Cambridge IELTS 13 Reading – Test 4 – Answers
Explanation: Paragraph 2, ‘The fastest commercial sailing vessels of all time were the clippers, threemasted ships built to transport goods around the world, although some also took passengers.’
→ clippers are made for the purpose of carrying goods, and SOME also passenger
→ passenger not the original purpose of the clippers.
Explanation: Paragraph 3, ‘Cutty Sark’s unusual name comes from the poem Tam O’Shanter by the Scottish poet Robert Burns. Tam, a farmer, is chased by a witch called Nannie, who is wearing a ‘cutty sark’…’
→ Cutty Sark is not the name of the character but the name of an object in the poem
Explanation: Paragraph 4, ‘To carry out construction, Willis chose a new shipbuilding firm, Scott & Linton, and ensured that the contract with them put him in a very strong position.’
the contract with them put him in a very strong position với him = Willis → the contract favoured Willis.
Explanation: Paragraph 5, ‘Willis’s company was active in the tea trade between China and Britain, where speed could bring ship owners both profits and prestige, Cutty Sark was designed to make the journey more quickly than any other ship….’
to be designed to → is expected to
more quickly than any other ship → the fastest ship
Explanation: Paragraph 5, ‘Cutty Sark reached London a week after Thermopylae.’
→ Thermopylae arrived earlier → Thermopylae beat Cutty Sark.
Explanation: Paragraph 6 , ‘In addition, the opening of the Suez Canal in 1969, the same year that Cutty Sark was launched, had a serious impact. While steam ships could make use of the quick, direct route between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, the canal was of no use to sailing ships…’
7. NOT GIVEN
Explanation: Paragraph 6 , ‘Steam ships reduced the journey time between Britain and China by approximately two months.’
→ This can be understood as passing through the canal and thus reducing travel time from London to China, but no information is available on whether they are ever going to sea.
Explanation: Paragraph 8 , ‘And Woodget took her further south than any previous captain, bringing her dangerously close to icebergs off the southern tip of South America.’
Explanation: Paragraph 7 , ‘This marked a turnaround and the beginning of the most successful period in Cutty Sark’s working life, transporting wool from Australia to Britain.’
The vocabulary to look for is a noun because it stands after the word carried. Transport → carry
Explanation: Paragraph 8, ‘The ship’s next captain, Richard Woodget, was an excellent navigator…’
The vocabulary that needs to be searched is the human noun (Woodget only).
Explanation: Paragraph 10, ‘Badly damaged in a gale in 1922, she was put into Falmouth harbor in southwest England, for repairs.’
Explanation: Paragraph 10, 1922 + 1 = 1923 (‘the following year’), Cutty Sark was bought by Dowman and brought back to Falmouth. Then, paragraph 11, ‘Dowman used Cutty Sark as a training ship, and she continued in this role after his death. When she was no longer required, in 1954…’
The vocabulary that needs to be found is the verb in the present form of the word V-ing or noun because it stands behind the for word.
Explanation: Paragraph 11, ‘The ship suffered from fire in 2007, and again, les s seriously, in 2014…’ The vocabulary to look for is a noun that can only cause injury.
suffer from something → to be damaged by something
Explanation: Paragraph 2: “A single gram of healthy soil might contain 100 million bacteria, as well as other microorganisms such as viruses and fungi, living amid decomposing plants and various minerals.”
Plan remains = decomposing plants
Explanation: Paragraph 3: “… Soil is also an ally against climate change: as microorganisms within soil digest dead animals and plants, they lock in their carbon content, holding three times the amount of carbon as does the entire atmosphere.”
an ally against climate change = a significant effect on climate change
lock in …., holding…. = store
Explanation: Paragraph 3 : “Soils also store water, preventing flood damage: in the UK, damage to buildings, roads and bridges from floods caused by soil degradation costs £233 million every year.”
Hold = store
damage to buildings, roads and bridges = damage to property and infrastructure
Explanation: Paragraph 5: “Agriculture is by far the biggest problem …. Humans tend not to return unused parts of harvested crops directly to the soil to enrich it, meaning that the soil gradually becomes less fertile.”
The biggest problem = the main factor
Soil degradation = soil gradually becomes less fertile
Explanation: Paragraph 5: “Humans tend not to return unused parts of harvested crops directly to the soil to enrich it, meaning that the soil gradually becomes less fertile”
People tend not to place unused parts of the plant that have been harvested directly back to the ground to fertilize the soil.
Explanation: Paragraph 6+ 7: “…Chemical fertilisers can release polluting nitrous oxide into the atmosphere and excess is often washed away with the rain, releasing nitrogen into rivers. More recently, we have found that indiscriminate use of fertilisers hurts the soil itself…”
Explanation: Paragraph 8: ” When they applied Floris’s mix to the desert-like test plots, a good crop of plants emerged that were not just healthy at the surface, but had roots strong enough to pierce dirt as hard as rock”
Explanation: Paragraph 10: “We need ways of presenting the problem that bring it home to governments and the wider public […..] Chasek and her colleagues have proposed a goal of ‘zero net land degradation’”
→ Paragraph E:” One of the people looking for a solution to this problem is Pius Floris, who started out running a tree-care business in the Netherlands, and now advises some of the world’s top soil scientists”
→ Paragraph C:” .In the wild, when plants grow they remove nutrients from the soil, but then when the plants die and decay these nutrients are returned directly to the soil. Human tend to …. soil gradually becomes less fertilized”
→Paragraph: “Researchers from nine countries are working together to create a map linked to a database that can be fed measurements from field surveys, drone surveys, satellite imagery, lab analyses and so on to provide real-time data on the state of the soil”
→ Paragraph G: ”Chasek and her colleagues have proposed a goal of ‘zero net land degradation”
→ Paragraph F: “To assess our options on a global scale we first need an accurate picture of what types of soil are out there, and the problems they face. That’s not easy. For one thing, there is no agreed international system for classifying soil.”
Explanation: Paragraph 2: “Those who think in this way are oblivious to the vast philosophical literature in which the meaning and value of happiness have been explored and questioned, and write as if nothing of any importance had been thought on the subject until it came to their attention.”
The writer refers to the followers of “positive philosophy” is often written as if does not have any important concepts ever thought about a problem, until they know that. They ignore the ideas they should know.
Explanation: Paragraph 2: “For Bentham it was obvious that the human good consists of pleasure and the absence of pain. The Greek philosopher Aristotle may have identified happiness with selfrealisation […], but for Bentham all this was mere metaphysics or fiction”
In this passage, when referring to Aistotle’s ideas in earlier times, the author used it as a counter-argument to confirm Bentham’s ideas in later times.
Explanation: Paragraph 4: “By associating money so closely to inner experience, Davies writes, Bentham ‘set the stage for the entangling of psychological research and capitalism that would shape the business practices of the twentieth century’.”
Davies writes that by linking money and inner experience (which can be understood as happiness / pleasure in the preceding sentence), Bentham has laid the groundwork for the link between psychological research and private ….
Explanation: Paragraph 3: “In the 1790s. lie wrote to the Home Office suggesting that the departments of government be linked together through a set of ‘conversation tubes”
… suggests that government departments should be linked through a system of “conversation pipes” →Bentham has suggested improving communication / communication.
Explanation: Paragraph 3: “… and to the Bank of England with a design for a printing device that could produce unforgeable banknote” = A printable device that can not produce counterfeit money → suggestions to increase cash security
Explanation: Paragraph 3: “He drew up plans for a “frigidarium” to keep provisions such as meat, fish, fruit and vegetables fresh.” → refers to the preservation of food
Explanation: Paragraph 3: “in which prisoners would be kept in solitary confinement while being visble at all time to the guards, ….” = Detainee remand prisoners can still be observed
Explanation: Paragraph 3 :” If happiness is to be regarded as a science, it has to be measured,….”
If considered happiness is a science, it must be measured →Bentham is interested in measuring happiness index.
Explanation: Paragraph 5: “The Happiness Industry describes how the project of a science of happiness has become integral to capitalism. We learn much that is interesting about how economic problems are being redefined and treated as psychological maladies”
Question 1 → The main content of the book
Question 2 → interesting content to readers
→ Both talk about the relationship between psychology and economics
36. NOT GIVEN
Explanation: Paragraph 5 : “In addition, Davies shows how the belief that inner states of pleasure and displeasure can be objectively measured has informed management studies and advertising”
→ Talking about the sense of humor and unhappiness that can be measured has provided additional information for research management and advertising.
→ Not related to the question
Explanation: Paragraph 5:” When he became president of the American Psychological Association in 1915, he had never even studied a single human being: his research had been confined to experiments on white rats”
→Fixed part of the information in the question “research on human” to “research on white rats”
38. NOT GIVEN
Explanation: Paragraph 5:” … Yet Watson’s reductive model is now widely applied, with “behavior
change” becoming the goal of governments: in Britain …..”
→ Referring to Watson’s pattern became the target of many governments and for example in the UK
→ No information about the impact on countries outside the United States
Explanation: Paragraph 5:” Modern industrial societies appear to need the possibility of everincreasing happiness to motivate them in their labours. “
→ Modern industrial society seems to need the prospect of increased happiness to motivate them in the work →the need for happiness associated with industrialization
Explanation: Paragraph 5 : “But whatever its intellectual pedigree, the idea that governments should be responsible for promoting happiness is always a threat to human freedom.”
→ The idea that the government should be responsible for the promotion of happiness is a detriment to human freedom.
→ This is a comment from a writer, not a statement on a government goal.