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Passage 1: Johnson’s Dictionary

Questions 1-3

Key: D E G


A . It avoided all “scholarly” words

Keywords : avoided, scholarly words

In paragraph 2, „scholarly words‟ are mentioned in relation to Cawdray‟s dictionary of 1604.

In paragraph 6, we are told that Johnson „had to draw on the best of all previous dictionaries. These obviously included Cawdray’s dictionary, which “tended to concentrate on scholarly words”, so it is unlikely that Johnson‟s dictionary would not contain any scholarly words.


B. It was the only English dictionary in general use for 200 years

Keywords: only, in general use, 200 years

At the end of paragraph 6, the writer says that “After its publication, the Dictionary was not seriously rivalled for over a century”.  This means that Johnson‟s dictionary was the only one that most people used for over 100 years [not 200 years].  We do not know if it was the only dictionary that most people used for 200 years.


C. It was famous because because of the large number of people involved

Keywords: famous, large number , people involved

In the last sentence of paragraph 5, the writer says: “He was also helped by six assistants, two of whom died whilst the Dictionary was still in preparation”.  Six is not “a large number” The reasons why the Dictionary was famous are referred to in paragraph 8:  it was “the cornerstone of Standard English”.


D. It focused mainly on language from contemporary texts

Key words : mainly, language, contemporary texts

In paragraph 6 , the writer states:  “The work was immense…, Johnson wrote the definition of over 40,000 words, and illustrated their many meanings with some 14,000 quotations drawn from English writing on every subject, from the Elizabethans to his own time.‟ contemporary = belonging to the same period of time/ current = to his own time


E. There was a time limit for its completion

Keywords:  time limit, completion

In paragraph 6, the writer says that Johnson was ” Working to a deadline…..”

– time limit=deadline


F. It ignored work done by previous dictionaries writers

Keywords: ignored, work, previous writers

In paragraph 6, the writer explains :  “he had to draw on the best of all previous dictionaries, and to make his work one of heroic synthesis”,  and ” He adopted his definitions on the principle of English common law – according to precedent” Precedent: something that may serve as an example or justification for subsequent situations.


G. It took into account subtleties of meaning

In paragraph 6, the writer says: ” Johnson treated English very practically, as a living language, with many different shades of meaning.” So it can be inferred that Johnson must have taken into account subtleties of meaning  in order to deal with many different shades, or small differences, of meaning. Subtlety (subtleties) : a fine distinction or the ability to make such a distinction


H. Its definitions were famous for their originality

In paragraph 6, the writer states: “He did not expect to achieve complete originality”


Questions 4-7

4. Having rented the garret, he took on a number of …, who stood at a long central desk.

Keywords: garret, a number of, stood, long central desk

In paragraph 5, the first sentence, the writer says: “James Boswell, his biographer, describes the garret where Johnson worked as fitted up like a counting house” with a long desk running down the middle at which the copy clerks would work standing up.”

–     central=running down the middle

–     stood=standing up

=> ANSWER:        clerks/copy clerks

5. Johnson did not have a … available to him, but eventually produced definitions of in excess of 40,000 words….

Keywords:  definitions, 40,000 words

In paragraph 6,  the writer states that:  (….and without a library to hand), Johnson wrote the definitions of over 40,000 words….

–    in excess of=over

=> ANSWER:      library

6. According to his biographer, James Boswell, Johnson‟s principal achievement was to bring… to the English language.

Keywords: James Boswell, principal achievement, English language

In paragraph 8, the writer says: ” It is the cornerstone of Standard English, an achievement which, in James Boswell‟s words, “conferred stability on the language of his country”

=> ANSWER:     stability

7. As a reward for his hard work, he was granted a … by the king.

Keywords : reward, his hard work, the king

In the last paragraph, the writer says: ” The Dictionary, together with his other writing, made Johnson famous and so well esteemed that his friends were able to prevail upon King George III to offer him a pension”.

–     prevail upon= have influence in= persuade

=> ANSWER:        pension

Questions 8-13

8. The growing importance of the middle classes led to an increased demand for dictionaries.

Keywords: growing  importance, middle classes, increased demand

In paragraph 3, the first sentence, the writer explains :  “… the rise of dictionaries is associated with the rise of the English middle class….

Associated with =closely related toð

Rise= growing=increasedð

=> ANSWER:           TRUE

9. Johnson has become more well known since his death.

Keywords: more ,well known, his death

In the last paragraph, the writer says: ” The Dictionary…made Johnson famous and so well esteemed that his friends were able to prevail upon King George III to offer him a pension. From then on, he was to become the Johnson of folklore.” The last paragraph tells us that Johnson became very famous after he finished the Dictionary and even the King gave Johnson money for the rest of his life [=a pension].  As a result of his fame during his lifetime, Johnson remained famous after his death and people continued to talk about his work [„the Johnson of folklore‟].

–     well known=famous


10. Johnson had been planning to write a dictionary for several years.

Keywords: Johnson, planning, a dictionary, several years

In paragraph 4, we are simply told that:  “Johnson decided that he did not need an academy to settle arguments about language; he would write a dictionary himself….”  There is no mention of how many years Johnson had been planning this task.


11. Johnson set up an academy to help with the writing of his dictionary.

Keywords: academy, help with the writing,, its completion

In paragraph 4, the writer states : ” Johnson decided he did not need an academy to settle arguments about language: he would write a dictionary himself; and he would do it single-handed.”

=> ANSWER:        FALSE

12. Johnson only received payment for his dictionary on its completion.

Keywords:  payment, completion

Paragraph 4 continues:  ” He was to be paid $1575 in instalments,  and from this he took money to rent 17 Gough Square, in which he set up his dictionary workshop”.   So, Johnson received regular payments in order for him to continue working on the dictionary. Instalment: a partial portion of money to be paid over designated period of time, ex: a month, a year.


13. Not all of the assistants survived to see the publication of the Dictionary.

Key words : Not all, assistants, survived, publication

In the last sentence of paragraph 5, the writer says: ” He was also helped by six assistants, two of whom died whilst the Dictionary was still in preparation”.

=> ANSWER:        TRUE


Passage 2: Nature or Nurture?

Questions 14-19:

Which paragraph contains the following information:

14. a biological explanation of the teacher-subjects‟ behaviour

Keywords:  biological, teacher-subjects

In paragraph F, the first sentence, the writer states: ” One‟s first inclination might be to argue that there must be some sort of built-in animal aggression instinct that was activated by the experiment, and that Milgram‟s teacher-subjects were just following a genetic need …..”

–     might be to argue = to explain

–     animal instinct, genetic need = biological factors

=> ANSWER:        F

15. The explanation Milgram gave the teacher-subjects for the experiment

Keywords: explanation, teacher-subjects, experiment

In paragraph A, the writer says: ” Specifically, Milgram told each volunteer „teacher-subject‟ that the experiment was in the noble cause of education, and was designed to test whether or not punishing pupils for their mistakes would have a positive effect on the pupils‟ ability to learn.” So, Milgram told the volunteer „teacher-subjects‟ what the experiment was designed to test = he explained the purpose of the experiment.

=> ANSWER:        A

16. The identity of the pupils

Keywords: identity, pupils

In paragraph B, line 6, the writer says : ”  The supposed  pupil was in reality an actor hired by Milgram to simulate receiving the shocks….”

identity=information about who the pupils were [actors]ð

=> ANSWER:          B

17. The expected statistical outcome

Keywords: expected, outcome

In paragraph D, the writer says : ” Prior to carrying out the experiment, Milgram explained his idea to a group of 39 psychiatrists and asked them to predict the average percentage of people who would be willing to administer the highest shock level…. The overwhelming consensus was that virtually all the teacher-subjects would refuse to obey the experimenter”

–   expected=predicted

Thus, the predicted/expected result or outcome was that almost all the teacher-subjects would refuse to obey.

=> ANSWER:           D

18. The general aim of sociobiological study

Keywords : general aim, sociobiological

In paragraph I, the writer explains: ” This, in essence, is the problem of modern sociobiology – to discover the degree to which…genetic programming dictates…the interaction of animals and humans with their environment, that is, their behaviour.”

–     in essence = essentially

–     aim=problem

Sociobiology, therefore, aims to find the answer to this question.

=> ANSWER:           I

19. The way Milgram persuaded the teacher-subjects to continue

Keywords : way, persuaded, continue

In paragraph C, line 7, the writer says : ” If the subject was reluctant to proceed, Milgram said that it was important for the sake of experiment that the procedure be followed through to the end.”

–     to proceed= to continue

=> ANSWER:           C

Questions 20-22

20. The teacher-subjects were told that they were testing whether…

Keywords: teacher-subjects, told  testing

In paragraph A, the last sentence, the writer says: “Specifically, Milgram told each volunteer ” teacher-subject”  that the experiment was in the noble cause of education, and was designed to test whether or not punishing pupils for their mistakes would have a positive effect on the pupils‟ ability to learn”.

– help =have a positive effect on

=> ANSWER:          B. punishment helps learning

21. The teacher-subjects were instructed to…

Keywords : teacher-subjects, instructed

In paragraph B, the writer refers to the instructions given to the teacher-subjects in the experiment:

“The teacher-subject was told that whenever the pupil gave the wrong answer to a question, a shock was to be administered, beginning at the lowest level and increasing in severity with each successive wrong answer.” ” Milgram told the teacher subjects to ignore the reaction,… and to administer whatever level of shock was called for, as per the rule governing the experimental situation of the moment.”

–     instructed=told

–     give=administer

=> ANSWER:          D.  give punishment according to a rule

22. Before the experiment took place the psychiatrists…

Keywords: before,  psychiatrists

In paragraph D,the writer says: “Prior to carrying out the experiment, Milgram explained his idea to a group of 39 psychiatrists…” and  ” the  overwhelming consensus was that virtually all the teacher- subjects would refuse to obey the experimenter”, and that” most subjects would not go beyond 150 volts ,  and only “about one in 1000 would give the highest shock of 450 volts”

In paragraph E, the actual result is: ” over 60 percent  of the teacher-subjects continued to obey Milgram up to the 450 volts limit”.

So, the estimate of the psychiatrists was too low – they underestimated how many teacher-subjects would continue to follow the rules/the procedure.

–   before=prior to

–   comply with=obey

=> ANSWER:      C.  underestimated the teacher-subjects‟ willingness to comply with experimental procedure.

Questions  23-26

23. Several of the subjects were psychology students at Yale University.

Keywords: subjects, psychology students, Yale University

In paragraph A, the first sentence, the writer says: “A few years ago,…, Stanley Milgram from Yale University tested 40 subjects from all walks of life for …to perform.” From all walks of life : from different types of  jobs and different levels of society.  We are not told if any of these were students or -if they were – from what university.

=> ANSWER:         NOT GIVEN

24. Some people may believe that the teacher-subjects‟ behaviour could be explained as a positive survival mechanism.

Keywords: behaviour,  positive survival mechanism

In paragraph F, the writer explains that:  “A modern hard-core sociobiologist might even go so far as to claim that this aggressive instinct evolved as an advantageous trait, having been of survival value to our ancestors in their struggle against the hardship of life…” This means the teacher-subjects‟ behaviour evolved as an advantage in helping our ancestors survive. So it is a “positive survival mechanism”

–    advantageous trait = positive or useful characteristic that can produce a particular behaviour

–   mechanism =a way of doing something planned

=> ANSWER:         TRUE

25. In sociological explanation, personal values are more powerful than authority

Keywords: sociological, personal values,  authority

In paragraph H, the writer states: ” Thus, in this explanation,the subject merges his unique personality and personal and moral code with that of larger institutional structures, surrendering individual properties like loyalty, self-sarcrifice and discipline to the service of malevolent systems of authortity” This means that systems of authority are more powerful that individual personal and moral values.

–     surrender (to sth) = admit defeat/ stop trying to control something, because you are weaker/less powerful

personal values= individual properties/personal and moral code

=> ANSWER:           FALSE

26. Milgram‟s experiment solves an important question in sociobiology.

Keywords: solves, important, sociobiology

In the last paragraph , the writer indicates that  : ” Here we have two radically different explanations for why so many teacher-subjects were willing to forgo their sense of responsibility for the sake of an institutional authority figure”, and  ” Put another  way, sociobiology is concerned with elucidating the biological basis of all behaviour.”  This means that the important question in sociobiology is making clear the biological basis of all behaviour. Milgram’s experiment did not solve it, it just brought out two different explanations for the results he obtained.

=> ANSWER:           FALSE



Questions 27-32

27. Environmentalists take a pessimistic view of the world for a number of reasons.

Keywords: environmentalists, pessimistic, world

In the first paragraph , the writer says: ” For many environmentalists, the world seems to be getting worse. They have developed a hit-list of our main fears: ….”

– pessimistic view =seems to be getting worse

– a hit-list = a list of reasons why we should be worried

=> ANSWER:           YES

28. Data on the Earth‟s natural resources has only been collected since 1972.

Keywords: data, natural resources, only, since 1972

Information about  data on the Earth‟s natural resources is only found in  paragraph 2, where the writer states: ” First, energy and other natural resources have become more abundant, not less so, since the book  “The Limits to Growth” was published  in 1972 by a group of scientists.” No year is mentioned about when information about the Earth‟s natural resources started to be collected.  1972 is simply the date when a book about natural resources was published.

=> ANSWER:              NOT GIVEN

29. The number of starving people in the world has increased in recent years.

Keywords: starving people, increased, recent years

In paragraph 2, line 4, the writer says : ” Fewer people are starving”

=> ANSWER:             NO

30. Extinct species are being replaced by new species.

Keywords:  Extinct species, being replaced

“Species” are only mentioned in paragraph 2. In line 5, the writer says : ” Third, although species are indeed becoming extinct, only about 0.7% of them are expected to disappear in the next 50 years, not 20-25%, as has so often been predicted.” Their replacement by new species is not mentioned.

=> ANSWER:             NOT GIVEN

31. Some pollution problems have been correctly linked to industrialisation.

Keywords: pollution problems, correctly linked, industrialisation

In paragraph 2, line 7, the writer says: “And finally, most forms of environmental pollution either appear to have been exaggerated, or are transient – associated with the early phases of industrialisation and therefore best cured not by restricting economic growth, but by accelerating it.” So, in the early period of industrialisation, some pollution problems were linked with this new development at the time.

–     associated with = linked to

=> ANSWER:             YES

32. It would be best to attempt to slow down economic growth.

Keywords: best, slow down, economic growth

In the same sentence in paragraph 2, the writer argues that most forms of environmental pollution are: “….therefore best cured not by restricting economic growth, but accelerating it.” So, it is best to attempt to have more rapid economic growth, by accelerating it.

=> ANSWER:             NO

Questions 33-37

33. What aspect of scientific research does the writer express concern about in paragraph 4?

Keywords: scientific research, concern  about

In paragraph 4, the writer says ” One is the lopsidedness built into scientific research”.  In the next sentence, the writer also states that ” Scientific funding goes mainly to areas with many problems. That may be wise policy, but it will also create an impression that many more potential problems exist than is the case” So, the problem referred to is that research is „lopsided‟ – funding goes to some areas of research, but not to other areas.

=> ANSWER:             C

34. The writer quotes from the Worldwide Fund for Nature to illustrate how…

Keywords: quotes, Worldwide Fund for Nature

In paragraph 5, the writer says: “Understandably, perhaps, they sometimes overstate their arguments.  A press release by the Worldwide Fund for Nature in 1997 is given as an example to show/illustrate this.

–     exaggerate their claims=overstate their arguments

=> ANSWER:    D

35. What is the writer‟s main point about lobby groups in paragraph 6?

Keywords: lobby groups

In paragraph 6, the writer argues that: “That would matter less if people applied the same degree of scepticism to environmental lobbying as they do to lobby groups in other fields” The example of trade lobby groups which then follows is used to show that people tend to believe the claims of environmental lobby groups more than the claims of other lobby groups.  As a result, those other lobby groups are criticised more, because people do not believe what they say.

=> ANSWER:              C

36. The writer suggests that newspapers print items that are intended to

Keywords : newspapers, intended to

In paragraph 7, the writer states: “People are clearly more curious about bad news than good. Newspapers and broadcasters are there to provide what the public wants.”  Thus, newspapers print items about the environment that usually contain bad news, because that is what people want to read.

–     meet their reader‟s expectations = provide what the public wants

=> ANSWER:              B

37. What does the writer say about America‟s waste problem?

Keywords: America‟s waste problem

In paragraph 8, the writer says: ” Yet, even if America‟s trash  output continues to rise as it has done in the past, and if the American population doubles by 2100, all the rubbish America produces through the entire 21   century will still take up only one-12000   of the area of the entire United States.” This is an example to prove that the worry of insufficient places for waste disposal is not as important as some people believe.

– waste= trash = rubbish

=> ANSWER:             B

Questions 38-40

38-39  The writer admits that global warming is  a … challenge, but says that it will not have a catastrophic impact on our future, if we deal with it in the …way.

Keywords:  global warming, impact, deal with it

In paragraph 2, the last sentence, the writer says : ” One  form of pollution – the release of greenhouse gases that cause global warming – does appears to be a phenomenon that is going to extend well into our future, but its total impact is unlikely to pose a devastating problem. A bigger problem may well turn out to be an inappropriate response to it.” The writer indicates that the problem is an inappropriate response to global warming, which means that we need to deal it in the right way.

– long-term = lasting/extending over  a long time = extend well into our future

–  catastrophic=devastating

–  inappropriate =unsuitable, wrong

=> ANSWER:             38. E  39. D

40. He feels it would be better to spend money on the more … health problem of providing the world’s population with clean drinking water.

Keywords:  better, health problem, clean drinking water

In paragraph 11, the writer argues : ” Yet the cost of reducing carbon dioxide emissions…will be higher than the cost of solving the world‟s single, most pressing health problem: providing universal access to clean drinking water and sanitation.”

pressing  = demanding immediate attention= urgent

=> ANSWER:               I.


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  1. mohi 15/11/2022

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