IELTS LISTENING PART 4 | TEST 6

Questions 31 and 40

IELTS LISTENING PART 4 | TEST 6

Questions 31 and 32

Choose TWO letters, A—E

IELTS LISTENING PART 4 | TEST 6

Questions 33 and 34

Choose the correct letter, A, B or C

IELTS LISTENING PART 4 | TEST 6

Questions 35-40

Match the creation mythologies to their features.

Write the correct letter, A, B, C or D next to each feature.

IELTS LISTENING PART 4 | TEST 6

Answers

Questions 31 and 32

Questions 31 and 32 Answer: A. stories to explain the unknown., C. characters with special powers.

  • Key words: mythologies offered
  • Here’s what the speaker says: “Why do all cultures invent mythologies, and what do they have in common? Well firstlythese stories provide explanations for the questions we all ask: How was the universe created? Where does the sun come from? What are the stars? A mythology is not the same as a religious doctrine, but nevertheless, most mythologies describe the creation of the world, and how it was populated with people and animals. Mythological heroes are usually god-like characters with superhuman abilities and qualities, though they are not always benevolent. Some of them are jealous, proud and deceitful, just like the humans who invent them. Although they are fantastical, the stories are accepted as a psychological reality by the cultures that create them”.
  • Here are some key words that help you to get the correct answers (A&C):
    • explain = provide explanations
    • religion = religious doctrine
    • special = superhuman
    • powers = abilities
    • goodness = benevolent
  • Explanation: Mythologies provide explanations for the questions that early humans couldn’t answer with their narrow knowledge, questions such as astronomy, cosmology, etc. These are “the unknown” to them, so is correct. 
  • It is said that “A mythology is not the same as a religious doctrine”, or in other words, mythologies do not have the same characteristics as a religion, hence cannot be a substitute for it. Thus B is wrong. 
  • The speaker also says that the characters, or heroes, in mythologies usually have “superhuman abilities and qualities”, which can be considered as “special powers” so C is another correct answer. 
  • On the other hand, D is incorrect because these characters are not always benevolent (which means “well-meaning and kindly”, a synonym for “good”). 
  • E is also incorrect because mythologies are considered “psychological reality”, by the people who believe in them.  The stories may seem like fantasy, but they are believed to be real. Therefore it can’t be said that mythologies are “an escape into fantasy”.
  • The answers are A and C.

Questions 33 and 34

33. Answer: C. the social power of myths.

  • Key words:  Warring States, example
  • Here’s what the speaker says: “Here’s one example.  In the period of ancient Chinese history known as the Warring States, China was changing, but the traditional mythologies reinforced the old political order. The Emperor’s chief minister noticed that some scholars were undermining the Emperor by travelling through the country telling the old legends to the common people. Their stories were exerting a powerful influence on the community. The Emperor forbade the telling of myths and commissioned the writing of new stories that supported his political ideas”.
  • Here are some key words that help you to get the correct answer (C):
    • myths = old legends
    • social = community
  • Explanation: According to the speaker, the myths exerted “a powerful influence on the community”. The term “exert influence” means “have influence”, so it can be paraphrased into “the myths had a powerful influence on the community”. Since the community is related to the social aspect, we can consider this the social power of myths, hence Cis correct. 
  • B is incorrect because the example of Warring States happened in ancient, NOT modern China.
  • A is incorrect, because the scholars told the old myths to ‘the common people’, which means people in general, not only poor people.  We are not told how these myths affected the people who listened to them.
  • The correct answer is C.

34. Answer: B. myths are still being retold today.

  • Key words: Luke Skywalker, show
  • Here’s what the speaker says: “For example, George Lucas’s Star Wars saga is a powerful retelling of an ancient mythological theme. When Luke Skywalker’s story begins, he is an exiled and orphaned member of royalty, who is then called to an adventure where he meets the powerful wizard Ben Kenobi. During his quest he overcomes many dangers, slays the evil character Darth Vader, and rescues his beautiful sister princess Leia. So, you can see that we’re still busily creating new myths in the form of movies, comic books and science fiction stories. This retelling of ancient legends speaks to us all at any age, as do the old stories that we have inherited from our own cultures”.
  • Explanation: It is said that “This retelling of ancient legends speaks to us all at any age, as do the old stories that we have inherited from our own cultures”. “This retelling of ancient legends” refers to new forms of myths such as movies, comic books, sci-fi stories.  The words: “speak to us” means the stories have a great connection and influence on us. So, they are still being created and retold today.  The correct answer is B.
  • A is incorrect because the example of “Star Wars” is a “retelling of an ancient mythological theme”.  The speaker does not mean, therefore, that it contains new values or ideas.
  • C is wrong because ancient legends and old stories attract people “at any age”, not only young people.
  • The answer is B.

Questions 35-40

35. Answer: E

  • Key words: animal, life, sea
  • Here’s what the speaker says: “In some of these stories, such as those from some American Indian tribes and Aboriginal Australians, there is a creature, for example, a crab or a giant tortoise. This creature dives into the ocean and retrieves a small piece of earth from which everything else is created”.
  • Here are some key words that help you to get the correct answer (E):
    • animal = creature
    • sea = ocean
    • bring up = retrieve
  • Explanation: The creature, a crab or a giant tortoise, can be considered “an animal” and this animal takes from the sea (or ocean) a piece of earth “from which everything else is created”. This piece of earth can then be understood as the origin of life in the creation myth of Australian aborigines (native people). 
  • Therefore, E is the correct answer.

36. Answer: B

  • Key words: formed, body, god
  • Here’s what the speaker says: “However, in many creation myths, the world starts in a state of chaos, or a void, where there is no delineation of earth and sky.  In Norse mythology, for example, a supernatural human being emerges from this void and mountains, rivers and earth are formed from his flesh and blood. This god-like creature is called Ymir”.
  • Explanation: “mountains, rivers and earth” are the basic elements of the world, so by saying “mountains, rivers and earth are formed from his flesh and blood”, the speaker means the world is formed from Ymir’s body (or flesh and blood). This is in Norse mythology, so the correct answer must be B.

37. Answer: A

  • Key words: gods, fight
  • Here’s what the speaker says: The Greek culture is a good example of a creation myth that features a family of quarrelsome and aggressive gods, all battling for power and a role in the creation of the earth.
  • Here are some key words that help you to get the correct answer (A):
    • fight = battle
  • Explanation: The Greek gods are described as “quarrelsome and aggressive”, so they usually quarrel with one another. In addition, they all battle for power and a role in the creation of the earth. The words “quarrel” and “battle” are both synonyms for “fight”, hence A is correct.

38. Answer: C

  • Key words:  Earth, god, bigger
  • Here’s what the speaker says: “One of the Chinese myths represents chaos as a hen’s egg, from which a creature called Pangu hatches. The parts of the egg separated; the heavy parts formed the earth, while the light parts formed the sky. For eighteen thousand years, the distance between earth and sky increased by 3 metres a day, while Pangu grew at the same rate, his body filling the space between the two”.
  • Here are some key words that help you to get the correct answer (C):
    • become bigger = grew
  • Explanation: As Pangu grew (or became bigger), his body filled the space between earth and sky, making this distance bigger and bigger every day. Therefore, the world was formed, with the sky, the earth and the space in between. As a result, Pangu can be considered a god who created the world in Chinese mythology, so is correct.

39. Answer: D

  • Key words:  son, separates, parents
  • Here’s what the speaker says: “Another mythology which features the earth and the sky separating comes from the Maori culture in New Zealand. In this story, the sky father Rangi, and the earth mother Papa, lie touching each other. They have many children, all boys, and these children plot together to separate their parents, so that they can live in the light. After many failed attempts at separation, Tane, the god of the forest, lies on his back and pushes his parents apart with his legs”.
  • Here are some key words that help you to get the correct answer (D):
    • separate = push apart
  • Explanation: Tane, a boy, separates his father and mother (his parents) by lying on his back and pushing his parents apart with his legs. This myth comes from Maori culture, hence is the answer.

40. Answer: A

  • Key words: steal, gods
  • Here’s what the speaker says: “Once they had arrived on the scene, the humans often tried to elevate themselves to god-like status by taking knowledge from the gods. In Greek mythology, the humans tried to secretly take the knowledge of how to make fire”.
  • Here are some key words that help you to get the correct answer (A):
    • steal = secretly take
    • people = humans
  • Explanation: Secretly taking something is considered an act of stealing, so in Greek mythology, the people tried to steal the knowledge of how to make fire from the gods. Therefore, it is clear that A is the correct answer.

Transcript

You will hear a talk on the topic of world mythologies. First you have some time to look at questions 31 to 40.

Listen carefully and answer questions 31 to 40.

Today’s lecture is about some of the common themes in world mythologies. Why do all cultures invent mythologies, and what do they have in common? Well firstly, these stories provide explanations for the questions we all ask: How was the universe created? Where does the sun come from? What are the stars? A mythology is not the same as a religious doctrine, but nevertheless, most mythologies describe the creation of the world, and how it was populated with people and animals. Mythological heroes are usually god-like characters with superhuman abilities and qualities, though they are not always benevolent. Some of them are jealous, proud and deceitful, just like the humans who invent them. Although they are fantastical, the stories are accepted as a psychological reality by the cultures that create them.

However, mythology has more than psychological meaning. Here’s one example. In the period of ancient Chinese history known as the Warring States, China was changing, but the traditional mythologies reinforced the old political order. The Emperor’s chief minister noticed that some scholars were undermining the Emperor by travelling through the country telling the old legends to the common people. Their stories were exerting a powerful influence on the community. The Emperor forbade the telling of myths and commissioned the writing of new stories that supported his political ideas.

Do not dismiss mythology as being old-fashioned and irrelevant to modern society. For example, George Lucas’s Star Wars saga is a powerful retelling of an ancient mythological theme. When Luke Skywalker’s story begins, he is an exiled and orphaned member of royalty, who is then called to an adventure where he meets the powerful wizard Ben Kenobi. During his quest he overcomes many dangers, slays the evil character Darth Vader, and rescues his beautiful sister princess Leia. So, you can see that we’re still busily creating new myths in the form of movies, comic books and science fiction stories. This retelling of ancient legends speaks to us all at any age, as do the old stories that we have inherited from our own cultures.

Stories from widely different cultures bear a strong resemblance to each other, and one of the best examples of this is the striking similarity of creation myths from around the world. In some of these stories, such as those from some American Indian tribes and Aboriginal Australians, there is a creature, for example, a crab or a giant tortoise. This creature dives into the ocean and retrieves a small piece of earth from which everything else is created. Water and earth are the two most common elements in all the creation myths.

However, in many creation myths, the world starts in a state of chaos, or a void, where there is no delineation of earth and sky. In Norse mythology, for example, a supernatural human being emerges from this void and mountains, rivers and earth are formed from his flesh and blood. This god-like creature is called Ymir. This creation of natural features from the bodies of the gods is a common thread in other creation mythologies, such as those of Mesopotamia. It frequently takes place after a god has died or been killed, and this introduces another common mythological theme: family rivalry.

The Greek culture is a good example of a creation myth that features a family of quarrelsome and aggressive gods, all battling for power and a role in the creation of the earth. Gaia the earth gives birth to Uranus, the sky, and these two create a family of children, including monsters, who imprison, torture and sometimes even kill and eat their own offspring. Creation myths do not provide examples of the cardinal virtues, but they do address universal themes of jealousy, war and lust for power.

Another common element is the image of a cosmic egg. One of the Chinese myths represents chaos as a hen’s egg, from which a creature called Pangu hatches. The parts of the egg separated; the heavy parts formed the earth, while the light parts formed the sky. For eighteen thousand years, the distance between earth and sky increased by 3 metres a day, while Pangu grew at the same rate, his body filling the space between the two. Another mythology which features the earth and the sky separating comes from the Maori culture in New Zealand. In this story, the sky father Rangi, and the earth mother Papa, lie touching each other. They have many children, all boys, and these children plot together to separate their parents, so that they can live in the light. After many failed attempts at separation, Tane, the god of the forest, lies on his back and pushes his parents apart with his legs.

And where do humans feature in these stories? Most often, they are formed after the creation of other natural features. For example, in the Chinese myth, humans were created from the fleas on Pangu’s body. Once they had arrived on the scene, the humans often tried to elevate themselves to god-like status by taking knowledge from the gods. In Greek mythology, the humans tried to secretly take the knowledge of how to make fire.

IELTS Listening Part 4 British Council

IELTS LISTENING PART 4

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