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Passage 1: William Henry Perkin

Questions 1-7: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1 ?

1. Michael Faraday was the first person to recognise Perkin’s ability as a student of chemistry.

Keywords: first, Michael Faraday, Perkin‟s ability, chemistry

In paragraph 2, the writer indicates that   “His talent and devotion to the subject were perceived by his teacher [at the City of London school] Thomas Hall….”   So Thomas Hall was the  first person to recognise  Perkin’s  ability  in  chemistry,  and  this  teacher  encouraged  Perkin  to  attend  lectures  by Faraday. “Those speeches (by Michael Faraday) fired the young chemist’s enthusiasm further”,


2.Michael Faraday suggested Perkin should enroll in the Royal College of Chemistry.

Keywords: should enroll

At the end of paragraph 2, the writer argues that “he later went on to attend the Royal College of Chemistry,  which  he  succeeded  in  entering  in  1853,  at  the  age  of  15.”  So,  who  advised  Perkin  to enroll in the Royal College of Chemistry is NOT GIVEN.


3. Perkin employed August Wilhelm Hofmann as his assistant

Keywords: August Wilhelm Hofmann, employed, assistant

In  paragraph  3,  the  writer  says  that  “At  the  time  of  Perkin’s  enrolment,  the  Royal  College  of Chemistry  was  headed  by  the  noted  German  chemist  August  Wilhelm  Hofmann.  Perkin’s  scientific gifts  soon  caught  Hofmann‟s  attention  and,  within  two  years,  he  became  Hofmann‟s  youngest assistant.” This means Hofmann employed Perkin as his assistant. So, the statement is FALSE.


4. Perkin was still young when he made the discovery that made him rich and famous

Keywords: young, discovery, rich and famous.

At  the  end  of  paragraph  3,  the  writer  says  that  “Perkin’s  scientific  gifts  soon  caught  Hofmann‟s attention and, within two years, he became Hofmann‟s youngest assistant.Not long after that, Perkin made the scientific breakthrough that would bring him both fame and fortune.” This means that when making the scientific discovery, Perkin was still young.

–     famous (a) – fame (n)

–     rich(a) – fortune (n)

–     discovery – scientific breakthrough


5. The trees from which quinine is derived grow only in South America.

Keywords: quinine, derived, only in South America

In paragraph 4, “At the time, quinine was the only viable medical treatment for malaria. The drug is  derived  from  the  bark  of  the  cinchona  tree,  native  to  South  America.”  This  means  that  the cinchona trees originate in South America; therefore, whether they grow only in South America is not mentioned.


6. Perkin hoped to manufacture a drug from a coal tar waste product.

Keywords: drug, coal tar waste product.

In paragraph 5, the writer argues that “He (Perkin) was attempting to manufacture quinine from aniline, an inexpensive and readily available coal tar waste product.”So, the statement is TRUE.

–     a drug ~ quinine (the only viable medical treatment for malaria)


7. Perkin was inspired by the discoveries of the famous scientist Louis Pasteur.

Keywords: inspired, Louis Pasteur

At the end of paragraph 5, the writer indicates that “And, proving the truth of the famous scientist Louis  Pasteur’s  words  ‘chances  favours  only  the  prepared  mind’,  Perkin  saw  the  potential  of  his unexpected  find.”  So,  whether  Perkin  was  inspired  by  Louis  Pasteur‟s  discoveries  or  not  is  not mentioned.


Questions 8-13: Answer the questions below.

8. Before Perkin’s discovery,with what group in society was the colour purple associated?

Keywords: what group, purple associated?

In paragraph 6, the writer argues that “Indeed, the purple colour extracted from a snail was once so costly that in society at the time, only the rich could afford it.” So, before Perkin‟s discovery, the colour purple was associated with the rich.

=>ANSWER: the rich

9. What potential did Perkin immediately understand that his new dye had?

Keywords: potential, new dye

At  the  end  of  paragraph  7,  the  writer  says  that  “But  perhaps  the  most  fascinating  of  all  Perkin’s reactions   to   his   find   was   his   nearly   instant   recognition   that   the   new   dye   had   commercial possibilities.”  This  means  that  Perkin  immediately understood  that  his  new  dye  had  the  potential  of being sold commercially.

–     potential=possibilities

–     immediately= nearly instant

–     understand = recognise (recognition(n))

=>ANSWER: commercial (possibilities)

10.What was the name finally used to refer to the first colour Perkin invented?

Keywords: finally, name, first colour

In  paragraph  7,  it  is  stated  that  his  purple  colour  became  “the  world‟s  first  synthetic  dye”.    In paragraph  8,  the  writer  argues  that  “Perkin  originally  named  his  dye  Tyrian  Purple,  but  it  later became commonly known as mauve.” This means that “mauve” was finally used to refer to the first colour Perkin invented.

=>ANSWER: mauve

11. What was the name of the person Perkin consulted before setting up his own dye works?

Keywords: name, person

In  paragraph  8,  “He  (Perkin)  asked  advice  of  Scottish  dye  works  owner  Robert  Pullar,  who assured him that manufacturing the dye would be well worth it if the colour remained fast and the cost was  relatively  low.”  This  means  that  Perkin  consulted  Robert  Pullar  before  setting  up  his  own  dye works.

–     consulted=asked advice

=>ANSWER: Robert Pullar

12. In what country did Perkin’s newly invented colour first become fashionable?

Keywords: country, fashionable

In paragraph 9, “Utilising the cheap and plentiful coal tar that was an almost unlimited byproduct of London‟s gas street lighting, the dye works began producing the world‟s first synthetically dyed material  in  1857.  The  company  received  a  commercial  boost  from  the  Empress  Eugénie  of France, when she decided the new colour flattered her. Very soon, mauve was the necessary shade for  all  the  fashionable  ladies  in  that  country  (France).”  This  means  that  Perkin’s  newly  invented colour first became fashionable in France.

=>ANSWER: France

13.According  to  the  passage,  which  disease  is  now  being  targeted  by  researchers  using  synthetic dyes?

Keywords: disease, researchers, using synthetic dyes

At  the  end  of  paragraph  10,  the  writer  argues  that  “And,  in  what  would  have  been  particularly pleasing to Perkin, their current use is in the research for a vaccine against malaria.” This means that malaria is now being targeted by researchers using synthetic dyes.

–     now=current

=>ANSWER: Malaria



Questions 14—17: Reading Passage 2 has five paragraphs, A-E.

14.Paragraph B.

The main idea of paragraph B is “In discussing whether we are alone, most SETI scientists adopt two  rules.”  Then,  the  writer  details  these  two  rules.  The  second  rule  is  “a  very  conservative assumption that we are looking for a life form that is pretty well like us”.

–     ground rules = assumptions

–     SETI = the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence

=>ANSWER: iv

15.Paragraph C

In paragraph C, the writer emphasizes that “our understanding of other life forms is still severely limited”, and “we do not know how likely it is that life will arise naturally”.  This is followed by some guesses about life on  other planets:  “it  seems  inconceivable  that at  least  one of these planets  does not have a life form on it; in fact, the best educated guess we can make,…, leads us to estimate that perhaps  one  in  100,000  stars  might  have  a  life-bearing  planet  orbiting  it.”  In  other  words,  this paragraph is about likelihood of life on other planets.

–     likelihood=best educated guess

=>ANSWER: vii

16.Paragraph D

In this paragraph, the writer says that “An alien civilisation could choose many different ways of sending  information  across  the  galaxy.  It  turns  out  that,  for  a  given  amount  of  transmitted  power, radio  waves  in  the  frequency  range  1000  to  3000  MHz  travel  the  greatest  distance,  and  so  all searches  to  date  have  concentrated  on  looking  for  radio  waves  around  the  world…  “.  Then,  the writer  gives  more  details  about  the  project  of  searching  for  extra-terrestrial  life.  So,  paragraph  D  is about seeking the transmission of radio signals from planets.

–     signals=radio waves

–     seeking=looking for


17.Paragraph E:

This  paragraph  details  how  we  should  react  to  a  signal  from  an  alien  civilisation:  “Everybody agrees  that  we  should  not  reply  immediately.”  Then  he  explains  why  we  should  not  reply  at  once. Therefore, this paragraph is about appropriate responses to signals from other civilisations.

–     response (n)=reply (v)

=>ANSWER: ii

Question 18-20: Answer the Questions Below

18.What is the life expectancy of Earth?

Keywords: life expectancy

In  paragraph  A,  the  writer  says  that  “Since  the  lifetime  of  a  planet  like  ours  is  several  billion years,  we  can  expect  that,  if  other  civilisations  do  survive  in  our  galaxy,  their  ages  will  range  from zero to several billion years.”

–     Earth=a planet like ours

–     life expectancy=lifetime

=>ANSWER: several billion years

19.What kind of signals from other intelligent civilisations are SETI scientists searching for?

Keywords: signals, scientists looking for

In  paragraph  D,  “An  alien  civilisation  could  choose  many different  ways  of  sending  information across  the  galaxy.  It  turns  out  that,  for  a  given  amount  of  transmitted  power,  radio  waves  in  the frequency  range  1000  to  3000  MHz  travel  the  greatest  distance,  and  so  all  searchesto  date  have

concentrated onlooking for radio waves around the world…”

–     searching for=looking for

=>ANSWER: radio waves/signals

20.How many stars are the world’s most powerful radio telescopes searching?

Keywords: how many, stars, searching, radio telescopes

At  the  end  of  paragraph  D,  the  writer  says  that  “One  part  is  a  targeted  search  using the  world’s largest radio telescopes…This part of the project is searching the nearest 1000 likely stars with high sensitivity for signals in the frequencies range 1000 to 3000 MHz”

–     most powerful ~ largest

=>ANSWER: 1000

Questions 21-26: Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 2?

21.Alien civilisations may be able to help the human race to overcome serious problems.

Keywords: alien, help overcome problems

At the end of paragraph A, the writer indicates that “It it even possible that the older civilisation may pass on the benefits of their experience in dealing with threats to survival such as nuclear war and global pollution, and other threats that we haven‟t yet discovered,”

–     help ~ pass on the benefits of experience

–     overcome=deal with

–   serious  problems  ~  nuclear  war  and  global  pollution,  and  other  threats  that  we  haven‟t  yet discovered


22.SETI scientists are trying to find a life form that resembles humans in many ways.

Keywords: a life form, resemble humans

In paragraph B, the writer argues that “Second, we make a very conservative assumption that  we are looking for a life form that is pretty well like us, since if it differs radically from us we may well not recognise it as a form.”

–     try to find=look for

–     resembles=is like

–     in many ways=pretty well


23.The Americans and Australians have co-operated on joint research projects.

Keywords: Americans and Australians, co-operated

Paragraph D mentions “The Americans and Australians” However, whether they have co-operated on joint research projects or not is not mentioned. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.


24.So far SETI scientists have picked up radio signals from several stars

Keywords: picked up signals, several stars

In paragraph D, the writer indicates that “Until now, there have not been any detections from the few hundred stars which have been searched.” This means that so far, SETI scientists have not picked up any radio signals from other stars.


25.The NASA project attracted criticism from some members of Congress.

Keywords: NASA projects, criticism, Congress.

In paragraph D, which mentions “members of Congress”, there is no information about the NASA project’s attracting criticism from members of Congress. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.


26.If a signal from outer space is received, it will be important to respond promptly.”

Keywords: signal, outer space, respond promptly

In  the  last  paragraph,  the  writer  argues  that  “There  is  considerable  debate  over  how  we  should react  if  we  detect  a  signal  from  an  alien  civilisation.  Everybody  agrees  that  we  should  not  reply immediately” This means that if a signal from outer space is received, we should not reply promptly.

–     respond=reply

–     promptly=immediately



Passage 3: History of the tortoise

Questions 27-30: Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer

27.What had to transfer from sea to land before any animals could migrate?

Keywords: transfer, animals migrate

In the first paragraph, the writer indicates that “If you go far back enough, everything lived in the sea. At various points in evolutionary history, enterprising individuals within many different animal groups moved out onto the land…And we mustn’t forget the plants, without whose prior invasion of the land none of the other migrations could happen.

–     Transfer (from sea to land)=move out onto (the land)

–     before=prior

=>ANSWER: plants

28.Which TWO processes are mentioned as those in which animals had to make big changes as they moved onto land?

Keywords: two processes, big changes, moved onto land

In paragraph 2, the writer indicates that “Moving from water to land involved a major redesign of every aspect of life, including breathing and reproduction”

– Big changes=a major redesign of every aspect of life.

=>ANSWER: breathing-reproduction

29.Which physical feature, possessed by their ancestors, do whales lack?

Keywords: physical feature, whales lack?

In  paragraph  2,  the  write  argues  that  “Whales  (including the  small  whales  we  call  dolphins)  and dugongs, with their close cousins the manatees, ceased to be land creatures altogether and reverted to the  full  marine  habits  of  their  remote  ancestors.  They  don‟t  even  come  ashore  to  breed.  They  do, however, still breathe air, having never developed  anything equivalent to the gills of their earlier marine incarnation.”

–     ancestors=earlier marine incarnation

–     lack=never developed

=>ANSWER: gills

30.Which animals might ichthyosaurs have resembled?

Keywords: ichthyosaurs, resembled

In  paragraph  3,  “Ichthyosaurs  were  reptilian  contemporaries  of  the  dinosaurs,  with  fins  and streamlined bodies. The fossils look like dolphins and they surely lived like dolphins, in the water.”

–     resemble=look like

=>ANSWER: dolphins

Questions 31-33: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?

31.Turtles were among the first group of animals to migrate back to the sea.

Keywords: turtles, first animals, back, sea

In  paragraph  2,  “Nevertheless,  a  good  number  of  thorough going  land  animals  later  turned around,   abandoned   their   hard-earned   terrestrial   re-tooling,   and   returned   to   the   water   again.”

Whether  turtles  were  among  the  first  group  of  animals  to  migrate  back  to  the  sea  or  not  is  NOT mentioned. We only know, from  this paragraph,  that “Turtles  went  back  to  the sea  a  very long time ago…”  So, the statement is NOT GIVEN

–     migrate back=return


32.It  is   always   difficult   to   determine  where   an   animal   lived   when   its   fossilised   remains   are incomplete.

Keywords: always difficult, animal lived, remains, incomplete

In paragraph 3, the writer argues that “You might wonder how we can tell whether fossil animals lived   on   land   or   in   water,   especially   if   only   fragments   are   found.   Sometimes   it‟s   obvious. Ichthyosaurs  were  reptilian  contemporaries  of  the  dinosaurs,  with  fins  and  streamlined  bodies.  The fossils look like dolphins and they surely lived like dolphins, in the water. With turtles, it is a little less obvious.  One  way  to  tell  is  by  measuring  the  bones  of  their  forelimbs.”  This  means  that  although some fossilised remains of animals are incomplete, sometimes it is still obvious to determine where an animal lived; the case of dolphin fossils is an example. So, the statement is FALSE.

–     incomplete fossilised remains=fragments


33.The habitat of ichthyosaurs can be determined by the appearance of their fossilised remains.

Keywords: ichthyosaurs, habitat, appearance, fossilised remains

In paragraph 3, the writer says that “Ichthyosaurs were reptilian contemporaries of the dinosaurs, with fins and streamlined bodies. The fossils look like dolphins and they surely lived like dolphins, in  the  water.”So,  it  is  true  that  the  habitat  of  ichthyosaurs  can  be  determined  by the  appearance  of their fossilised remains.


Questions 34-39: Complete the flow-chart below.

34-39. Method of determining where the ancestors of turtles and tortoises come from

34. 71  species  of  living  turtles  and  tortoises  were  examined  and  a  total  of…were  taken  from  the bones of their forelimbs.

Keywords: 71,taken, total of, bones, forelimbs

At  the  beginning  of  paragraph  4,  the  writer  argues  that  “Walter  Joyce  and  Jacques  Gauthier,  at Yale  University,  obtained  three  measurements  in  these  particular  bones  of  71  species  of  living turtles and tortoises.”

=>ANSWER: 3 measurements/three measurements

35. The data was recorded on a… (Necessary for comparing the information)

Keywords: recorded on a

In paragraph 4, the writer indicates that “They used a kind of triangular graph paper to plot the three measurements against one another.”

–     comparing the information ~ plot the three measurements against one another

–     recorded=plot

=>ANSWER: (triangular) graph

36. Outcome: Land tortoises were represented by a dense…of points towards the top.

Keywords: land tortoises, represented, dense, points

Also, in paragraph 4, the write indicates that “All the land tortoise species formed a tight cluster of points in the upper part of the triangle.”

–     dense=tight

–     towards the top=in the upper part of the triangle

=>ANSWER: cluster

37. The same data was collected from some living….species and added to the other results.

Keywords: same data, living species, the other results

In paragraph 4, The results from the land tortoises were all in the upper part of the graph, and in the  lower  part  of  the  graph  were  the  results  from  the  water  turtles.   “There  was  no  overlap,  except when  they  added  some  species  that  spend  time  both  in  water  and  on  land.  Sure  enough,  these amphibious species show up on the triangular graph approximately half way between the „wet cluster‟ of sea turtles and the „dry cluster‟ of land tortoises.”

38. Outcome: The points for these species turned out to be positioned about….up the triangle between the land tortoises and the sea turtles.

Keywords: points, positioned about, up the triangle

In  paragraph  4,  “Sure  enough,  these  amphibious  species  show  up  on  the  triangular  graph approximately   half   way   between   the   ‘wet   cluster’   of   sea   turtles   and   the   „dry   cluster‟   of land tortoises.”

–     added to the other results=half way between the „wet cluster‟ of sea turtles and the „dry cluster‟ of land tortoises

=>ANSWER: halfway

39. Bonesof P.quenstedti and P.talampayensis were examined in a similar way and the results added.

Outcome: The position of the points indicated that both these ancient creatures were….

Keywords: position, points,creatures

At  the  end  of  paragraph  4,  the  writer  says  that  “The  bones  of  P.quenstedti  and  P.talampayensis leave us in no doubt. Their points on the graph are right in the thick of the dry cluster. Both these fossils were dry-land tortoises.”

–     Ancient creatures=fossils

=>ANSWER: dry-land tortoises

40. According to the writer, the most significant thing about tortoises is that

A. They are able to adapt to extremely dry environments.

B. Their original life form was a kind of primeval bacteria.

C. They have so much in common with sea turtles.

D. They have made the transition from sea to land more than once.

In the last paragraph, the writer indicates that “Tortoises therefore represent a remarkable  double return.  In  common  with  all  mammals…their  remote  ancestors  were  marine  fish  and  before  that various  more  or  less  worm-like  creatures  stretching  back,  still  in  the  sea,  to  the  primeval  bacteria.

Later ancestors lived on land and stayed there for a very large number of generations. Later ancestors still evolved back into the water and become sea turtles. And finally they returned yet again to the land as tortoises, some of which now live in the driest of deserts.” So this means that tortoises have made the transition from sea to land more than once.



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