Cambridge IELTS 13 Reading – Test 2 – Answers
1 + 2. oils; friendship
Explanation: Section 1, line 3. It was known as an ingredient that was mixed with oils for anointing people’s bodies, and also as a token indicating friendship between lovers and friends.
Added to = mixed with; show = indicate; between people = among lovers and friend
Explanation: Paragraph 1, Line 5. In ancient Rome, mourners attending funerals burnt cinnamon to create a pleasant scent.
Sweet smell = pleasant scent
It is possible to predict the word to fill as a location-specific noun
Explanation: Paragraph 1, Line 7. In Middle Ages, people give “cinnamon” to the food to show that they are capable of buying expensive spices. At a banquet, …… as a sign of the wealth
An indication = a sign of
Explanation: Section 1, last line. “Cinnamon was thought to cure various ailments, such as indigestion”
was thought to be cure = known as a treatment; various ailments = other health problems
6 + 7. India; camels
Explanation: Paragraph 2, line 5. “They took it from India, where it was grown, on camels via an overland route to the Mediterranean.”
It can be clearly seen that they are the merchants mentioned in the previous line. These people brought cinnamon from India, where cinnamon was grown, to the Mediterranean by camel.
Interpretation: Verse 2, line 6. “Their journey ended when they reached Alexandria”
Arrived = reached
Explanation: Section 2, line 7. Traders …. bought it back to Venice. The spice then traveled from Venice to all around Europe.
Took it to = bought it back; destinations around Europe = markets all around Europe.
Explanation: Paragraph 3 mentions the arrival of Portuguese on the island. In order to increase production, these people undertook a series of actions to gain control over the trade and commerce of cinnamon in Ceylon: enslaved many other members of the Ceylonese native population, forcing them to work in cinnamon harvest, built a fort, develop a monopoly in the cinnamon trade
Explanation: Paragraph 4 refers to The Dutch gaining control of cinnamon trade from Portuguese in 1658, but not as soon as they arrived in Ceylon but undergoes a process: set their sights …; allied themselves with Kendy …; overran and occupied factories, broke the Portuguese monopoly
12. NOT GIVEN
Explanation: Paragraph 5 mentions that the Dutch planted more cinnamon because of a lack of yield, but did not compare the yield of cinnamon obtained from plants with that obtained from natural growth
Explanation: The last paragraph indicates that the trade, the cinnamon trade, is gradually replaced by other goods.
Diminishing in economic potential <maintained its economic importance
Explanation: these follow-up studies have shown that after a sniff of the hormone, people become more charitable, better at reading emotions on others’ faces and at communicating constructively in arguments. Together, the results fueled the view that oxytocin universally enhances the positive aspects of our social nature.
Beneficial effects of oxytocin = oxytocin universally enhances the positive aspects
– “More charitable, better at reading emotions, communicating constructively in arguments” are positive.
Explanation: It affects primitive parts of the brain like the amygdala, so it’s going to have many effects on just about everything.
The effects of oxytocin are complex = it’s going to have many effects
Explanation: For eight years, it was quite a lonesome field.
Attracted little scientific attention = lonesome field
Explanation: where once researchers took no notice of such findings.
Ignore = take no notice
Explanation: Section B: Markus Heinrichs and his colleagues …….. asked volunteers to do an activitiy in which they could invest money with an anonymous person who was not guaranteed to be honest. The team found the participants who had sniffed oxytocin via a nasal spray beforehand invested more money than those who received a placebo instead.
– Trust that you invest more money for someone you do not know (anonymous person)
Explanation: C: Simone Shamay – Tsoory at the University of Haifa ….. those who inhaled the hormone showed more pleasure when they beat other players, and felt more envy when others won.
-Envy = people’s feelings of jealousy
Explanation: Section F: these basic processes could manifest in different ways depending on the individual differences and context.
The effect of oxytocin varies = these basic processes could manifest in different ways
One type of person to another = individual differences
Explanation: Section A: It was through various studies focusing on animals that scientists became aware of the influence of oxytocin. Raised that it would reinforce the bonds …
The earliest = first
Focusing on animals = involving animals
Explanation: Paragraph A: It is also released by women in childbirth …
Produce = release
Explanation: Section B: Oxytocin’s role in human behavior first emerged in 2005 …. The team found the participants who had sniffed oxytocin via nasal spray beforehand invested more money than those who received a placebo instead.
– participants given oxytocin invest more money than those given placebo
Explanation: Section C: Simone Shamay – Tsoory at the University of Haifa, Israel, found that when volunteers played a competitive game, ….
Participants instead of volunteers
Took part in = play
Explanation: Section D: Studies conducted by Carolyn DeClerck of the University of Antwerp, Belgium, revealed that people who had received a dose of oxytocin actually became less cooperative when dealing with complete strangers.
Lack of willingness = less cooperative
Explanation: Paragraph D: Meanwhile, Carsten De Dreu at the University of Amsterdam ……. Dutch men are quicker to associate positive words with Dutch names than with foreign ones.
Positive associations = associate positive words
Those from other cultures = foreign ones
(Dutch names are familiar to Dutch men)
Most managers are unaware of the significant impact of trends on the lives of consumers.
Explanation: Section 1: manager often fails to recognize the less obvious but profound ways these influences consumers’ aspirations, attitudes, and behaviors.
Fail to recognize = are unaware of
Significant impact that trends have on = profound ways these trends are influencing
Consumers ‘lives = consumers’ aspirations, attitudes, and behaviors
(Coach was anxious to safeguard his reputation as a manufacturer of luxury goods – Coach worried about protecting his reputation as a manufacturer of luxury goods)
Explanation: Section 3: The Coach brand had been a symbol of opulence and luxury for nearly 70 years, and the most obvious reaction to the downturn would have been to the lower price.
However, that would have risked cheapening the brand’s image.
Reputation = brand’s image
Risked cheapening the brand’s image: risk reducing the value brand image
(It did not require Tesco to modify its core business activities)
Explanation: Section 4, last sentence: Tesco has not abandoned its traditional retail offerings but augmented its business with these innovations …
Abandoned its traditional retail offerings = modify its core business activities
(It is a form of strategy that seems to have few obvious benefits.)
Explanation: Paragraph 5: “At first glance, spending … ..ounds like it’s hardly worthwhile”
A few obvious benefits = hardly worthwhile
(It was a handheld game có addressed peoples’ Concerns about unhealthy lifestyles – it’s a handheld game solve everyone’s concerns about the lifestyles that are harmful to health)
Explanation: Paragraph 6: like other handheld games, …. The ME2, introduced in mid-2008, catered to kids’ huge desire to play video games while countering the negatives, such as associations with lack of exercise and obesity.
– Unhealthy lifestyles: lack of exercise and obesity
– Countering: Against
Explanation: Section 6: By reaffirming the toy category with physical play, the ME2 counteracted some of the widely perceived negative impacts of digital gaming devices.
“Counteracted some of the widespread negative impacts of digital gaming devices”: preventing some of the most common negative effects of video game machines.
Besides the advantage of being integrated with physical play, iToys’ products also have a negative impact – the new iToys come with ME2 to address those negative effects.
Harmful effects = negative impacts
Explanation: Section 5: In 2006, teamed up with technology company chúng Apple to launch the Nike +.
Collaborate = team up with
Explanation: Paragraph 4: … introduces its Greener Living Program, which demonstrates the firm’s commitment to protecting the environment.
Incentive scheme: Greener Living Program
Social responsibility – protecting the environment
Commitment = responsibility
Explanation: Section 3: … customers were eager to lift themselves and the country out of tough times.
Positive attitude = eager
Difficult circumstances = tough times
Explanation: Section 5: … to incorporate elements of a seemingly irrelevant trend into one of the core offerings … By combining Nike’s original value proposition for amateur athletes with one for digital consumers …
Irrelevant = unrelated
Nike: supply of sports shoes for athletes = one piece of digital goods = unrelated product sector
Explanation: Paragraph 3: Creating the sub-brand allowed Coach to avert an across-the-board price cut.
Avoid = avert
Bounte cho customers less = price cut
Explanation: paragraph 7, the first sentence: Once you have gained perspective on how to make changes in your opinions, you can determine which of our three innovation strategies to pursue.
Identify the most appropriate … = determine which of our three….
Explanation: Paragraph 7: Finally, if aspects of the category clash with undesired outcomes of a trend, such as associations with unhealthy lifestyles, there is an opportunity to counteract those changes by reaffirming the values of your category.
Negative aspect = undesired outcomes
Reaffirm the value of your category = emphasize your brand’s traditional values
Explanation: Paragraph 7: If analysis reveals an increase in disparity between your category and consumers’ new focus, your innovations need to transcend the category to integrate the two worlds.
Disparity = lack of connection