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William Henry Perkin
Questions 1-7: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1 ?
1. Michael Faraday was the first person to recognise Perkin’s ability as a student of chemistry.
Keywords: first, Michael Faraday, Perkin‟s ability, chemistry
In paragraph 2, the writer indicates that “His talent and devotion to the subject were perceived by his teacher [at the City of London school] Thomas Hall….” So Thomas Hall was the first person to recognise Perkin’s ability in chemistry, and this teacher encouraged Perkin to attend lectures by Faraday. “Those speeches (by Michael Faraday) fired the young chemist’s enthusiasm further”,
2.Michael Faraday suggested Perkin should enroll in the Royal College of Chemistry.
Keywords: should enroll
At the end of paragraph 2, the writer argues that “he later went on to attend the Royal College of Chemistry, which he succeeded in entering in 1853, at the age of 15.” So, who advised Perkin to enroll in the Royal College of Chemistry is NOT GIVEN.
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
3. Perkin employed August Wilhelm Hofmann as his assistant
Keywords: August Wilhelm Hofmann, employed, assistant
In paragraph 3, the writer says that “At the time of Perkin’s enrolment, the Royal College of Chemistry was headed by the noted German chemist August Wilhelm Hofmann. Perkin’s scientific gifts soon caught Hofmann‟s attention and, within two years, he became Hofmann‟s youngest assistant.” This means Hofmann employed Perkin as his assistant. So, the statement is FALSE.
4. Perkin was still young when he made the discovery that made him rich and famous
Keywords: young, discovery, rich and famous.
At the end of paragraph 3, the writer says that “Perkin’s scientific gifts soon caught Hofmann‟s attention and, within two years, he became Hofmann‟s youngest assistant.Not long after that, Perkin made the scientific breakthrough that would bring him both fame and fortune.” This means that when making the scientific discovery, Perkin was still young.
– famous (a) – fame (n)
– rich(a) – fortune (n)
– discovery – scientific breakthrough
5. The trees from which quinine is derived grow only in South America.
Keywords: quinine, derived, only in South America
In paragraph 4, “At the time, quinine was the only viable medical treatment for malaria. The drug is derived from the bark of the cinchona tree, native to South America.” This means that the cinchona trees originate in South America; therefore, whether they grow only in South America is not mentioned.
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
6. Perkin hoped to manufacture a drug from a coal tar waste product.
Keywords: drug, coal tar waste product.
In paragraph 5, the writer argues that “He (Perkin) was attempting to manufacture quinine from aniline, an inexpensive and readily available coal tar waste product.”So, the statement is TRUE.
– a drug ~ quinine (the only viable medical treatment for malaria)
7. Perkin was inspired by the discoveries of the famous scientist Louis Pasteur.
Keywords: inspired, Louis Pasteur
At the end of paragraph 5, the writer indicates that “And, proving the truth of the famous scientist Louis Pasteur’s words ‘chances favours only the prepared mind’, Perkin saw the potential of his unexpected find.” So, whether Perkin was inspired by Louis Pasteur‟s discoveries or not is not mentioned.
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
Questions 8-13: Answer the questions below.
8. Before Perkin’s discovery,with what group in society was the colour purple associated?
Keywords: what group, purple associated?
In paragraph 6, the writer argues that “Indeed, the purple colour extracted from a snail was once so costly that in society at the time, only the rich could afford it.” So, before Perkin‟s discovery, the colour purple was associated with the rich.
=>ANSWER: the rich
9. What potential did Perkin immediately understand that his new dye had?
Keywords: potential, new dye
At the end of paragraph 7, the writer says that “But perhaps the most fascinating of all Perkin’s reactions to his find was his nearly instant recognition that the new dye had commercial possibilities.” This means that Perkin immediately understood that his new dye had the potential of being sold commercially.
– immediately= nearly instant
– understand = recognise (recognition(n))
=>ANSWER: commercial (possibilities)
10.What was the name finally used to refer to the first colour Perkin invented?
Keywords: finally, name, first colour
In paragraph 7, it is stated that his purple colour became “the world‟s first synthetic dye”. In paragraph 8, the writer argues that “Perkin originally named his dye Tyrian Purple, but it later became commonly known as mauve.” This means that “mauve” was finally used to refer to the first colour Perkin invented.
11. What was the name of the person Perkin consulted before setting up his own dye works?
Keywords: name, person
In paragraph 8, “He (Perkin) asked advice of Scottish dye works owner Robert Pullar, who assured him that manufacturing the dye would be well worth it if the colour remained fast and the cost was relatively low.” This means that Perkin consulted Robert Pullar before setting up his own dye works.
– consulted=asked advice
=>ANSWER: Robert Pullar
12. In what country did Perkin’s newly invented colour first become fashionable?
Keywords: country, fashionable
In paragraph 9, “Utilising the cheap and plentiful coal tar that was an almost unlimited byproduct of London‟s gas street lighting, the dye works began producing the world‟s first synthetically dyed material in 1857. The company received a commercial boost from the Empress Eugénie of France, when she decided the new colour flattered her. Very soon, mauve was the necessary shade for all the fashionable ladies in that country (France).” This means that Perkin’s newly invented colour first became fashionable in France.
13.According to the passage, which disease is now being targeted by researchers using synthetic dyes?
Keywords: disease, researchers, using synthetic dyes
At the end of paragraph 10, the writer argues that “And, in what would have been particularly pleasing to Perkin, their current use is in the research for a vaccine against malaria.” This means that malaria is now being targeted by researchers using synthetic dyes.
IS THERE ANYBODY OUT THERE?
Questions 14—17: Reading Passage 2 has ﬁve paragraphs, A-E.
The main idea of paragraph B is “In discussing whether we are alone, most SETI scientists adopt two rules.” Then, the writer details these two rules. The second rule is “a very conservative assumption that we are looking for a life form that is pretty well like us”.
– ground rules = assumptions
– SETI = the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence
In paragraph C, the writer emphasizes that “our understanding of other life forms is still severely limited”, and “we do not know how likely it is that life will arise naturally”. This is followed by some guesses about life on other planets: “it seems inconceivable that at least one of these planets does not have a life form on it; in fact, the best educated guess we can make,…, leads us to estimate that perhaps one in 100,000 stars might have a life-bearing planet orbiting it.” In other words, this paragraph is about likelihood of life on other planets.
– likelihood=best educated guess
In this paragraph, the writer says that “An alien civilisation could choose many different ways of sending information across the galaxy. It turns out that, for a given amount of transmitted power, radio waves in the frequency range 1000 to 3000 MHz travel the greatest distance, and so all searches to date have concentrated on looking for radio waves around the world… “. Then, the writer gives more details about the project of searching for extra-terrestrial life. So, paragraph D is about seeking the transmission of radio signals from planets.
– signals=radio waves
– seeking=looking for
This paragraph details how we should react to a signal from an alien civilisation: “Everybody agrees that we should not reply immediately.” Then he explains why we should not reply at once. Therefore, this paragraph is about appropriate responses to signals from other civilisations.
– response (n)=reply (v)
Question 18-20: Answer the Questions Below
18.What is the life expectancy of Earth?
Keywords: life expectancy
In paragraph A, the writer says that “Since the lifetime of a planet like ours is several billion years, we can expect that, if other civilisations do survive in our galaxy, their ages will range from zero to several billion years.”
– Earth=a planet like ours
– life expectancy=lifetime
=>ANSWER: several billion years
19.What kind of signals from other intelligent civilisations are SETI scientists searching for?
Keywords: signals, scientists looking for
In paragraph D, “An alien civilisation could choose many different ways of sending information across the galaxy. It turns out that, for a given amount of transmitted power, radio waves in the frequency range 1000 to 3000 MHz travel the greatest distance, and so all searchesto date have
concentrated onlooking for radio waves around the world…”
– searching for=looking for
=>ANSWER: radio waves/signals
20.How many stars are the world’s most powerful radio telescopes searching?
Keywords: how many, stars, searching, radio telescopes
At the end of paragraph D, the writer says that “One part is a targeted search using the world’s largest radio telescopes…This part of the project is searching the nearest 1000 likely stars with high sensitivity for signals in the frequencies range 1000 to 3000 MHz”
– most powerful ~ largest
Questions 21-26: Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 2?
21.Alien civilisations may be able to help the human race to overcome serious problems.
Keywords: alien, help overcome problems
At the end of paragraph A, the writer indicates that “It it even possible that the older civilisation may pass on the benefits of their experience in dealing with threats to survival such as nuclear war and global pollution, and other threats that we haven‟t yet discovered,”
– help ~ pass on the benefits of experience
– overcome=deal with
– serious problems ~ nuclear war and global pollution, and other threats that we haven‟t yet discovered
22.SETI scientists are trying to find a life form that resembles humans in many ways.
Keywords: a life form, resemble humans
In paragraph B, the writer argues that “Second, we make a very conservative assumption that we are looking for a life form that is pretty well like us, since if it differs radically from us we may well not recognise it as a form.”
– try to find=look for
– resembles=is like
– in many ways=pretty well
23.The Americans and Australians have co-operated on joint research projects.
Keywords: Americans and Australians, co-operated
Paragraph D mentions “The Americans and Australians” However, whether they have co-operated on joint research projects or not is not mentioned. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
24.So far SETI scientists have picked up radio signals from several stars
Keywords: picked up signals, several stars
In paragraph D, the writer indicates that “Until now, there have not been any detections from the few hundred stars which have been searched.” This means that so far, SETI scientists have not picked up any radio signals from other stars.
25.The NASA project attracted criticism from some members of Congress.
Keywords: NASA projects, criticism, Congress.
In paragraph D, which mentions “members of Congress”, there is no information about the NASA project’s attracting criticism from members of Congress. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
26.If a signal from outer space is received, it will be important to respond promptly.”
Keywords: signal, outer space, respond promptly
In the last paragraph, the writer argues that “There is considerable debate over how we should react if we detect a signal from an alien civilisation. Everybody agrees that we should not reply immediately” This means that if a signal from outer space is received, we should not reply promptly.
History of the tortoise
Questions 27-30: Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer
27.What had to transfer from sea to land before any animals could migrate?
Keywords: transfer, animals migrate
In the first paragraph, the writer indicates that “If you go far back enough, everything lived in the sea. At various points in evolutionary history, enterprising individuals within many different animal groups moved out onto the land…And we mustn’t forget the plants, without whose prior invasion of the land none of the other migrations could happen.
– Transfer (from sea to land)=move out onto (the land)
28.Which TWO processes are mentioned as those in which animals had to make big changes as they moved onto land?
Keywords: two processes, big changes, moved onto land
In paragraph 2, the writer indicates that “Moving from water to land involved a major redesign of every aspect of life, including breathing and reproduction”
– Big changes=a major redesign of every aspect of life.
29.Which physical feature, possessed by their ancestors, do whales lack?
Keywords: physical feature, whales lack?
In paragraph 2, the write argues that “Whales (including the small whales we call dolphins) and dugongs, with their close cousins the manatees, ceased to be land creatures altogether and reverted to the full marine habits of their remote ancestors. They don‟t even come ashore to breed. They do, however, still breathe air, having never developed anything equivalent to the gills of their earlier marine incarnation.”
– ancestors=earlier marine incarnation
– lack=never developed
30.Which animals might ichthyosaurs have resembled?
Keywords: ichthyosaurs, resembled
In paragraph 3, “Ichthyosaurs were reptilian contemporaries of the dinosaurs, with fins and streamlined bodies. The fossils look like dolphins and they surely lived like dolphins, in the water.”
– resemble=look like
Questions 31-33: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?
31.Turtles were among the first group of animals to migrate back to the sea.
Keywords: turtles, first animals, back, sea
In paragraph 2, “Nevertheless, a good number of thorough going land animals later turned around, abandoned their hard-earned terrestrial re-tooling, and returned to the water again.”
Whether turtles were among the first group of animals to migrate back to the sea or not is NOT mentioned. We only know, from this paragraph, that “Turtles went back to the sea a very long time ago…” So, the statement is NOT GIVEN
– migrate back=return
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
32.It is always difficult to determine where an animal lived when its fossilised remains are incomplete.
Keywords: always difficult, animal lived, remains, incomplete
In paragraph 3, the writer argues that “You might wonder how we can tell whether fossil animals lived on land or in water, especially if only fragments are found. Sometimes it‟s obvious. Ichthyosaurs were reptilian contemporaries of the dinosaurs, with fins and streamlined bodies. The fossils look like dolphins and they surely lived like dolphins, in the water. With turtles, it is a little less obvious. One way to tell is by measuring the bones of their forelimbs.” This means that although some fossilised remains of animals are incomplete, sometimes it is still obvious to determine where an animal lived; the case of dolphin fossils is an example. So, the statement is FALSE.
– incomplete fossilised remains=fragments
33.The habitat of ichthyosaurs can be determined by the appearance of their fossilised remains.
Keywords: ichthyosaurs, habitat, appearance, fossilised remains
In paragraph 3, the writer says that “Ichthyosaurs were reptilian contemporaries of the dinosaurs, with fins and streamlined bodies. The fossils look like dolphins and they surely lived like dolphins, in the water.”So, it is true that the habitat of ichthyosaurs can be determined by the appearance of their fossilised remains.
Questions 34-39: Complete the flow-chart below.
34-39. Method of determining where the ancestors of turtles and tortoises come from
34. 71 species of living turtles and tortoises were examined and a total of…were taken from the bones of their forelimbs.
Keywords: 71,taken, total of, bones, forelimbs
At the beginning of paragraph 4, the writer argues that “Walter Joyce and Jacques Gauthier, at Yale University, obtained three measurements in these particular bones of 71 species of living turtles and tortoises.”
=>ANSWER: 3 measurements/three measurements
35. The data was recorded on a… (Necessary for comparing the information)
Keywords: recorded on a
In paragraph 4, the writer indicates that “They used a kind of triangular graph paper to plot the three measurements against one another.”
– comparing the information ~ plot the three measurements against one another
=>ANSWER: (triangular) graph
36. Outcome: Land tortoises were represented by a dense…of points towards the top.
Keywords: land tortoises, represented, dense, points
Also, in paragraph 4, the write indicates that “All the land tortoise species formed a tight cluster of points in the upper part of the triangle.”
– towards the top=in the upper part of the triangle
37. The same data was collected from some living….species and added to the other results.
Keywords: same data, living species, the other results
In paragraph 4, The results from the land tortoises were all in the upper part of the graph, and in the lower part of the graph were the results from the water turtles. “There was no overlap, except when they added some species that spend time both in water and on land. Sure enough, these amphibious species show up on the triangular graph approximately half way between the „wet cluster‟ of sea turtles and the „dry cluster‟ of land tortoises.”
38. Outcome: The points for these species turned out to be positioned about….up the triangle between the land tortoises and the sea turtles.
Keywords: points, positioned about, up the triangle
In paragraph 4, “Sure enough, these amphibious species show up on the triangular graph approximately half way between the ‘wet cluster’ of sea turtles and the „dry cluster‟ of land tortoises.”
– added to the other results=half way between the „wet cluster‟ of sea turtles and the „dry cluster‟ of land tortoises
39. Bonesof P.quenstedti and P.talampayensis were examined in a similar way and the results added.
Outcome: The position of the points indicated that both these ancient creatures were….
Keywords: position, points,creatures
At the end of paragraph 4, the writer says that “The bones of P.quenstedti and P.talampayensis leave us in no doubt. Their points on the graph are right in the thick of the dry cluster. Both these fossils were dry-land tortoises.”
– Ancient creatures=fossils
=>ANSWER: dry-land tortoises
40. According to the writer, the most significant thing about tortoises is that
A. They are able to adapt to extremely dry environments.
B. Their original life form was a kind of primeval bacteria.
C. They have so much in common with sea turtles.
D. They have made the transition from sea to land more than once.
In the last paragraph, the writer indicates that “Tortoises therefore represent a remarkable double return. In common with all mammals…their remote ancestors were marine fish and before that various more or less worm-like creatures stretching back, still in the sea, to the primeval bacteria.
Later ancestors lived on land and stayed there for a very large number of generations. Later ancestors still evolved back into the water and become sea turtles. And finally they returned yet again to the land as tortoises, some of which now live in the driest of deserts.” So this means that tortoises have made the transition from sea to land more than once.
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