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The concept of intelligence
1. Answer: B
· Key words: non-scientists, assumptions, intelligence, influence, behavior
· People‟s behavior towards others‟ intelligence is mentioned in the first sentence of paragraph B: “implicit theories of intelligence drive the way in which people perceive and evaluate their own intelligence and that of others”. Non-scientists refer to normal people, and implicit theories refer to assumptions (about intelligence). The way people evaluate the intelligence of other people influences their behavior towards others.
2. Answer: A
· Key words: reference, lack clarity, definition, intelligence
· In the first sentence of the passage, the author claims that “no one knows for certain what it (intelligence) actually is”. Thus, it can be said that there is a lack of clarity over the definition of intelligence. The answer is paragraph A.
3. Answer: D
· Key words: researcher‟s, implicit, explicit, theories, different
· The relation between implicit and explicit theories is mentioned in paragraph D: “if an investigation…reveals little correspondence between the extant implicit and explicit theories, the implicit theories may be wrong”. This suggests that it is possible that these two types of theories may be different.
· Different = little correspondence
4. Answer: NOT GIVEN
· Key words: slow, language, development, children, disappointing, parents
· The information about parents and their children‟s language development can be found in paragraph B. While the author mentions parents making “corrections” to the children‟s speech at certain ages, there is nothing said about how parents feel towards slow language development.
· This statement is therefore NOT GIVEN.
5. Answer: NO
· Key words: expectations, children, gain, education, universal
· Paragraph E suggests that people‟s “expectations for intellectual performances differ for children of different ages” and of different cultures.
Therefore, these expectations are not universal (universal = common in the world). The statement contradicts the author’s claims, so
· The answer is NO.
6. Answer: YES
· Key words: scholars, discuss, theories, without, understanding
· The last sentence of paragraph J states that: “Until scholars are able to discuss their implicit theories and thus their assumptions, they are likely to miss the point of what others are saying”. The expression “miss the point” here has a similar meaning to “not fully understand”, so this sentence means that scholars usually discuss their own theories without fully understanding other scholars.
· The answer is therefore YES.
7. Answer: B
· Key words: desirable, same, possibilities, everyone
· The first sentence of paragraph H includes the statement: “the Jeffersonian view is that people should have equal opportunities.” Later in the paragraph, we find: “In the Jeffersonian view, the goal of education is not to favor or foster an elite…”
· Same = equal
· Possibilities = opportunities
· Thus, the idea that „It is desirable for the same possibilities to be open to everyone‟ belongs to Jeffersonian view.
· The answer is B.
8. Answer: C
· Key words: section, society, preferential, treatment
· In paragraph I, the Jacksonian view is that “we do not need or want any institutions that might lead to favouring one group over another”.
· The answer is C
· Preferential treatment = favour
· Section = group
9. Answer: B
· Key words: people, gain, benefits, basis, achieve
· According to Jeffersonian view in paragraph H, “people are rewarded for what they accomplish”.
· The answer is B
· Gain benefits = be rewarded
· Achieve = accomplish
10. Answer: A
· Key words: variation, intelligence, birth
· According to paragraph G, the Hamiltonian view is that “people are born with different levels of intelligence”, which means variation in intelligence begins at birth.
· So the answer is A.
· Variation = different
11. Answer: A
· Key words: more intelligent, positions, power
· The Hamiltonian view, still in paragraph G, suggests that the more intelligent
should keep the less intelligent “in line”, which means
they should be in control. They hold the positions of power like government officials
or philosopher-kings. Thus,
· The answer is A.
12. Answer: C
· Key words: everyone, develop, same, abilities
· According to Jacksonian view in paragraph I, people are equal in terms of their competencies. This means that everyone can have the same abilities to serve as well as another in any position.
· Same = equal
· Abilities = competencies
13. Answer: A
· Key words: low intelligence, uncontrolled, lives
· According to Hamiltonian theory in paragraph G, the unintelligent would create chaos if left to themselves. This means that their lives are uncontrolled.
· Low intelligence = unintelligent
· Uncontrolled = chaos
Saving bugs to find new drugs
14. Answer: C
· Key words: factors, renewed, interest, natural, medicinal, compounds
· The first sentence of paragraph C states that laboratory-based drug discovery has now “prompted the development of new approaches focusing once again on natural products”. The phrase “once again” implies that this interest in natural medicine had existed before, and now it is „renewed‟. So, this is one factor behind the renewed interest in natural products. Paragraph C then mentions another factor: “This realisation, together with several looming health crises, such as antibiotic resistance, has put bioprospecting – the search for useful compounds in nature – firmly back on the map”. The expression “back on the map” also refers to „a renewed interest‟.
· Drive = prompt
15. Answer: H
· Key words: recent, technological, advances, insect, research, easier
· The only paragraph which concerns technological advances is paragraph H: it is now possible to snip out insects‟ DNA and insert them into other cells that can produce larger quantities. The phrase “now possible” suggests that it wasn‟t possible in the past, implying a great development in technology and science.
· The answer is H.
16. Answer: A
· Key words: examples, animals, medicinal, substances, nature
· Paragraph A gives examples of primates which use natural substances like toxin-oozing millipedes or noxious forest plants as medicine.
· Substances = compounds
· Nature = living things
17. Answer: F
· Key words: reasons, challenging, insects, drug, research
· Paragraph F discusses 3 reasons why it is very difficult, or challenging, to use insects in bioprospecting (which is the search for plant and animal species from which medicinal drugs and other commercially valuable compounds can be obtained).
· Challenging = daunting
· Drug research = bioprospecting
18. Answer: I
· Key words: interest, insect, research, benefit, wildlife
· The relation between insect research and wildlife (wilderness) can be found in paragraph I. The author claims that his main motivation for insect research is actually wildlife conservation, because “all species, however small and seemingly insignificant, have a right to exist for their own sake”. Thus, by showing the practical value of insect research, people would appreciate nature more, and wildlife in general will benefit.
19. Answer: B
· Key words: reason, nature-based, medicine, fell out of favour
· According to paragraph B: “for a while, modern pharmaceutical science moved its focus away from nature”
· For a period = for a while = trong một thời gian
· Medicine = pharmaceutical science = dược phẩm
· The term “moved its focus away” means that natural medicine was no longer the focus of pharmaceutical science. Attention „shifted‟ to the design of chemical compounds in the laboratory. In other words, it fell out of favour.
20. Answer: E
· Key words: example, insect-derived, medicine
· Paragraph E mentions several promising compounds derived from insects, such as alloferon, which is used in Russia and South Korea. Hence, paragraph E gives an example of an insect-derived medicine in use at the moment.
Answer: B. the variety of substances insects have developed to protect themselves, C. the potential to extract and make use of insects‟ genetic codes
· Key words: what, make, insects, interesting, for, drug research
· Although using insects for drug research is challenging, it is also interesting and potentially useful. In paragraph G, the author mentions that many insects can release compounds to subdue their prey or to deal with pathogenic bacteria and fungi. This means that humans can make use of these compounds to produce antibiotics. Thus, B is one correct answer. Another benefit from insect research is that we can extract useful compounds by snipping out insect DNAs and inserting them into particular cells to allow larger production. Therefore, C is correct.
23. Answer: ecology
· Key words: Ross Piper, zoologists, Aberystwyth University, expertise, bioprospecting, insects
· Using the skim and scan skill, we can find information about Aberystwyth University scientists in paragraph G. There, Piper and his colleagues use their knowledge in ecology to target certain insects for bioprospecting.
· Expertise = knowledge
24. Answer: prey
· Key words: interested, compounds, insects, produce, overpower, preserve
· The creatures that particularly interest the scientists are those that product substances to subdue their prey and to keep it fresh.
· Especially = particularly = đặc biệt
· Overpower = subdue = chinh phục
· Preserve = keep it fresh = bảo quản
· Thus, it is clear that the answer is “prey”.
25. Answer: habitals
· Key words: interested, compounds, insects, protect, pathogenic bacteria, fungi, found
· The insects that have to product compounds to fight against pathogenic bacteria and fungi, as well as other micro-organisms, usually live in filthy habitats. Thus, it can be understood that pathogenic bacteria and fungi are found in these insects‟ habitats. Note that we cannot use “filthy habitats” because only one word is allowed.
26. Answer: antibiotics
· Key words: Piper, hopes, useful, development, drugs
· Piper (the author) states that “there is certainly potential to find many compounds that can serve as or inspire new antibiotics”. This means he hopes that these compounds and substances will be used to develop antibiotics (a type of drug). The answer is “antibiotics”.
· Be useful = serve
The power of play
27. Answer: B
· Key words: play, divided, separate, categories
· According to Miller & Almon (paragraph 4), there are “discrete descriptions of various types of play such as physical, construction, language or symbolic play”. This means that play can be divided into various types or categories.
· The answer is B.
· Separate = discrete
· Categories = types
28. Answer: G
· Key words: adults, intended goals, affect, play, children
· Hirsch-Pasek et al (paragraph 8) state that the adult‟s role in play varies according to their educational goals. In other words, adults‟ goals affect how they play with children (by taking different roles).
29. Answer: F
· Key words: combining, work, play, best, children, learn
· Joan Goodman (paragraph 7) suggested that “hybrid forms of work and play can provide optimal contexts for learning”. This means that such hybrid, or combination, could be the best way for children to learn.
· Combine = hybrid
· Best = optimal
30. Answer: E
· Key words: certain, elements, play, more significant,
· While Rubin et al (paragraph 5 and 6) considered all aspects, or dimensions, of play along a continuum from less playful to more playful, they did not state that certain elements of play are more important than others: “Rubin and colleagues did not assign greater weight to any one dimension in determining playfulness”. However, Pellegrini (paragraph 6) suggested that two aspects are “the most important”, namely “process orientation” and “a lack of obvious functional purpose”. It can be inferred that Pellegrini considered these two aspects more important (more significant) than others.
· Elements = aspects
· Significant = weight
31. Answer: C
· Key words: activities, classified, scale, playfulness
· Rubin and colleagues (paragraph 5) claim that play is defined as more or less playful according to a set of criteria. In other words, there is a scale of playfulness for play. Thus, the matching researchers are Rubin et al.
· Scale = continuum
32. Answer: NO
· Key words: children, toys, play
· In the second sentence of the passage, the author states that children will play in any circumstances, even when they have no real toys. Thus, it is incorrect to say that children need toys to play.
33. Answer: YES
· Key words: mistake, play, learning, separate, activities
· The distinction between learning and play can be found in the last sentence of paragraph 2: “our society has created a false dichotomy between play and learning”. The word “dichotomy” means division, distinction between opposite things. Thus, it is false to treat play and learning as separate activities.
· Mistake = false
· Separate types = dichotomy
34. Answer: NOT GIVEN
· Key words: play, children, develop, artistic, talents
· Paragraph 3 gives some examples of benefits of play for children, including benefits in their behavior, science, maths, problem-solving skills, etc. Although the word “creative” is mentioned, this is only used to refer to problem-solving skills. However, there is no mention of “artistic talents”.
35. Answer: NO
· Key words: researchers, agreed, definition, play
· It is stated in paragraph 4 that “full consensus on a formal definition of play continues to elude the researchers and theorists who study it”. „Full consensus‟ means „full agreement‟. The word „elude‟ suggests that the definition is hard to be grasped by researchers. Thus, it is clear that they have not agreed on a definition of play yet. So the statement contradicts the author‟s claims.
· Agree = consensus
36. Answer: YES
· Key words: work, play, differ, target
· The difference between work and play is stated in the following sentence in paragraph 7: “Unlike play, work is typically not viewed as enjoyable and it is extrinsically motivated (i.e. it is goal oriented”. To have a goal is the same as to have a target. Work has a target, and in that way it is different from play.
· Differ = unlike
· Target = goal
37. Answer: encouraging
· Key words: adult, play, kid, develop, investigate, aspects, game
· The answer can be found in paragraph 9, which is about guided play. The author mentions that there are two forms of guided play, and we need to focus on the second, more direct form. In this form, the adult can encourage “further exploration or new facets” by asking questions or making comments while joining in the play.
· Investigate = exploration
· Aspects = facets
38. Answer: desire
· Key words: adults, help, children, learn, play, activity, structured, based on
· According to Nicolopolou et al in paragraph 9, while play can be somewhat structured (with the help of adults), it must also be child-centred and “stem from the child‟s own desire”. In other words, the play should be based on the child and his/her desire to play.
39. Answer: autonomy
· Key words: play, without, intervention, adults, real
· It is stated (in paragraph 10) that “free play provides the child with true autonomy”.
· without intervention = free
· real = true
40. Answer: targeted
· Key words: with, adults, particular goals
· In paragraph 10, it is stated that “guided play…can provide more targeted learning experiences”. We already know (from question 36), that „targets‟ and „goals‟ have a similar meaning. Guided play refers to play with the intervention of adults, so the blank should be filled with “targeted”.
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