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Passage 1: The life and work of Marie Curie

Questions 1-6: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1 ?

1. Marie Curie’s husband was a joint winner of both Marie’s Nobel Prizes

Keywords: husband, joint winner, both Nobel Prizes.
In the first paragraph, the writer says that “With her husband, Pierre Curie, and Henri Becquerel, she (Marie)  was  awarded  the  1903  Nobel  Prize  for  Physics,  and  was  then  sole  winner  of  the  1911  Nobel Prize for Chemistry.” So, the statement is false.

2.  Marie became interested in science when she was a child.

Keywords: interested, science, child
All  the  information  related  to  her  childhood  is  given  in  paragraph  2:  “From  childhood,  Marie  was remarkable  for  her  prodigious  memory,  and  at  the  age  of  16  won  a  gold  medal  on  completion  of  her secondary school.” So, there is no information about whether Marie became interested in science when she was a child, therefore the answer is not given.

3. Marie was able to attend the Sorbonne because of her sister’s financial contribution.

Keywords: attend the Sorbonne, sister‟s financial contribution
At  the  end  of  paragraph  2,  the  writer  states  that  “From  her  earnings  she  was  able  to  finance  her  sister Bronia‟s medical studies in Paris, on the understanding that Bronia would, in turn, later help her to get an education.” Then,  in  the  next  paragraph,  “In  1891,  this  promise  was  fulfilled  and  Marie  went  to  Paris  and began to study at the Sorbonne (the University of Paris).” So, it is true that Marie was able to attend the Sorbonne because of her sister‟s financial contribution.

4. Marie stopped doing research for several years when her children were born.

Keywords: stop doing research, children, born
In paragraph 6, the writer indicates that “the births of Marie’s two daughters, Irene and Eve, in 1897 and  1904  failed  to  interrupt  her  scientific  work.”  So,  it  is  false  that  Marie  stopped  doing  research  for several years when her children were born.

5. Marie took over the teaching position her husband had held.

Keywords: took over, teaching position, husband, held
In paragraph 7, the writer states that “On May 13, 1906, she was appointed to the professorship that had been left vacant on her husband’s death, becoming the first woman to teach at the Sorbonne.” So, the statement is true.
–        teaching position=professorship

6. Marie’s sister Bronia studied the medical uses of radioactivity.

Keywords: Bronia, studied, medical uses of radioactivity
In  paragraph  2,  the  writer  says  that  “From  her  earnings  she  was  able  to  finance  her  sister  Bronia’s medical studies in Paris.” However, whether Bronia studied the medical  uses of radioactivity or not is not given.

Questions 7-13: Complete the notes below. Choose ONE WORD from the passage for each answer.

7.  When  uranium  was  discovered  to  be  radioactive,  Marie  Curie  found  that  the  element  called…..had  the same property.

Keywords: uranium, radioactive, element, same property
In  paragraph  4,  the  writer  states  that  “Marie  decided  to  find  out  if  the  radioactivity  discovered  in uranium was to be found in other elements. She discovered that this was true for thorium.”
=>ANSWER: thorium

8. Marie and Pierre Curie‟s research into the radioactivity of the mineral known as…..led to the discovery of two new elements.

Keywords: radioactivity, mineral, known, the discovery of two new elements
In  paragraph  5,  “Turning  her  attention  to  minerals,  she  found  her  interest  drawn  to  pitchblende,  a mineral whose radioactivity, superior to that of pure uranium, could be explained by the presence in the ore of small quantities of an unknown substance of very high activity. Pierre Curie joined her in the work that  she  had  undertaken  to  resolve  the  problem,  and  that  led  to  the  discovery  of  the  new  elements, polonium and radium.”
=>ANSWER: pitchblende

9. In 1911, Marie Curie received recognition for her work on the element…..

Keywords: In 1911, recognition, element
In paragraph 7, “In 1911, she was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the isolation of a pure form of radium.”
–   received recognition for=was awarded the Nobel Prize for
=>ANSWER: radium

10. Marie and Irene Curie developed X-radiography which was used as a medical technique for…..

Keywords: Irene, X-radiography, medical technique for
In  paragraph  8,  the  writer  says  that  “During  World  War  I,  Marie  Curie,  with  the  help  of  her daughter  Irene,  devoted  herself  to  the  development  of  the  use  of  X-radiography,  including  the  mobile units which came to be known as ‘Litter Curies’, used for the treatment of wounded soldiers.”
–        medical technique=treatment
=>ANSWER: soldiers

11. Marie Curie saw the importance of collecting radioactive material both for research and for cases of…..

Keywords: importance, collecting radioactive material, research
In paragraph 10, the writer indicates that “One of Marie Curie‟s outstanding achievements was to have understood  the  need  to  accumulate  intense  radioactive  sources,  not  only  to  treat  illness  but  also  to maintain an abundant supply for research.”
– saw the importance=understood the need
– collect=accumulate
=>ANSWER: illness

12.  The  radioactive  material  stocked  in  Paris  contributed  to  the  discoveries  in  the  1930s  of  the…..and  of what was known as artificial radioactivity.

Keywords: radioactive material, Paris, discoveries in the 1930s, artificial radioactivity
In paragraph 10, the writer says that “The existence in Paris at the Radium Institute of a stock of 1.5 grams  of  radium  made  a  decisive  contribution  to  the  success  of  the  experiments  undertaken  in  the  years around 1930. This work prepared the way for the discovery of the neutron by Sir James Chadwick and, above all, for the discovery in 1934…of artificial radioactivity.”
–  contributed to = made a decisive contribution to
=>ANSWER: neutron

13. During her research, Marie Curie was exposed to radiation and as a result, she suffered from…..

Keywords: exposed, radiation, suffered from
At  the  end  of  paragraph  10,  “A  few  months  after  this  discovery,  Marie  Curie  died  as  a  result of leukaemia caused by exposure to radiation.”
=>ANSWER: leukaemia


Passage 2: Young children’s sense of identity

14-19 Which paragraph contains the following information?

14. an account of the method used by researchers in a particular study.

Keywords: method, a particular study
In  paragraph  G,  the  writer  says  that  “In  one  experiment,  Lewis  and  Brooks-Gunn  (1979)  dabbed some red power on the noses of children  who were playing in front of a mirror, and then observed how often  they  touched  their  noses.  The  psychologists  reasoned  that  if  the  children  knew  what  they  usually looked like, they would be surprised by the unusual red mark and would start touching it.”
– a particular study=one experiment

15. the role of imitation in developing a sense of identity.

Keywords: imitation, developing, identity
In  paragraph  C,  the  writer  says  that  “Another  powerful  source  of  information  for  infants  about  the effects  they can  have  on  the  world  around  them  is  provided  when  others  mimic  them…However,  Lewis and Brooks-Gunn (1979) suggest that infants‟ developing understanding that the movements they see in the mirror  are  contingent  on  their  own,  leads  to  a  growing  awareness  that  they  are  distinct  from  other people.”
–     imitate (imitation)=mimic
–     developing a sense of identity=are distinct from other people

16. the age at which children can usually identify a static image of themselves.

Keywords: age, identify, static image of themselves
In   paragraph   G,   the   writer   indicates   that   “Lewis   and   Brooks-Gunn   argued   that   an   important developmental milestone is reached when children become able to  recognise themselves visually  without the support of seeing contingent movement. This recognition occurs around their second birthday.”
–  identify a static image  of themselves=  recognise  themselves visually without  the support of seeing contingent movement

17. a reason for the limitations of scientific research into “self-as-subject”

Keywords: reason, limitations, “self-as-subject”
In paragraph D, the writer states that “Empirical investigations of the self-as-subject in young children are, however, rather scarce because of difficulties of communication: even if young infants can reflect on their experience, they certainly cannot express this aspect of the self directly.”

18. reference to a possible link between culture and a particular form of behaviour.

Keywords: link, culture and behaviour.
In  paragraph  H,  the  writer  says  that  “Although  it  may  be  less  marked  in  other  societies,  the  link between the sense of “self” and of “ownership” is a notable feature of childhood in Western societies.”

19. examples of the wide range of features that contribute to the sense of  “self-as-object”

Keywords: examples, features, “self-as-object”
In paragraph E, the writer indicates that “This second step in the development of a full sense of self is what  James called the „self-as-object‟. This  has been  seen  by many to be the aspect of the self  which is most  influenced  by  social  elements,  since  it  is  made  up  of  social  roles  (such  as  student,  brother, colleague)  and  characteristics  which  derive  their  meaning  from  comparison  or  interaction  with  other people (such as trustworthiness, shyness, sporting ability).


Questions 20-23: Look at the following findings (Questions 20-23) and the list of researchers below.

20. A sense of identity can never be formed without relationships with other people.

Keywords: identity, never formed, relationships
In  paragraph  F,  the  writer  explains  that  “Mead  (1934)  went  even  further: the  self  is  essentially  a social structure, and it arises in social experience…it is impossible to conceive of a self arising outside of social experience”
–     relationships with other people=social experience

21. A child‟s awareness of self is related to a sense of mastery over things and people.

Keywords: awareness of self, mastery, things, people
In  paragraph  B,  the  writer  says  that  “He  (Cooley)  proposed  that  the  earliest  examples  of  this  are  in infant’s  attempts  to  control  physical objects,  such  as  toys  and  his  or  her  own  limbs.  This  is  followed  by attempts to affect the behaviour of other people.”
–     mastery=control

22. At a certain age, children‟s sense of identity leads to aggressive behaviour.

Keywords: age, aggressive behaviour
In paragraph H, the writer explains that “In the longitudinal study of groups of three or four children, Bronson  (1975)  found  that  the  intensity  of  the  frustration  and  anger  in  their  disagreements increased sharply between the ages of 1 and 2 years.”
–     aggressive behaviour=frustration and anger

23.  Observing their own reflection contributes to children‟s self awareness.

Keywords: observing, reflection, self awareness
In  paragraph  C,  the  writer  states  that    “However,  Lewis  and  Brooks-Gunn  suggest  that  infants‟ developing understanding that the movements they see in the mirror are contingent on their own, leads to a growing awareness that they are distinct from other people.”
–     reflection=movements in the mirror
–     observe=see
–     contribute to=lead to

24-26. How children acquire a sense of identity.

24. First, children come to realise that they can  have an effect on the world around them, for example by handling objects, or causing the image to move when they face a…..

Keywords: effect on the world, image, move, face
In paragraph C, the writer says that “young children enjoy looking in mirrors, where the movements they can see are dependent upon their own movements.” This means that when looking in mirrors, they can cause the image to move.
=>ANSWER: mirror

25. This aspect of self awareness is difficult to research directly, because of…..problems.

Keywords: difficult to research, problems
In  paragraph  D,  “Empirical  investigations  of  the  self-as-subject  in  young  children  are,  however, rather  scarce because  of  difficulties  of  communication:  even  if  young  infants  can  reflect  on  their experience, they certainly cannot express this aspect of the self directly.”
–     problems=difficulties
=>ANSWER: communication

26. In Western societies at least, the development of self awareness is often linked to a sense of….., and can leadto disputes.

Keywords: Western, self awareness, linked
At the end of paragraph H, “Although it may be less marked in other societies,  the link between the sense of „self‟ and of „ownership‟ is a notable feature of childhood in Western societies.”
–  disputes=disagreement
=>ANSWER: ownership


Passage 3: The Development of Museums

Questions 27-30: Reading Passage has six paragraphs, A-F.

27. Paragraph B

In paragraph B, the writer indicates that “Recently, attitudes towards history and the way it should be presented have altered.”  Then, he provides some good examples of changes to museums in the UK and US. Despite the success of many historical theme parks and similar locations, such developments have been criticised  as  an  intolerable  vulgarisation,  while  the  public  does  not  share  this  opinion.  So,  the  correct heading for this paragraph is “Mixed views on current changes to museums.”
–  views=attitudes
=>ANSWER: ii

28. Paragraph C

In this paragraph, the writer emphasizes that “In a related development, the sharp distinction between museum and heritage sites, on the one hand, and theme parks on the other, is gradually evaporating. They already borrow ideas and concepts from one another.” Then, he gives some examples to support this idea. So, the correct heading for this paragraph is fewer differences between public attractions.
–  fewer differences=the sharp distinction.. is gradually evaporating
=>ANSWER: vi

29. Paragraph D

In this paragraph, the writer indicates that museums and heritages are operating in a very competitive environment.  As  a  result,  experts  on  museums  and  heritages  are  under  pressure  because  “Museum  and heritage experts do not have to invent stories and recreate historical environments to  attract their visitors…
However,  exhibits  must  be  both  based  on  artefacts  and  facts  as  we  know  them.”  So,  those  who  are professionally  engaged  in  the  art  of  interpreting  history  must  steer  a  narrow  course  between  the demands of „evidence‟ and „attractiveness‟, especially given the increasing need in the heritage industry for income-generating activities.” The correct heading for this paragraph is commercial pressures on people in charge.
– people in charge= those who are professionally engaged in the art of interpreting history

30. Paragraph E.

In  this  paragraph,  the  writer  indicates  that  “in  order  to  make  everything  in  heritage  more  real, historical accuracy must be increasingly altered”. Then, at the end of this paragraph, he emphasizes that “If they  did  not  provide  the  interpretation,  visitors  would  do  it  for  themselves,  based  on  their  own  ideas, misconceptions and prejudices. And no matter how exciting the result, it would contain a lot more bias than the  presentations  provided  by experts”.  This  means  that  interpretation  must  be  provided  to  avoid  visitor’s bias.
=>ANSWER: iii

Questions 31-36: Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

31. Compared with today‟s museums, those of the past

Keywords: museums, past
In the first paragraph, the writer indicates that “Museums used to look – and some still do – much like storage rooms of objects  packed together in  showcases:  good  for scholars who wanted to  study the subtle differences in design, but not for the ordinary visitor, to whom it all looked alike.” This means that in the past, museums were not primarily intended for the public.
–     the public=the ordinary visitor

32. According to the writer, current trends in the heritage industry

Keywords: current trends, heritage industry
In paragraph B, the writer states that “On so-called heritage sites the re-enactment of historical events is  increasingly  popular,  and  computers  will  soon  provide  virtual  reality  experiences,  which  will  present visitors with a vivid image of the period of their choice, in which they can themselves act as if part of the historical environment.” So, this means that current trends in the heritage industry emphasise personal involvement.

33. The writer says that museums, heritage sites and theme parks

Keywords:  museums, heritage sites, theme parks
In paragraph C, the writer says that “In a related development, the sharp distinction between museum and heritage sites on the one hand, and theme parks on the other,  is gradually evaporating.” This means that museums, heritage sites and theme parks are less easy to distinguish than before.

34. The writer says that in preparing exhibits for museums, experts

Keywords: preparing exhibits, experts
In paragraph  D, the writer explains that “Museum  and heritage  experts do not  have to  invent stories and  recreate  historical  environments  to  attract  their  visitors:  their  assets  are  already  in  place.  However, exhibits  must  be  both  based  on  artefacts  and  facts  as  we  know  them.  Those who  are  professionally engaged in the art of interpreting history must steer a narrow course between the demands of “evidence” and   “attractiveness”…   So,   in   preparing  exhibits   for  museums,   experts   have   to   balance   conflicting
– balance=steer a narrow course between
– conflicting priorities ~ evidence and attractiveness


35. In paragraph E, the writer suggests that some museum exhibits

Keywords: museum exhibits
In  paragraph  E,  the  writer  suggests  that  “Such  presentations  tell  us  more  about  contemporary perceptions of the world than about our ancestors.” This means that museum exhibits reveal more about present beliefs than about the past.
–  reveal=tell
– present beliefs=contemporary perceptions
– the past ~ our ancestors

36. The passage ends by noting that our view of history is biased because

Keywords: view of history, biased
In the last paragraph, the writer says that “human bias is inevitable, but another source of bias in the representation of history has to do with the transitory nature of the materials themselves. The simple fact is that not everything from history survives the historical process. Castles, palaces and cathedrals have a longer lifespan than the dwellings of ordinary people.” This means that we believe that only very durable objects remain from the past.

Questions 37-40: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3 ?

37. Consumers prefer theme parks which avoid serious issues.

Keywords: prefer theme parks, avoid serious issues
In  paragraph  D,  the  writer  says  that  “Theme  parks  are  undergoing other  changes,  too,  as  they try to present  more  serious  social  and  cultural  issues,  and  move  away  from  fantasy.   This  development  is  in response to market forces…” So, the statement is FALSE.

38. More people visit museums than theme parks

Keywords: museums, theme parks
In this passage, the writer does not mention this information. In paragraph D, we are simply told that theme parks, museums and heritage sites “are operating in a very competitive environment, where visitors make choices on how and where to spend their free time”. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

39. The boundaries of Leyden have changed little since the seventeenth century.

Keywords: boundaries, Leyden, changed little
In the last paragraph, the writer states that “In a town like Leyden in Holland, which in the seventeenth century was  occupied  by approximately the  same  number  of  inhabitants  as  today,  people  lived  within  the walled town, an area more than five times smaller than modern Leyden.” So, the statement is FALSE.

40. Museums can give a false impression of how life used to be.

Keywords: museums, false impression
In  the  last  paragraph,  the  writer  says  that  “the  evidence  in  museums  indicates  that  life  was  so much better  in  the  past.  This  notion  is  induced  by  the  bias  in  its  representation  in  museums  and  heritage centres.” So, the statement is TRUE.


cambridge ielts 9 reading test 4 passage 3
cambridge ielts 9 reading test 4 passage 3

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