simply by increasing day length artificially (Wolfson 1964)”.
+ types = species
+ out of season = even in midwinter
29) Photoperiodism is restricted to certain geographic areas
Keywords: Photoperiodism, restricted, geographic
In paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 the writer refers to temperate zones – those parts of the world with a temperate climate. However, there is no mention of any geographical restriction of photoperiodism.
30) Desert annuals are examples of long-day plants
Keywords: desert annuals, long-day plants
In paragraph 4, the writer says: “Day-neutral plants have an evolutionary advantage when the connection between the favourable period for reproduction and day length is much less certain. For example, desert annuals germinate, flower and seed whenever suitable rainfall occurs, regardless of the day length” desert annuals are examples of day-neutral plants, not long-day plants.
31) Bamboos flower several times during their life cycle
Keywords: bamboo, flower, several, life cycle
In paragraph 5, the writer says: “Bamboos are perennial grasses that remain in a vegetative state for many years and then suddenly flower, fruit and die” Bamboos flower only once in their life, then die.
32) Scientists have yet to determine the cue for Chusquea abietifolia’s seasonal rhythm
Keywords: scientists, Chusquea abietifolia, cue, seasonal rhythm
In paragraph 5, the writer says: “Every bamboo of the species Chusquea abietifolia …set seed and died during 1884. The next generation of bamboo flowered and died between 1916 and 1918, which suggests a vegetative cycle of about 31 years.
The climatic trigger for this flowering cycle is not yet known, but the adaptive significance is clear. The simultaneous production of masses of bamboo seeds…. is more than all the seed-eating animals can cope with at the time, so that some seeds escape being eaten and grow up to form the next generation (Evans 1976)”.
+ yet to determine = not yet known
+ cue = trigger
+ seasonal rhythm = cycle
33) Eastern hemlock is a fast growing plant
Keywords: hemlock, fast growing
In paragraph 7, the writer states: “Shade-tolerant plants have lower photosynthetic rates and hence have lower growth rates than those of shade-intolerant species”, and “For example, eastern hemlock seedlings are shade-tolerant.”
+ fast growing plant ><have lower growth rates
Questions 34-40: Complete the sentences. Choose no more than three words from the passage.
34) Day length is a useful cue for breeding in areas where … are unpredictable
Keywords: day length, cue, breeding
In paragraph 2, the writer states: “Day length is an excellent cue, because it provides a perfectly predictable pattern of change within the year. In the temperate zone in spring, temperatures fluctuate greatly from day to day, but day length increases steadily by a predictable amount”.
+ unpredictable = fluctuate greatly from day to day
35) Plants which do not respond to light levels are referred to as …
Keywords: plants, not respond, light levels
In paragraph 2, the writer states: “Plants which flower after a period of vegetative growth, regardless of photoperiod, are known as day-neutral plants”
+ not respond to light levels = regardless of photoperiod
=>ANSWER: day-neutral plants/day-neutral
36) Birds in temperate climates associate longer day with nesting and the availability of …
Keywords: bird, temperate, associate, longer day, nesting, availability
In paragraph 3, the writer states: “Thus many temperate-zone birds use the increasing day lengths in spring as a cue to begin the nesting cycle, because this is a point when adequate food resources will be assured”
birds in temperate climates = temperate-zone birds
=>ANSWER: food/ food resources/ adequate food/ adequate food resources
37) Plants that flower when days are long often depend on … to help them reproduce.
Keywords: plant, long, depend, reproduce
In paragraph 4, the writer states: “Long-day plants are adapted for situations that require fertilization by insects, or a long period of seed ripening”.
=>ANSWER: insects/ fertilization by insects
38) Desert annuals respond to … as a signal for reproduction.
Keywords: desert annual, signal, reproduction
In paragraph 4, the writer states: “Day-neutral plants have an evolutionary advantage when the connection between the favourable period for reproduction and day length is much less certain. For example, desert annuals germinate, flower and seed whenever suitable rainfall occurs, regardless of the day length”
+ a signal for reproduction = germinate, flower and seed
=>ANSWER: rainfall/ suitable rainfall
39) There is no limit to the photosynthetic rate in plants such as…
Keywords: no limit, photosynthetic rate
In paragraph 6, the writer states: ” Some plants reach maximum photosynthesis at one quarter full sunlight, and others, like sugarcane, never reach maximum, but continue to increase photosynthesis rate as light intensity rises.”
+ no limit = never reach maximum
40) Tolerance to shade is one criterion for the….of plants in forestry and horticulture.
Keywords: tolerance to shade, criterion, forestry, horticulture.
In paragraph 7, the writer states: “Plants in general can be divided into two groups: shade-tolerant species and shade-intolerant species. This classification is commonly used in forestry and horticulture.”