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BAKELITE – THE BIRTH OF MODERN PLASTICS
Questions 1-3: Choose ONE WORD only from the passage for each answer.
1. Some plastics behave in a similar way to….in that they melt under heat and can be moulded into new forms.
Keywords: similar, melt, moulded
In paragraph 2, the writer says that: “Some are „thermoplastic‟, which means that, like candlewax, they melt when heated and can be reshaped”. This means that some plastics,such as thermoplastics, have similar characteristics to candlewax: they melt under heat (melt when heated) and can be moulded (reshaped).
+ a similar way to = like
+ moulded = reshaped
2. Bakelite was unique because it was the first material to be both entirely…..in origin, and thermosetting.
Keywords: unique, first, entirely
At the end of paragraph 2, the writer states that “Bakelite had the distinction of being the first totally synthetic thermosetting plastic”
+ to be unique = to have the distinction of
+ entirely = totally
3. There were several reasons for the research into plastics in the nineteenth century, among them the great advances that had been made in the field of… and the search for alternatives to natural resources like ivory.
Keywords: nineteenth century, great advances, field, ivory
In paragraph 3, the writer reports that: “The impetus behind the development of these early plastics was generated by a number of factors- immense technological progress in the domain of chemistry, coupled with wider cultural changes, and the pragmatic need to find acceptable substitutes for dwindling supplies of „luxury‟ materials such as tortoise shell and ivory.”
+ several reasons for = generated by a number of factors
+ great advances = immense technological progress
+ field = domain
+ search = find
+ alternatives = substitutes
Questions 4-8: Complete the flow chart. Choose ONE WORD from the passage for each answer
Keywords: phenol, formaldehyde, combine under vacuum, resin
In paragraph 5, the writer says that ” The original patent outlined a three-stage process, in which phenol and formaldehyde (from wood or coal) were initially combined under vacuum inside a large egg- shaped kettle. The result was a resin known as Novalak”
Keywords: e.g, cotton, asbestos
In paragraph 5, the writer says that “Other substances were then introduced: including fillers, such as wood flour, asbestos or cotton, which increase strength and moisture resistance.” e.g (for example) = such as
Keywords: ammonia, formaldehyde
In paragraph 5, the writer refers to: “catalysts (substances to speed up the reaction between two chemicals without joining to either) and hexa, a compound of ammonia and formaldehyde which supplied the additional formaldehyde necessary to form a thermosetting resin.”We understand that hexa is a compound of ammonia and formaldehyde, so two arrows of ammonia and formaldehyde in the chart make up hexa.
Keywords: cool, hardened, break up, grind, Bakelite, stage two resin
In paragraph 5, the writer says: “This resin was then left to cool and harden, and ground up a second time. The resulting granular powder was raw Bakelite, ready to be made into a vast range of manufactured objects.”
+ stage two resin = a second time
+ grind = ground (past simple tense)
Keywords: pour, mould, intense heat
In paragraph 5, the writer states that: ” In the last stage, the heated Bakelite was poured into a hollow mould of the required shape and subjected to extreme heat and pressure, thereby „setting‟ its forms for life”. We realise that in paragraph 5, the writer describes the moulding process by using the passive voice, whereas, questions in the flow chart are inthe active voice. For example:
+ pour =>poured
+ apply intense heat =>subjected to extreme heat
+ intense = extreme
Questions 9-10: Choose two letters, A-E
Which two of the following factors influencing the design of Bakelite objects are mentioned in the text?
=>ANSWER: B, C
A. the function which the object would serve
Keywords: function, object, serve
In the first sentence of paragraph 6, the writer states that “The design of Bakelite objects, everything from earrings to television sets, was governed to a large extent by the technical requirements of the moulding process”. This is the topic sentence of the paragraph, indicating that the design of Bakelite objects are influenced by the technical requirements of the moulding process, whatever the object‟s functions are (earrings or televisions). So option A is false.
B. the ease with which the resin could fill the mould
Keywords: ease, fill, mould
In paragraph 6, the writer says that “Moulds had to be carefully designed so that the molten Bakelite would flow evenly and completely into the mould. Sharp corners proved impractical and were thus avoided, giving rise to the smooth, “streamlined” style popular in the 1930s.
+ fill = flow completely into evenly, completely, smooth, streamlined indicate the ease with which the resin can fill the mould.
So the answer is B
C . The facility with which the object could be removed from the mould
Keywords: removed, mould
In paragraph 6, the writer states that ” The object could not be designed so that it was locked into the mould and therefore difficult to extract”, therefore “objects should taper towards the deepest part of the mould, and if necessary the product was moulded in separate pieces” – so that the objects will be easily removed from the mould.
+ taper toward: progressively narrow or reduce in thickness towards one end
+ remove = extract
So the answer is C
D. the limitations of the materials used to manufacture the mould
Keywords: limitations, materials, manufacture
Actually the writer only mentions the limitations of shapes/forms of the mould: “The thickness of the walls of the mould was also crucial: thick walls took longer to cool and harden, a factor which had to be considered by the designer in order to make the most efficient use of machines… Sharp corners proved impractical and were thus avoided”. He does not mention the limitations of the materials used to make the moulds crucial: very important and of great influence on the design of products.
=>D is false
E. the fashionable styles of the period
Keywords: fashionable styles, period
In paragraph 6, the writer says that: “Sharp corners proved impractical and were thus avoided, giving rise to the smooth, „streamlined‟ style popular in the 1930s”. This means that the old styles in the 1930s are still in use and practical, not the fashionable styles.
=>E is false
Questions 11-13: TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN
11. Modern-day plastic preparation is based on the same principles as that patented in 1907
Keywords: modern-day, preparation, patented, 1907
At the end of paragraph 4, the writer states that: “On 13 July 1907, Baekeland took out his famous patent describing this preparation, the essential features of which are still in use today”.So, the statement is true.
+ principles = essential features
12. Bakelite was immediately welcomed as a practical and versatile material.
Keywords: immediately, welcomed
In paragraph 7, the writer indicates that “Baekeland’s invention, although treated with disdain in its early years, went on to enjoy an unparalleled popularity which lasted throughout the first half of the twentieth century. It became…the material of a thousand uses.”So at first, Bakelite was not welcomed by the community.
+ immediately = early years
+ welcomed>< treated with disdain
+ practical and versatile material = material of a thousand uses
13. Bakelite was only available in a limited range of colours.
Keywords: only available, limited, colours
In the last paragraph, the writer says that “consumers everywhere relishedits dazzling array of shades, delighted that they were now, at last, no longer restricted to the wood tones and drab browns of the pre- plastic era.”
+ limited = restricted
What’s so funny?
Questions 14-20: TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN
14. Arthur Koestler considered laughter biologically important in several ways
Keywords: Arthur Koestler, biologically, important
Paragraph 1 states that “The writer Arthur Koestler dubbed it the luxury reflex: „unique in that it serves no apparent biological purpose‟
+ biologically important >< no apparent biological purpose
15. Plato believed humour to be a sign of above-average intelligence
Keywords: Plato,above-average, intelligence
In paragraph 2, the writer says that:” Plato expressed the idea that humour is simply a delighted feeling of superiority over others”. Thus, it is only a feeling of superiority, but the passage does not mention superiority in intelligence.
+ above-average = superiority over others
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
16. Kant believed that a successful joke involves the controlled release of nervous energy
Keywords: Kant, release, nervous energy
In paragraph 2, we find: “Kant and Freud felt that joke-telling relies on building up apsychic tension which is safely punctured by the ludicrousness of the punchline”.
+release = punctured
+ nervous energy = psychic tension
17. Current thinking on humour has largely ignored Aristotle‟s view on the subject
Keywords: current, largely, ignored, Aristotle
At the end of paragraph 2, the writer says that: “But most modern humour theorists have settled on some version of Aristotle‟s belief that jokes are based on a reaction to or resolution of incongruity, when the punchline is either a nonsense or, though appearing silly, has a clever second meaning.”
+ current = modern
+ largely = most
+ ignored>< settle on: to consolidate, to follow the idea of Aristotle
+ view = belief
18. Graeme Ritchie‟s work links jokes to artificial intelligence
Keywords: Graeme Ritchie, artificial, intelligence
In paragraph 3, the writer says that “Graeme Ritchie, a computational linguist in Edinburgh, studies the linguistic structure of jokes in order to understand not only humour but language understanding and reasoning in machines”, and “Viewed from this angle, humour is just a form of creative insight,a sudden leap to a new perspective”. Artificial intelligence: the intelligence of machines, computers which are created/programmed by humans.
+ Link to artificial intelligence = reasoning in machines
19. Most comedians use personal situations as a source of humour.
Keywords: comedians, personal situations, source of humour
In paragraph 3, the writer reports that:” He says that while there is no single format for jokes, many revolve around a sudden and surprising conceptual shift. A comedian will present a situation followed by an unexpected interpretation that is also apt”. This means there are a lot of different ways to tell a joke, for example, using a sudden, surprising/unexpected situation. He does not mention if comedians use personal situations to create humour.
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
20. Chimpanzees make particular noises when they are playing.
Keywords: chimpanzees, noises, playing
Paragraph 5 indicates that: “Chimpanzees have a „play-face‟ – a gaping expression accompanied by a panting „ah,ah” noise. accompanied by: together with.
Questions 21-23: Label the diagram. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage.
21. Right prefrontal cortex lights up – area of brain linked to ……
Keywords: right prefrontal cortex, light up
In paragraph 8, the writer says that “His scans showed that at the beginning of a joke the listener’s prefrontal cortex lit up, particularly the right prefrontal believed to be critical for problem solving”
+ Light up = lit up (past simple tense)
=>ANSWER: problem solving
22. ….become active too
Keywords: active, too
In paragraph 8, the writer says that: “But there was also activity in the temporal lobes at the side of the head (consistent with attempts to rouse stored knowledge) and in many other brain areas.”
+ active = activity
+ too = also
=>ANSWER: temporal lobes
23. Orbital prefrontal cortex is activated – involved with …
Keywords: orbital prefrontal cortex, activated, involved
Paragraph 8 says that: “Then when the punchline arrived, a new area sprang to life – the orbital prefrontal cortex. This patch of brain tucked behind the orbits of the eyes is associated with evaluating information”
+ activated = sprang to life
+ involved with = associated with
=>ANSWER: evaluating information
Complete each sentence with the correct ending A-G:
24. One of the brain’s most difficult tasks is to…..
Keywords; brain, most difficult task
In paragraph 9, the writer states that: “Making a rapid emotional assessment of the events of the moment is an extremely demanding job for the brain, animal or human” C. respond instantly to whatever is happening = making a rapid emotional assessment of the events of the moment.
+ difficult task = demanding job
25. Because of the language they have developed, humans…
Keywords: language, developed, humans
In paragraph 10, the writer states that: “All warm-blooded animals make constant tiny adjustments in arousal in response to external events, but humans, who have developed a much more complicated internal life as a result of language respond emotionally not only to their surroundings but to their own thoughts.” A. react to their own thoughts.
+ react = respond
26. Individual responses to humour….
Keywords: individual, responses, humour
The last sentence of paragraph 10 states that: “Whether a joke gives pleasure or pain depends on a person‟s outlook”. This means that what a person feels about a joke depends on his personal ideas and beliefs, his own views.
F. relate to a person‟s subjective views
+ a person‟s subjective views = a person‟s outlook
27. Peter Derks believes that humour ….
Keywords: Peter Derks, believes, humour
The last sentence of paragraph 11 explains that: “If we can figure out how the mind processes humour, then we‟ll have a pretty good handle on how it works in general”. Peter Derks believes that if we know how the mind/brain processes humour, we can know how the brain works in general. D. may provide valuable information about the operation of the brain.
+ brain = mind
The Birth of Scientific English
Questions 28-34: Complete the summary. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage.
28. In Europe, modern science emerged at the same time as the nation state. At first, the scientific language of choice remained…
Keywords: modern science, at the same time, nation, at first, scientific language
At the end of paragraph 1, the writer says that: “Given the prominence of scientific English today, it may seem surprising that no one really knew how to write science in English before the 17th century. Before that, Latin was regarded as the lingua franca for European intellectuals”. Before the 17th century, the scientific language was Latin (lingua franca: a language which is used for communication between groups of people who speak different languages).
29. Sometimes the desire to protect ideas seems to have been stronger than the desire to communicate them, particularly in the case of mathematicians and..
Keywords: protect ideas, mathematicians
At the end of paragraph 6, the writer states that: “And in the mid-17th century it was common practice for mathematicians to keep their discoveries and proofs secret, by writing them in cipher, in obscure languages, or in private messages deposited in a sealed box with the Royal Society. Some scientists might have felt more comfortable with Latin precisely because its audience, though international, was socially restricted. Doctors clung the most keenly to Latin as an „insider language.”
+ protect ideas = keep their discoveries and proofs secret
Scientists were keen on Latin because its audience was socially restricted (i.e. not many people knew Latin). Doctors considered Latin as an “insider language‟ – the language only used among doctors, so that they could keep their discoveries and proofs secret.
30 and 31:
30. In Britain, moreover, scientists worried that English had neither the …nor the …..to express their ideas.
Keywords: English, neither, nor, express the ideas
In paragraph 7, the writer argues that: “A third reason why the writing of original science in English was delayed may have been to do with the linguistic inadequacy of English in the early modern period.”
+ may have been to do with = may have related to
“English was not well equipped to deal with scientific argument. First, it lacked the necessary technical vocabulary. Second, it lacked the grammatical resources required to represent the world in an objective and impersonal way, and to discuss the relations, such as cause and effect, that might hold between complex and hypothetical entities”
+ the ideas = hypothetical entities
Linguistic inadequacy included the lack of necessary technical vocabulary and grammatical resources
=>ANSWER: technical vocabulary; grammatical resources
32. This situation only changed after 1660 when scientists associated with the …set about developing English. An early scientific journal fostered a new kind of writing based on short descriptions of specific experiments.
Keywords: after 1660, associated, developing English.
Paragraphs 8 and 9 refer to the years 1664 and 1665 and illustrate the cooperation between scientists and the Royal Society in developing English:”the society‟s members did a great deal to foster the publication of science in English and to encourage the development of a suitable writing style… many members of the Royal Society also published monographs in English”
+ associated with: members
=>ANSWER: Royal Society
33. Although English was then overtaken by…
In the last paragraph, the writer says that: “In the following century much of this momentum was lost as German established itself as the leading European language of science.”
+ overtaken: left behind = this momentum was lost
34. it developed again in the 19th century as a direct result of the …
Keywords: developed, 19th century, result
At the end of paragraph 10, the writer says that: “However, in the 19th century scientific English again enjoyed substantial lexical growth as the industrial revolution created the need for new technical vocabulary, and new, specialised, professional societies were instituted to promote and publish in the new disciplines.”
+ developed again = again enjoyedsubstantial lexical growth
+ as a direct result of = as the industrial revolution created
=>ANSWER: industrial revolution
Questions 35-37: TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN
35. There was strong competition between scientists in Renaissance Europe.
Keywords: competition, scientists, Renaissance Europe
In paragraph 2, the writer says that ” The European Renaissance (c/14 -16 century) is sometimes called the „revival of learning‟, a time of renewed interest in the „lost knowledge‟ of classical times. At the same time, however, scholars also began to test and extend this knowledge. The emergent nation states of Europe developed competitive interests in world exploration and the development of trade.” We see that in the European Renaissance, scholars tested and developed the knowledge of classical times, and countries in Europe competed with one another in world exploitation and the development of trade. However, there is no information about competition between scientists in the passage.
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
36. The most important scientific development of the Renaissance period was the discovery of magnetism.
Keywords: most important, Renaissance, discovery of magnetism
At the end of paragraph 2, the writer says that: “Such expansion, which was to take the English language west to America and east to India, was supported by scientific developments such as the discovery of magnetism (and hence the invention of the compass), improvements in cartography and – perhaps the most important scientific revolution of them all – the new theories of astronomy and movement of the Earth in relation to the planets and stars”. The discovery of magnetism is one of many other inventions. And the most important scientific revolution of them all were the new theories of astronomy and movement of the earth in relation to the planet and stars developed by Copernicus.
37. In 17th century Britain, leading thinkers combined their interest in science with an interest in how to express ideas.
Keywords: 17th century, interest, science, how to express ideas
In paragraph 8, the writer states that: “Fortunately, several members of the Royal Society possessed an interest in language and became engaged in various linguistic projects.” Then the writer gives some examples of leading thinkers who were interested in science and could express their ideas in writing style:
“Although a proposal in 1664 to establish a committee for improving the English language came to little, the society‟s members did a great deal to foster the publication of science in English and to encourage the development of a suitable writing style. Many members of the Royal Society also published monographs in English. One of the first was by Robert Hooke, the society‟s first curator of experiments, who described his experiments with microscopes in Micrographia (1665). This work is largely narrative in style, based on a transcript of oral demonstrations and lectures.”
+ leading thinkers = members of the Royal Society
+ interest in how to express ideas = interest in language, in various linguistic projects
+ express ideas = described his experiments
Questions 38-40: Complete the table. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage.
Keywords: type of science, English
Paragraph 5 indicates that: “There were several reasons why original science continued to be written in Latin. The first was simply a matter of audience. Latin was suitable for an international audience of scholars, whereas English reached a socially wider, but more local audience. Hence, popular science was written in English.”
39. Principia/mathematical treatise
Keywords: example, Latin
Paragraph 5 states that: “Original science was not done in English until the second half of the 17th century. For example, Newton published his mathematical treatise, known as the Principia, in Latin, but published his later work on the properties of light – Opticks – in English”.
40. more local/local audience
Keywords: target audience, but socially wider
Paragraph 5 states that: “There were several reasons why original science continued to be written in Latin. The first was simply a matter of audience. Latin was suitable for an international audience of scholars, Whereas English reached a socially wider, but more local audience.”
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