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Passage 1: CASE STUDY: TOURISM ZEALAND WEBSITE
Questions 1-7: Complete the table below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
1. allowed businesses to………information regularly
Key words: businesses, information, regularly
Based on the question and particularly the key words, we need to find the information about an activity that businesses usually conduct in the database section of the website. In paragraph 2, when referring to the database of tourism services, the author mentions: “because participating businesseswere able to update the details they gave on aregularbasis, the information provided remained accurate.” From this, it can be safely concluded that the activity we are looking for is updating information.
– information = details
– regularly = on a regular basis
The answer is update.
2. provided a country-wide evaluation of businesses, including their impact on the…………….
Key words: country-wide, evaluation, impact
Looking for the key words in the passage, we find them at the end of paragraph 2: “Tourism New Zealand organised a scheme whereby organisations appearing on the website underwent an independent evaluationagainst a set of agreed national standards of quality. As part of this, the effect of each business on the environment was considered”. This paragraph is all about the website, as we can see from the first sentence. All the organisations/businesses on the site were evaluated, including their impact on the environment.
– impact = effect
The answer is environment.
3. e.g. an interview with a former sports……………..
Key words: interview, former, sports
The answer is in paragraph 3, when the author speaks of features relating to famous people and places: “One of the most popular was an interview with the former NewZealand All Blacks rugby captain Tana Umaga”.
– sports = rugby
So, the answer is captain.
4. an interactive tour of various locations used in ……………
Key words: interactive, tour, locations
Remember that paragraph 3 refers tofamous people and places/locations. We find the answer in the middle of paragraph 3: “Another feature that attracted a lot of attention was an interactive journey through a number of the locations chosen for blockbuster films which had made use of New Zealand’s stunning scenery as a backdrop”.
– tour = journey
– various = a number of
The answer is films.
5. Information on driving routes varied depending on the …………..
Key words: driving routes, varied, depending on
The answer is given at the end of paragraph 3: “To make it easier to plan motoring holidays, the site catalogued the most popular driving routes in the country, highlighting different routes according to the season and indicating distances and times”.
– driving = motoring
– depending on = according to
The answer is season.
6. Travel Planner: included a map showing selected places, details of public transport and local ………………..
Key words: Travel Planner, map, public transport, local.
Travel Planner is discussed in paragraph 4: “Later, a Travel Planner feature was added, which allowed visitors to click and ‘bookmark’ places or attractions they were interested in, and then view the results on a map. The Travel Planner offered suggestedroutes and public transport options between the chosen locations. There were also links to accommodation in the area”.
– local = in the area
The answer is accommodation.
7. ‘Your Words’: travellers could send a link to their……………….
Key words: Your Words, travellers, send
‘Your Words’ is also referred to in paragraph 4: “The website also had a ‘Your Words’ section where anyone could submit a blog of their New Zealand travels for possible inclusion on the website”.
So, anyone travelling in New Zealand could go to the website ‘Your Words’ and use the link to send a blog of their travels, to be included on the website.
– send = submit
The answer is blog.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1 ?
8. The website www.newzealand.com aimed to provide ready-made itineraries and packages for travel companies and individual tourists.
Key words: ready-made, itineraries, packages, travel companies, individual tourists
At the beginning of paragraph 6, the author refers to the aim of the website, which: “…was set up to allow both individuals and travel organisations to create itineraries and travel packages to suit their own needs and interests”.
The website therefore was designed NOT to provide ready-made packages for travellers or for travel companies. It was designed, on the contrary, for everyone to create their own holidays, according to their own interests.
Also, in paragraph 3 it is stated that: “As the site developed, additional features were added to help independent travellers devise their own customised itineraries”.
– travel companies = travel organisations
– individual tourists = individuals/independent travellers ready-made # to suit their own needs and interests
Therefore, the statement is FALSE.
9. It was found that most visitors started searching on the website by geographical location.
Key words: visitors, started searching, geographical location
As many paragraphs discuss the website, finding the correct place in the passage is not easy. However, in paragraph 6, we find: “On the website, visitors can search for activities not solely by geographical location, but also by the particular nature of the activity”. Two pieces of information are not given – we don’t know if visitors started searching on the website by geographical location. We only know that visitors can use the website to search by geographical location if they wish. Secondly, we don’t know what most visitors did when they entered the website.
So, the answer is NOT GIVEN.
10. According to research, 26% of visitor satisfaction is related to their accommodation
Key words: research, 26%, satisfaction, accommodation
Percentages are only given in paragraphs 5 and 6, so it is not difficult to find the information in paragraph 6: “…research shows that activities are the key driver of visitor satisfaction, contributing 74% to visitor satisfaction, while transport and accommodation account for the remaining 26%”.
The figure of 26% refers to those visitors who say they are satisfied with the transport or with their accommodation. This percentage does NOT refer to accommodation alone, so we cannot say that 26% of visitor satisfaction is related only to their accommodation – some of this proportion will relate to transport.
For this reason, the statement is FALSE.
11. Visitors to New Zealand like to become involved in the local culture
Key words: visitors, involved, local culture
We find the answer in paragraph 6 again: “It has also been found that visitors enjoy cultural activities most when they are interactive, such as visiting a marae (meeting ground) to learn about traditional Maori life”.
– like = enjoy
– become involved in = interactive
The statement is TRUE.
12. Visitors like staying in small hotels in New Zealand rather than in larger ones
Key words: visitors like, small hotels, larger
Looking for one of the key words – ‘hotels’ – this is not mentioned in any of the paragraphs. Accommodation is referred to in paragraph 6 and ‘the smallest bed and breakfast’ is mentioned in paragraph 2, but there is nothing to refer to the statement in the question.
The answer is NOT GIVEN.
13. Many visitors feel it is unlikely that they will return to New Zealand after their visit
Key words: visitors, unlikely, return
In the final paragraph, we find: “Because of the long-haul flight, most visitors stay for longer (average 20 days) and want to see as much of the country as possible on what is often seen as a once-in-a-lifetime visit”.
To reach New Zealand, a long flight is usually necessary, so people often visit only once. They stay for an average of 20 days, and they try to see as much as they can, because they may not visit again.
– unlikely that they will return = a once-in-a-lifetime visit.
So, the statement is TRUE.
Passage 2: WHY BEING BORED IS STIMULATING AND USEFUL, TOO
Questions 14-19: Reading Passage 2 has six paragraphs, A-F.
14. Paragraph A.
In this paragraph the author introduces the subject of boredom, indicating that: “…defining boredom so that it can be studied in the lab has proved difficult”. Defining an object to be studied, and then studying it in the laboratory/lab are both elements of a scientific approach, but there are problems. It is difficult. So, the correct heading is: ‘problems with a scientific approach to boredom’.
– problems ~ difficult
15. Paragraph B.
In the first sentence of Paragraph B, the author states: “By asking people about their experiences of boredom, Thomas Goetz and his team at the University of Konstanz in Germany have recently identified five distinct types: indifferent, calibrating, searching, reactant and apathetic”. The system used by the researchers to measure these types is then described. A two-axes chart is used to arrange the types, with one axis recording level of arousal and the other axis recording positive or negative feelings. So, the main idea of Paragraph B is ‘creating a system of classification for feelings of boredom’.
16. Paragraph C.
This paragraph is about the positive aspects of boredom. The findings of the psychologist Sandi Mann are discussed: “Mann has found that being bored makes us more creative. ‘We’re all afraid of being bored but in actual fact it can lead to all kinds of amazing things’, she says. So, the correct heading is: ‘The productive outcomes that may result from boredom’.
17. Paragraph D.
In contrast, psychologist John Eastwood considers that boredom is negative: “In my view, by definition boredom is an undesirable state’. The paragraph continues: “For Eastwood, the central feature of boredom is a failure to put our ‘attention system’ into gear……Perhaps most
worryingly, says Eastwood, repeatedly failing to engage attention can lead to a state where we don’t know what to do any more, and no longer care”.
So, when we are bored, the biggest worry is that we may no longer pay attention or care about the things we do. The most appropriate heading is: “A potential danger arising from boredom”.
– potential = can lead to
18. Paragraph E.
This paragraph is about certain characteristics of personality, and how these tend to be associated with boredom. Eastwood’s team think that: “Boredom proneness has been linked with a variety of traits. People who are motivated by pleasure seem to suffer particularly badly. Other personality traits, such as curiosity, are associated with a high boredom threshold. More evidence that boredom has detrimental effects comes from studies of people who are more or less prone to boredom”.
A link has been made, therefore, between boredom and people with certain characteristics. The correct heading is: “Identifying those most affected by boredom”.
– affected by = prone to
19. Paragraph F.
The author discusses psychologist Francoise Wemelsfelder’s view that: “…our over-connected lifestyles might even be a new source of boredom”. So, we need less mental stimulation, not more, and: “…perhaps we should leave our phones alone, and useboredom to motivate us to engage with the world in a more meaningful way”.
So, this is a new explanation of one reason why we become bored, and a new cure – less stimulation – is proposed. The correct heading is: “A new explanation and a new cure for boredom”.
Questions 20-23: Look at the following people (Questions 20-23) and the list of ideas below. Match each person with the correct idea, A-E.
20. Peter Toohey
We can quickly find this name in Paragraph A: Toohey compares boredom with disgust, which is: “…an emotion that motivates us to stay away from certain situations. ‘If disgust protects humans from infection, boredom may protect them from infectioussocial situations’, he suggests”.
Toohey’s idea is that boredom may actually protect us from bad situations or experiences.
– avoid = stay away from
– an unpleasant experience = infectious social situations
The answer is E.
21. Thomas Goetz
Goetz is mentioned in both Paragraph B and Paragraph E. We already know (from Q15) that Paragraph B is about the classification of types of boredom by Goetz and his team. This matches B in the list of ideas: “Of the five types, the most damaging is ‘reactant’ boredom with its explosive combination of high arousal and negative emotion”.
So, ‘reactant’ boredom is the worst of all five types of boredom, because it is ‘the most damaging’.
– sort = type
The answer is B.
22. John Eastwood
Eastwood is mentioned in Paragraph D and Paragraph E. Starting to look for the answer in Paragraph D, we find a discussion of boredom as a failure to put our attention system into action: “This causes an inability to focus on anything, which makes time seem to go painfully slowly. What’s more, your efforts to improve the situation can endup making you feel worse”.
– trying to cope with boredom = your efforts to improve the situation
– increase its negative effects = making you feel worse
The answer is D.
23. Francoise Wemelsfelder
Her name is mentioned in the last paragraph. She believes that: “In modern human society there is a lot of overstimulation but still a lot of problems finding meaning”.
Our modern lifestyles, therefore, tend to stimulate us too much, without enabling us to find any meaning for what we do.
– today = modern
The answer is A.
Questions 24-26: Complete the summary.
Write ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
24 For John Eastwood, the central feature of boredom is that people cannot …………. , due to a failure in what he calls ‘the attention system’, and as a result they become frustrated and irritable.
Key words: Eastwood, central, failure, attention system
Using the key words, we find the answer in Paragraph D: “For Eastwood, the central feature of boredom is a failure to put our ‘attention system’ into gear. This causes an inability to focus on anything….”
Thus, when people are bored, they are not able to focus on anything.
– as a result = causes
– cannot = inability to
The answer is focus.
25. His team suggests that those for whom ……………. is an important aim in life may have problems in coping with boredom.
Key words: aim, problems, coping
The answer is found in Paragraph E, again using the key words. Here, it is stated that: “Boredom proneness has been linked with a variety of traits. People who are motivatedby pleasure seem to suffer particularly badly”.
So, people who are motivated by pleasure try to achieve pleasure as an important aim in life. They soon seem to get bored and have problems, suffering badly.
The answer is pleasure.
26. … whereas those who have the characteristic of ……………..can generally cope with it. Key words: characteristic, cope with
In the next sentence, we learn about the people who cope well with boredom: “Other personality traits, such as curiosity, are associated with a high boredom threshold”.
If people have a ‘high boredom threshold’, that means that they are not easily bored. These are people who have the characteristic of curiosity.
– characteristic = personality trait
The answer is curiosity.
Passage 3: ARTIFICIAL ARTISTS
Questions 27-31: Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
27. What is the writer suggesting about computer-produced works in the first paragraph?
Key words: suggest, computer-produced, works
In paragraph 1, the writer tells us about how successful works of art have been which have been produced using the computer: “Classical music by an artificial composer has had audiences enraptured….Artworks painted by a robothave sold for thousands of dollars and been hung in prestigious galleries. And software has been built which creates art that could not have been imagined by the programmer”.
All of this indicates answer B: A great deal of progress has already been attained in this field.
The answer is B.
28. According to Geraint Wiggins, why are many people worried by computer art?
Key words: Geraint Wiggins, worried
Looking for the key words, we find the name ‘Geraint Wiggins’ in paragraph 2. If creative acts can be translated into computer code, this means that human creativity is no longer a special quality of being human. Computers can do the same thing. “It scares a lot of people. They are worried that it is taking something special away from what it means to be human”. In other words, when computer art performs the same creative acts as humans, then people are worried that: ‘It undermines a fundamental human quality” – by taking away (=undermining) the unique (=special) human ability to be creative.
– worried = scared
The answer is C.
29. What is a key difference between Aaron and the Painting Fool?
Key words: difference, Aaron, Painting Fool
Aaron is mentioned in paragraphs 3 and 4. In paragraph 3, the writer explains what Aaron is and what it can do: “It is still little more than a tool to realise the programmer’s own creative ideas”. In paragraph 4, Aaron is compared with the Painting Fool: “Unlike earlier ‘artists’, such as Aaron, the Painting Fool only needs minimal directionand can come up with its own conceptsby going online for material”.
As a result, we are told, the Painting Fool is beginning to develop its own imagination. So, the difference is that Aaron only follows the programmer’s ideas, while the Painting Fool can create its own ideas independently, going online for material (= subject matter). The difference is ‘the source of its subject matter’
– key difference = unlike
The answer is C.
30. What point does Simon Colton make in the fourth paragraph?
In paragraph 4, Colton’s ideas on computer-produced art are presented. “The software runs its own web searches and trawls through social media sites. It is now beginning to display a kind of imagination too, creating pictures from scratch….While some people might say they have a mechanical look, Colton argues that such reactions arise frompeople’s double standards towards software-produced and human-produced art”.
If people have ‘double standards’ they have moral principles which are unfair, because they judge human art in one way and computer-produced art in a different way.
The answer is that: ‘People tend to judge computer art and human art according to different criteria (= ‘double standards’).
The answer is D.
31. The writer refers to the paintings of a chair as an example of computer art which….
Key words: paintings, chair, computer art
This is a tricky question, so be careful or you will end up with the wrong answer. The Painting Fools paintings of a chair are discussed at the end of paragraph 4. Here, the writer refers to ‘software bugs’ and ‘a technical glitch’. However, these problems do not necessarily have bad results. In the case of the chair paintings: “Some of the Painting Fool’s paintings of a chair came out in black and white, thanks to a technical glitch. This gives the work an eerie, ghostlike quality”.
So, these technical problems resulted in paintings of a chair which had an unexpected and ‘eerie and ghostlike quality’ – in other words they had a ‘striking’ effect on people who saw them. The paintings produced by computer art thus: “achieved a particularly striking effect”.
The answer is A.
Questions 32-37: Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-G.
32. Simon Colton says it is important to consider the long-term view when…
Key words: Simon Colton, long-term view
At the beginning of paragraph 5, we find the statement that: “Researchers like Colton don’t believe it is right to measure machine creativity directly to that of humans ‘whohave had millennia to develop our skills’ ”. This refers to the creativity (=artistic achievements) of computers and humans and how important it is to consider the element of time.
– long-term = millennia
The answer is D.
33. David Cope’s EMI software surprised people by…
Key words: Cope, EMI, surprised
In paragraph 5, David Cope and his EMI program are mentioned. His software created (= generated) music in the style of various classical composers. Then, people’s reactions are described: “Audiences were moved to tears, and EMI even fooled classical music experts into thinking they were hearing genuine Bach”.
Thus, people were not able to distinguish between the work of a famous human classical composer and the work of the EMI program. The EMI program generated: “work that was virtually indistinguishable from that of humans”.
– surprised = moved to tears
The answer is A.
34. Geraint Wiggins criticised Cope for not…
Key words: Wiggins, criticised Cope
We find why Wiggins criticised Cope in paragraph 5. “Some, such as Wiggins, have blasted Cope’s work as pseudoscience, and condemned him for his deliberately vague explanation of how the software worked”.
So, Wiggins claimed that Cope did not explain clearly (= reveal) how the software (= program) worked (= the technical details).
– criticised = blasted, condemned
The answer is E.
35. Douglas Hofstadter claimed that EMI was…
Key words: Douglas Hofstadter, EMI
The answer can be found in paragraph 5. “Douglas Hofstadter of Indiana University said EMI created replicas which still rely completely on the original artist’s creative impulses”. Thus, EMI just made copies, “producing work entirely dependent on (= rely on) the imagination (= creative impulses) of its creator (= original artist)”.
The answer is C.
36. Audiences who had listened to EMI’s music became angry after…
Key words: audiences, EMI’s music, angry
At the end of paragraph 5, the author states that: “When audiences found out the truth they were often outraged with Cope, and one music lover even tried to punch him”. When they first listened to EMI’s music, people did not know that it had been produced by a computer program. When they found out (= ‘discovered’) the truth, they became angry.
– angry = outraged
The answer is G.
37. The participants in David Moffat’s study had to assess music without…
Key words: participants, David Moffat, assess
The name David Moffat is in paragraph 6. His study is described: “The participants weren’t told beforehand whether the tunes were composed by humans or computers, but were asked to guess, and then rate how much they liked each one”. So, listening to pieces of music, the participants in the study did not know if they were “the work of humans or software”.
– music = tunes
The answer is B.
Questions 38-40: Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 3?
38. Moffat’s research may help explain people’s reactions to EMI
Key words: Moffat, explain, reactions, EMI
At the beginning of paragraph 6, the writer asks: “…why did so many people love the music, yet recoil when they discovered how it was composed? We then learn that Moffat’s study helps to provide an answer to this question: “A study by computer scientist David Moffat of Glasgow Caledonian University provides a clue”.
Thus, people’s reactions to music composed by a computer required some explanation. Their reaction was either to love the music or to recoil. The study provided a clue. research = study
– help explain = provide a clue.
The answer is YES.
39. The non-experts in Moffat’s study all responded in a predictable way
Key words: non-experts, Moffat, predictable
Moffat asked both experts and non-experts to take part in his study by listening to six pieces of music (paragraph 6). The writer tells us that: “People who thought the composer was a computer tended to dislike the piece more than those who believed it was human. This was true even among the experts, who might have been expected to be more objective in their analysis”.
We learn that everyone in the study (experts and non-experts) generally disliked a piece of music more when they thought the composer was a computer. The writer was surprised that even the music experts reacted in the same way as the non-experts.
Non-experts are not mentioned again, so we don’t know if they all responded in a predictable way.
The answer is NOT GIVEN.
40. Justin Kruger’s findings cast doubt on Paul Bloom’s theory about people’s prejudice towards computer art
Key words: Kruger, doubt, Bloom, prejudice
Paul Bloom and Justin Kruger are mentioned in the final paragraph. “Where does this prejudice come from? Paul Bloom of Yale University has a suggestion: he reckons part of the pleasure we get from art stems from the creative process behind the work….Meanwhile, experiments by Justin Kruger of New York University have shown that people’s enjoyment of an artwork increases if they think more time and effort wasneeded to create it”.
They both have theories about why people might be prejudiced against computer art. Bloom believes that people get pleasure partly from appreciating the creative process of making art.
Kruger thinks that people enjoy an artwork more if they think that a lot of time and effort went into creating it.
So, Kruger’s findings do not contradict Bloom’s theory – the creative process can be appreciated because humans have spent time and effort to create a work of art.
The answer is NO.
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