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Passage 1: The life and work of Marie Curie
Questions 1-6: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1 ?
1. Marie Curie’s husband was a joint winner of both Marie’s Nobel Prizes
Keywords: husband, joint winner, both Nobel Prizes.
In the first paragraph, the writer says that “With her husband, Pierre Curie, and Henri Becquerel, she (Marie) was awarded the 1903 Nobel Prize for Physics, and was then sole winner of the 1911 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.” So, the statement is false.
2. Marie became interested in science when she was a child.
Keywords: interested, science, child
All the information related to her childhood is given in paragraph 2: “From childhood, Marie was remarkable for her prodigious memory, and at the age of 16 won a gold medal on completion of her secondary school.” So, there is no information about whether Marie became interested in science when she was a child, therefore the answer is not given.
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
3. Marie was able to attend the Sorbonne because of her sister’s financial contribution.
Keywords: attend the Sorbonne, sister‟s financial contribution
At the end of paragraph 2, the writer states that “From her earnings she was able to finance her sister Bronia‟s medical studies in Paris, on the understanding that Bronia would, in turn, later help her to get an education.” Then, in the next paragraph, “In 1891, this promise was fulfilled and Marie went to Paris and began to study at the Sorbonne (the University of Paris).” So, it is true that Marie was able to attend the Sorbonne because of her sister‟s financial contribution.
4. Marie stopped doing research for several years when her children were born.
Keywords: stop doing research, children, born
In paragraph 6, the writer indicates that “the births of Marie’s two daughters, Irene and Eve, in 1897 and 1904 failed to interrupt her scientific work.” So, it is false that Marie stopped doing research for several years when her children were born.
5. Marie took over the teaching position her husband had held.
Keywords: took over, teaching position, husband, held
In paragraph 7, the writer states that “On May 13, 1906, she was appointed to the professorship that had been left vacant on her husband’s death, becoming the first woman to teach at the Sorbonne.” So, the statement is true.
– teaching position=professorship
6. Marie’s sister Bronia studied the medical uses of radioactivity.
Keywords: Bronia, studied, medical uses of radioactivity
In paragraph 2, the writer says that “From her earnings she was able to finance her sister Bronia’s medical studies in Paris.” However, whether Bronia studied the medical uses of radioactivity or not is not given.
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
Questions 7-13: Complete the notes below. Choose ONE WORD from the passage for each answer.
7. When uranium was discovered to be radioactive, Marie Curie found that the element called…..had the same property.
Keywords: uranium, radioactive, element, same property
In paragraph 4, the writer states that “Marie decided to find out if the radioactivity discovered in uranium was to be found in other elements. She discovered that this was true for thorium.”
8. Marie and Pierre Curie‟s research into the radioactivity of the mineral known as…..led to the discovery of two new elements.
Keywords: radioactivity, mineral, known, the discovery of two new elements
In paragraph 5, “Turning her attention to minerals, she found her interest drawn to pitchblende, a mineral whose radioactivity, superior to that of pure uranium, could be explained by the presence in the ore of small quantities of an unknown substance of very high activity. Pierre Curie joined her in the work that she had undertaken to resolve the problem, and that led to the discovery of the new elements, polonium and radium.”
9. In 1911, Marie Curie received recognition for her work on the element…..
Keywords: In 1911, recognition, element
In paragraph 7, “In 1911, she was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the isolation of a pure form of radium.”
– received recognition for=was awarded the Nobel Prize for
10. Marie and Irene Curie developed X-radiography which was used as a medical technique for…..
Keywords: Irene, X-radiography, medical technique for
In paragraph 8, the writer says that “During World War I, Marie Curie, with the help of her daughter Irene, devoted herself to the development of the use of X-radiography, including the mobile units which came to be known as ‘Litter Curies’, used for the treatment of wounded soldiers.”
– medical technique=treatment
11. Marie Curie saw the importance of collecting radioactive material both for research and for cases of…..
Keywords: importance, collecting radioactive material, research
In paragraph 10, the writer indicates that “One of Marie Curie‟s outstanding achievements was to have understood the need to accumulate intense radioactive sources, not only to treat illness but also to maintain an abundant supply for research.”
– saw the importance=understood the need
12. The radioactive material stocked in Paris contributed to the discoveries in the 1930s of the…..and of what was known as artificial radioactivity.
Keywords: radioactive material, Paris, discoveries in the 1930s, artificial radioactivity
In paragraph 10, the writer says that “The existence in Paris at the Radium Institute of a stock of 1.5 grams of radium made a decisive contribution to the success of the experiments undertaken in the years around 1930. This work prepared the way for the discovery of the neutron by Sir James Chadwick and, above all, for the discovery in 1934…of artificial radioactivity.”
– contributed to = made a decisive contribution to
13. During her research, Marie Curie was exposed to radiation and as a result, she suffered from…..
Keywords: exposed, radiation, suffered from
At the end of paragraph 10, “A few months after this discovery, Marie Curie died as a result of leukaemia caused by exposure to radiation.”
Passage 2: Young children’s sense of identity
14-19 Which paragraph contains the following information?
14. an account of the method used by researchers in a particular study.
Keywords: method, a particular study
In paragraph G, the writer says that “In one experiment, Lewis and Brooks-Gunn (1979) dabbed some red power on the noses of children who were playing in front of a mirror, and then observed how often they touched their noses. The psychologists reasoned that if the children knew what they usually looked like, they would be surprised by the unusual red mark and would start touching it.”
– a particular study=one experiment
15. the role of imitation in developing a sense of identity.
Keywords: imitation, developing, identity
In paragraph C, the writer says that “Another powerful source of information for infants about the effects they can have on the world around them is provided when others mimic them…However, Lewis and Brooks-Gunn (1979) suggest that infants‟ developing understanding that the movements they see in the mirror are contingent on their own, leads to a growing awareness that they are distinct from other people.”
– imitate (imitation)=mimic
– developing a sense of identity=are distinct from other people
16. the age at which children can usually identify a static image of themselves.
Keywords: age, identify, static image of themselves
In paragraph G, the writer indicates that “Lewis and Brooks-Gunn argued that an important developmental milestone is reached when children become able to recognise themselves visually without the support of seeing contingent movement. This recognition occurs around their second birthday.”
– identify a static image of themselves= recognise themselves visually without the support of seeing contingent movement
17. a reason for the limitations of scientific research into “self-as-subject”
Keywords: reason, limitations, “self-as-subject”
In paragraph D, the writer states that “Empirical investigations of the self-as-subject in young children are, however, rather scarce because of difficulties of communication: even if young infants can reflect on their experience, they certainly cannot express this aspect of the self directly.”
18. reference to a possible link between culture and a particular form of behaviour.
Keywords: link, culture and behaviour.
In paragraph H, the writer says that “Although it may be less marked in other societies, the link between the sense of “self” and of “ownership” is a notable feature of childhood in Western societies.”
19. examples of the wide range of features that contribute to the sense of “self-as-object”
Keywords: examples, features, “self-as-object”
In paragraph E, the writer indicates that “This second step in the development of a full sense of self is what James called the „self-as-object‟. This has been seen by many to be the aspect of the self which is most influenced by social elements, since it is made up of social roles (such as student, brother, colleague) and characteristics which derive their meaning from comparison or interaction with other people (such as trustworthiness, shyness, sporting ability).
Questions 20-23: Look at the following findings (Questions 20-23) and the list of researchers below.
20. A sense of identity can never be formed without relationships with other people.
Keywords: identity, never formed, relationships
In paragraph F, the writer explains that “Mead (1934) went even further: the self is essentially a social structure, and it arises in social experience…it is impossible to conceive of a self arising outside of social experience”
– relationships with other people=social experience
21. A child‟s awareness of self is related to a sense of mastery over things and people.
Keywords: awareness of self, mastery, things, people
In paragraph B, the writer says that “He (Cooley) proposed that the earliest examples of this are in infant’s attempts to control physical objects, such as toys and his or her own limbs. This is followed by attempts to affect the behaviour of other people.”
22. At a certain age, children‟s sense of identity leads to aggressive behaviour.
Keywords: age, aggressive behaviour
In paragraph H, the writer explains that “In the longitudinal study of groups of three or four children, Bronson (1975) found that the intensity of the frustration and anger in their disagreements increased sharply between the ages of 1 and 2 years.”
– aggressive behaviour=frustration and anger
23. Observing their own reflection contributes to children‟s self awareness.
Keywords: observing, reflection, self awareness
In paragraph C, the writer states that “However, Lewis and Brooks-Gunn suggest that infants‟ developing understanding that the movements they see in the mirror are contingent on their own, leads to a growing awareness that they are distinct from other people.”
– reflection=movements in the mirror
– contribute to=lead to
24-26. How children acquire a sense of identity.
24. First, children come to realise that they can have an effect on the world around them, for example by handling objects, or causing the image to move when they face a…..
Keywords: effect on the world, image, move, face
In paragraph C, the writer says that “young children enjoy looking in mirrors, where the movements they can see are dependent upon their own movements.” This means that when looking in mirrors, they can cause the image to move.
25. This aspect of self awareness is difficult to research directly, because of…..problems.
Keywords: difficult to research, problems
In paragraph D, “Empirical investigations of the self-as-subject in young children are, however, rather scarce because of difficulties of communication: even if young infants can reflect on their experience, they certainly cannot express this aspect of the self directly.”
26. In Western societies at least, the development of self awareness is often linked to a sense of….., and can leadto disputes.
Keywords: Western, self awareness, linked
At the end of paragraph H, “Although it may be less marked in other societies, the link between the sense of „self‟ and of „ownership‟ is a notable feature of childhood in Western societies.”
Passage 3: The Development of Museums
Questions 27-30: Reading Passage has six paragraphs, A-F.
27. Paragraph B
In paragraph B, the writer indicates that “Recently, attitudes towards history and the way it should be presented have altered.” Then, he provides some good examples of changes to museums in the UK and US. Despite the success of many historical theme parks and similar locations, such developments have been criticised as an intolerable vulgarisation, while the public does not share this opinion. So, the correct heading for this paragraph is “Mixed views on current changes to museums.”
28. Paragraph C
In this paragraph, the writer emphasizes that “In a related development, the sharp distinction between museum and heritage sites, on the one hand, and theme parks on the other, is gradually evaporating. They already borrow ideas and concepts from one another.” Then, he gives some examples to support this idea. So, the correct heading for this paragraph is fewer differences between public attractions.
– fewer differences=the sharp distinction.. is gradually evaporating
29. Paragraph D
In this paragraph, the writer indicates that museums and heritages are operating in a very competitive environment. As a result, experts on museums and heritages are under pressure because “Museum and heritage experts do not have to invent stories and recreate historical environments to attract their visitors…
However, exhibits must be both based on artefacts and facts as we know them.” So, those who are professionally engaged in the art of interpreting history must steer a narrow course between the demands of „evidence‟ and „attractiveness‟, especially given the increasing need in the heritage industry for income-generating activities.” The correct heading for this paragraph is commercial pressures on people in charge.
– people in charge= those who are professionally engaged in the art of interpreting history
30. Paragraph E.
In this paragraph, the writer indicates that “in order to make everything in heritage more real, historical accuracy must be increasingly altered”. Then, at the end of this paragraph, he emphasizes that “If they did not provide the interpretation, visitors would do it for themselves, based on their own ideas, misconceptions and prejudices. And no matter how exciting the result, it would contain a lot more bias than the presentations provided by experts”. This means that interpretation must be provided to avoid visitor’s bias.
Questions 31-36: Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
31. Compared with today‟s museums, those of the past
Keywords: museums, past
In the first paragraph, the writer indicates that “Museums used to look – and some still do – much like storage rooms of objects packed together in showcases: good for scholars who wanted to study the subtle differences in design, but not for the ordinary visitor, to whom it all looked alike.” This means that in the past, museums were not primarily intended for the public.
– the public=the ordinary visitor
32. According to the writer, current trends in the heritage industry
Keywords: current trends, heritage industry
In paragraph B, the writer states that “On so-called heritage sites the re-enactment of historical events is increasingly popular, and computers will soon provide virtual reality experiences, which will present visitors with a vivid image of the period of their choice, in which they can themselves act as if part of the historical environment.” So, this means that current trends in the heritage industry emphasise personal involvement.
33. The writer says that museums, heritage sites and theme parks
Keywords: museums, heritage sites, theme parks
In paragraph C, the writer says that “In a related development, the sharp distinction between museum and heritage sites on the one hand, and theme parks on the other, is gradually evaporating.” This means that museums, heritage sites and theme parks are less easy to distinguish than before.
34. The writer says that in preparing exhibits for museums, experts
Keywords: preparing exhibits, experts
In paragraph D, the writer explains that “Museum and heritage experts do not have to invent stories and recreate historical environments to attract their visitors: their assets are already in place. However, exhibits must be both based on artefacts and facts as we know them. Those who are professionally engaged in the art of interpreting history must steer a narrow course between the demands of “evidence” and “attractiveness”… So, in preparing exhibits for museums, experts have to balance conflicting
– balance=steer a narrow course between
– conflicting priorities ~ evidence and attractiveness
35. In paragraph E, the writer suggests that some museum exhibits
Keywords: museum exhibits
In paragraph E, the writer suggests that “Such presentations tell us more about contemporary perceptions of the world than about our ancestors.” This means that museum exhibits reveal more about present beliefs than about the past.
– present beliefs=contemporary perceptions
– the past ~ our ancestors
36. The passage ends by noting that our view of history is biased because
Keywords: view of history, biased
In the last paragraph, the writer says that “human bias is inevitable, but another source of bias in the representation of history has to do with the transitory nature of the materials themselves. The simple fact is that not everything from history survives the historical process. Castles, palaces and cathedrals have a longer lifespan than the dwellings of ordinary people.” This means that we believe that only very durable objects remain from the past.
Questions 37-40: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3 ?
37. Consumers prefer theme parks which avoid serious issues.
Keywords: prefer theme parks, avoid serious issues
In paragraph D, the writer says that “Theme parks are undergoing other changes, too, as they try to present more serious social and cultural issues, and move away from fantasy. This development is in response to market forces…” So, the statement is FALSE.
38. More people visit museums than theme parks
Keywords: museums, theme parks
In this passage, the writer does not mention this information. In paragraph D, we are simply told that theme parks, museums and heritage sites “are operating in a very competitive environment, where visitors make choices on how and where to spend their free time”. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
39. The boundaries of Leyden have changed little since the seventeenth century.
Keywords: boundaries, Leyden, changed little
In the last paragraph, the writer states that “In a town like Leyden in Holland, which in the seventeenth century was occupied by approximately the same number of inhabitants as today, people lived within the walled town, an area more than five times smaller than modern Leyden.” So, the statement is FALSE.
40. Museums can give a false impression of how life used to be.
Keywords: museums, false impression
In the last paragraph, the writer says that “the evidence in museums indicates that life was so much better in the past. This notion is induced by the bias in its representation in museums and heritage centres.” So, the statement is TRUE.