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Passage 1: The Context, Meaning and Scope of Tourism

Questions 1-4: Reading Passage has five paragraphs, A-E.

1.Paragraph B:

In  this  paragraph,  the  history  of  the  development  of  the  industry    began  during  the  industrial revolution  with  “the  advent  of  mass  tourism…  in  England”.    The  author  then  indicates  that  the creation of the commercial airline industry and the development of the jet aircraft signalled the rapid growth of international travel, which led to “the development of a major new industry: tourism”. So, the main idea of paragraph B is how mass tourism  developed.

=>ANSWER: ii (The development of mass tourism)

2.Paragraph C:

The  first  sentence  of  paragraph  C  is  also  the  main  idea  of  this  paragraph:  “Tourism  today  has grown  significantly in  both  economic  and  social  importance”.  The  writer  provides  many examples and  facts  to  demonstrate  that  tourism  is  the  world‟s  leading  industrial  contributor,  followed  by  a conclusion: “tourism has a profound impact both on the world economy and, because of the educative effect  of  travel  and  the  effects  on  employment,  on  society itself.”  So,  this paragraph  emphasizes  the importance of tourism in terms of economy and society.

–     significance=importance

=>ANSWER: i (Economic and social significance of tourism)

3.Paragraph D:

The  first  sentence  of  paragraph  D  is  also  its  main  idea.  “The  major  problems  of  the  travel  and tourism   industry   that   have   hidden,   or   obscured,   its   economic   impact   are   the   diversity   and fragmentation of the industry itself “.  This means that there is a difficulty in recognising the effects of tourism on economy, because it is diverse and fragmented, unlike industrial factories for example.

–     difficulty in recognising=hidden or obscured

–     effect=impact

=>ANSWER: v: Difficulty in recognising the economic effects of tourism

4.Paragraph E:

In paragraph E, the author argues that “travel and tourism have become  an institutionalised way of  life  for  most  of  the  population…Tourism  has  become  the  largest  commodity  in  international trade  for  many  nations…”This  means  that  travel  and  tourism  have  a  profound  impact  on  many countries around the world.

–     world=international

=>ANSWER: vii: The world impact of tourism

Questions 5-10: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1 ?

5.The largest employment figures in the world are found in the travel and tourism industry.

Keywords: largest figures, employment, tourism.

In paragraph C, the author indicates that: “The travel and tourism industry is  the world’s  largest employer with  almost  130 million jobs,  or almost  7 per cent  of all  employees.” So, the statement is TRUE.


6.Tourism contributes over six per cent of the Australian gross national product.

Keywords: tourism, 6 per cent, Australian gross national product.

The   information   about   Australian   tourism   or   the   Australian   gross   national   product is   NOT mentioned  in  the  passage.    Even  the  word  ‘Australia’  does  not  appear  in  the  passage.  So,  the statement is NOT GIVEN.


7.Tourism has a social impact because it promotes recreation.

Keywords: social impact, recreation

The  social  impact  of  tourism  is  mentioned  in  paragraph  C.  However,  in  this  paragraph,  whether tourism has a social impact because it promotes recreation or not is not specified. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.


8.Two  main  features  of  the  travel  and  tourism  industry  make  its  economic  significance  difficult  to ascertain.

Keywords: two features, economic significance, difficult.

At  the  beginning  of  paragraph  D,  the  author  argues  that  “The  major  problems  of  the  travel  and tourism   industry   that   have   hidden,   or   obscured,   its   economic   impact   are   the   diversity   and fragmentation of the industry  itself”. So, two features of the travel and tourism industry which are the diversity and fragmentation have hidden its economic impact. The statement is TRUE.

– economic significance=economic impact

–  hide/obscure=make…difficult to ascertain


9. Visitor spending is always greater than the spending of residents in tourist areas.

Keywords: visitor spending, greater, resident spending.

There is no specific information about either visitor spending or resident spending in the text. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN


10. It is easy to show statistically how tourism affects individual economies.

Keywords: easy, statistically, affect economies.

At  the  end  of  paragraph  E,  “However,  because  of  problems  of  definition,  which  directly  affect statistical  measurement,  it  is  not  possible  with  any degree  of  certainty  to  provide  precise,  valid  or reliable  data  about  the  extent  of  world-wide  tourism  participation  or  its  economic  impact.”  This means that it is not easy to show statistically  how  tourism  affects  individual  economies  because of problems of definition. So, the statement is FALSE.

–     show statistically=provide precise, valid or reliable data


Questions 11-13: Complete the sentences below.

11. In Greece, tourism is the most important…

Keywords: Greece, most important

Greece is mentioned in the last paragraph: “For example, tourism is the major source of income in Bermuda, Greece…”

–     the most important=major

=>ANSWER: source of income

12. The travel and tourism industry in Jamaica is the major…

Keywords: Jamaica, the major

In the last paragraph, “the travel and tourism industry is the number one ranked employer in the Bahamas, Brazil…Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Singapore…”

–     major=number one ranked

=>ANSWER: employer

13. The   problems   associated   with   measuring   international   tourism   are   often   reflected   in   the measurement of…

Keywords: problems, measurement of

In the last paragraph, “However, because of problems of definition, which directly affect statistical measurement, it is not possible with any degree of certainty to provide precise, valid or reliable data about  the  extent  of  world-wide  tourism  participation  or  its  economic  impact.  In  many cases,  similar difficulties arise when attempts are made to measure domestic tourism.”

–     problem=difficulty

=>ANSWER: domestic tourism


Passage 2: Autumn leaves

Questions 14-18: Reading Passage has nine paragraphs, A-l.

14. a description of the substance responsible for the red colouration of leaves.

Keywords: substance, red colouration, leaves

We  need  find   the  paragraph  which  features  a  substance  making  leaves  red.  In  paragraph  C,  the author  argues  that  “The  source  of  the  red  is  widely  known:  it  is  created  by  anthocyanins,  water- soluble  plant  pigments  reflecting  the  red  to  blue  range  of  the  visible  spectrum”.  Then,  he  described how this substance is created: “anthocyanins are actually newly minted, made in the leaves at the same time as the tree is preparing to drop them.”


15. the reason why trees drop their leaves in the autumn.

Keywords: trees drop leaves, autumn

In  paragraph  B,  the  writer  indicates  that  “As  fall  approaches  in  the  northern  hemisphere,  the amount  of  solar  energy  available  declines  considerably.  For  many  trees-evergreen  conifers  being  an exception-the  best  strategy is  to  abandon  photosynthesis  until  the  spring.  So  rather  than  maintaining the  now  redundant  leaves  throughout  the  winter,  the  tree  saves  its  precious  resources  and  discards them.”

–     autumn (British English)=fall (American English)

–     drop=discard


16. some evidence to confirm a theory about the purpose of the red leaves.

Keywords: a theory, purpose, red leaves.

In paragraph H: “Even if you had never suspected that this is what was going on when leaves turn red, there are clues out there.” Then, the writer provides 3 different clues explaining why leaves turn red.

–     evidence=clue


17. an explanation of the function of chlorophyll.

Keywords: function, chlorophyll.

In  paragraph  B,  the  writer  argues  that  “summer  leaves  are  green  because  they  are  full  of chlorophyll,  the  molecule  that  captures  sunlight  and  converts  that  energy  into  new  building materials for the tree.”


18. a suggestion that the red colouration in leaves could serve as a warning signal.

Keywords: red colouration, warning signal.

In paragraph E, “It  has also  been proposed that trees may produce vivid red colours to  convince herbivorous  insects  that they are healthy  and  robust  and would be easily able to  mount chemical defences against infestation.”


Questions 19-22: Complete the notes below.

19. The most vividly coloured red leaves are found on the side of the tree facing the…

Keywords: most vividly coloured red, side, facing

In paragraph H, the writer says that “On many trees, the leaves that are  the reddest are those on the side of the tree which gets most sun.”

–     the most vividly coloured red=the reddest

=>ANSWER: sun(light)

20. The …..surfaces of leaves contain the most red pigment.

Keywords: surfaces, most red pigment.

In paragraph H, the writer indicates that “Not only that, but the red is brighter on the upper side of the leaf”.

–     surface=side

=>ANSWER: upper

21. Red leaves are most abundant when daytime weather conditions are…..and sunny.

Keywords:  abundant, daytime weather, sunny.

Also,  in  paragraph  H,  the  writer  argues  that  “It  has  been  recognised  for  decades  that  the  best conditions for intense red colours are dry, sunny days and cool nights…”

–     most abundant=the best conditions for intense red colours

=>ANSWER: dry

22. The intensity of the red colour of leaves increases as you go further…..

Keywords: red colour, increases, go further

In paragraph H, the writer says that “And finally, trees such as maples usually get much redder the more north you travel in the northern hemisphere.”

–     go further=the more (north) you travel

=>ANSWER: north

Questions 23-25: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2 ?

23. It is likely that the red pigments help to protect the leaf from freezing temperatures.

Keywords: red pigments, protect, freezing temperatures.

In  paragraph  F,  the  writer  indicates  that  “It  sounds  paradoxical;  because  the  idea  behind  this hypothesis  is  that  the  red  pigment  is  made  in  autumn  leaves  to  protect  chlorophyll,  the  light- absorbing chemical, from too much light.” So, the statement is FALSE.


24. The ‘light screen’ hypothesis would initially seem to contradict what is known about chlorophyll.

Keywords: the light screen hypothesis, contradict, chlorophyll.

The   ‘light   screen’   hypothesis   is   mentioned   in   paragraph   F.   “It   (The   hypothesis)   sounds paradoxical, because the idea behind this hypothesis is that the red pigment is made in autumn leaves to  protect  chlorophyll,  the  light-absorbing  chemical,  from  too  much  light.”  Then,  the  writer  raises  a question:  “Why  does  chlorophyll  need  protection  when  it  is  the  natural  world‟s  supreme  light absorber?”  So,  this  is  a  contradiction  between  the  ‘light  screen’  hypothesis  which  supposes  that chlorophyll is protected from too much light by the red pigment and what is known about chlorophyll (the natural world’s supreme light absorber). The statement is TRUE.

–     seem to contradict=sound paradoxical


25. Leaves which turn colours other than red are more likely to be damaged by sunlight.

Keywords: other than red, more likely, damaged by sunlight.

In this passage, the author does not mention whether leaves which turn colours other than red are more likely to be damaged by sunlight. In paragraph I, we read that some trees do not waste energy to produce red leaves, they simply show their natural orange or yellow colours, but no more information is given. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

–     colours=hues


26. For which of the following question does the writer offer an explanation?

A. why conifers remain green in winter

B. how leaves turn orange and yellow in autumn

C. how herbivorous insects choose which trees to lay there eggs in

D. why anthocyanins are restricted to certain trees

A. In paragraph B, the writer indicates that “For many trees-evergreen conifers being an exception- the  best  strategy  is  to  abandon  photosynthesis  until  the  spring”.  However,  he  does  not  explain  why conifers remain green throughout the winter

B. In  paragraph  C,  the  writer  argues  that  “As  chlorophyll  is  depleted,  other  colours  that  have  been dominated by it throughout the summer begin to be revealed. This unmasking explains the autumn colours of yellow and orange…”

C. At  the  end  of  paragraph  E  “No  one  has  as  yet  ascertained  whether  more  robust  trees  sport  the brightest leaves, or whether insects make choices according to colour intensity.

D. There  are  some  theories  about  anthocyanins  but  they  do  not  explain  why  anthocyanins  are restricted to certain trees



Passage 3: Beyond the blue horizon

Questions 27-31: Completing Summary ; Complete the summary using the list of words and phrases, A-J, below.

27. A  3,000-year-old  burial  ground  of  a  seafaring  people  called  the  Lapita  has  been  found  on  an abandoned….on the Pacific island of Efate

Keywords: 3,000-year-old burial ground, found on an abandoned, Efate

In  the first  paragraph, the writer  says that  “An  agricultural  worker,  digging in  the grounds of  a derelict  plantation,  scraped  open  a  grave  –  the  first  of  dozens  in  a  burial  ground  some  3,000  years old.”

–     abandoned=derelict


28. The cemetery, which is a significant… was uncovered accidentally by an agricultural worker.

Keywords: cemetery, significant, agricultural worker

In  the  first  paragraph,  “The  site  came  to  light  only  by  chance.  An  important  archaeological discovery on the island of Efate in the Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu has revealed traces of an ancient seafaring  people,  the  distant  ancestors  of  today’s  Polynesians…An  agricultural  worker,  digging  in the grounds of a derelict plantation, scraped open a grave – the first of dozens in a burial ground some 3,000 years old. It is the oldest cemetery ever found in the Pacific islands…”

–     cemetery=burial ground

–     significant=important

–     accidentally=only by chance


29. The Lapita explored  and colonised  many  Pacific  islands over several  centuries. They took many things with them on their voyages including…and tools.

Keywords: The Lapita, took, voyages, including

In paragraph 2, “They were also pioneers who carried with them everything they would need to build new lives – their livestock,  taro seedlings and stone tools.”

–     took=carried

–     animals=livestock


30-31. The burial ground increases the amount of information about the Lapita available to scientists. A team of researchers, led by Matthew Spriggs from the Australian  National University, are helping with the excavation of  the site. Spriggs believes  the….which was found  at  the site is  very  important since it confirms that the….found inside are Lapita.

Keywords: Matthew Spriggs, important, inside

In paragraph 3, the writer says that “Other items included a Lapita burial urn with modeled birds arranged on the rim as though peering down at the human remains sealed inside. “It’s an important discovery, says Matthew Spriggs, ….” for it conclusively identifies the remains as Lapita.

–     bones=remains

=>ANSWER:      30. G (BURIAL URN)                              31. D (BONES)

Questions 32-35: Choose the correct letter ABC or D.

32. According  to  the  writer,  there  are  difficulties  explaining  how  the  Lapita  accomplished  their journeys because

Keywords: difficulties, the Lapita, journeys, because

In paragraph 5, the writer indicates that “There is one stubborn question for which archaeology has yet to provide any answers: how did the Lapita accomplish the ancient equivalent of a moon landing, many times over?  No-one has found one of their canoes or any rigging, which could reveal how the canoes were sailed. Nor do the oral histories and traditions of later Polynesians offer any insights, for they turn into myths long before they reach as far back in time as the Lapita.” This means that in this period, all the information relating to their accomplishments could not be verified.

=> ANSWER: C (Little information relating to this period can be relied upon for accuracy)

33. According to the sixth paragraph, what was extraordinary about the Lapita?

Keywords: extraordinary, the Lapita

In paragraph 6, the writer says that “The real adventure didn’t begin, however, until their Lapita descendants sailed out of sight of land, with empty horizons on every side. This must have been  as difficult for them as landing on the moon for us today.” This means that sailing out of sight of land is extraordinary for the Lapita.

–     Beyond the point where land is visible=out of sight of land.

=>ANSWER: A (They sailed beyond the point where land is visible)

34.What does “this” refer to in the seventh paragraph?

In paragraph 7, “They could sail out for days into the unknown and assess the area, secure in the knowledge that if they didn‟t find anything, they could turn about and catch a swift ride back on the trade winds. This is what would have made the whole thing work.” So, “this” means the Lapita believed that if they turned back, the winds would then be behind them and carry them home quickly.

=>ANSWER: D (the Lapita’s belief they would return home)

35. According to the eighth paragraph how was the geography of the region significant?

At the beginning of paragraph 8, the author indicates that “For  returning explorers, successful or not, the geography of their own archipelagoes would have provided a safety net. Without this to go by, over shooting  their  home  ports,  getting  lost  and  sailing  off  into  eternity  would  have  been  all  too easy” So, this means that the geography of the region provided a navigational aid for the Lapita.

=>ANSWER: C (It provided a navigational aid for the Lapita)

Questions 36-40: Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 3 ?

36. It is now clear that the Lapita could sail into a prevailing wind.

Keywords: clear, sail into a prevailing wind

In  paragraph  9,  Professor  Atholl  Anderson  says  that  “All  this  presupposes  ….the  Lapita  had mastered the advanced art of sailing against the wind. And there’s no proof they could do such thing”. This means that whether the Lapita could sail into a prevailing wind has not been verified yet. So, the statement is false.

–     a prevailing wind=against the wind


37. Extreme climate conditions may have played a role in Lapita migration.

Keywords: extreme climate conditions, Lapita migration.

In  paragraph  10,  the  writer  indicates  that  “El  Nino,  the  same  climate  disruption  that  affects  the Pacific  today,  may  have  helped  scatter  the  Lapita…climate  data  obtained  from  slow-growing  corals around the Pacific indicate a series of unusually frequent El Nino around the time of the Lapita.” This means that during the time of the Lapita, a series of El Nino may have helped scatter the Lapita. So, the statement is true.


38. The Lapita learnt to predict the duration of El Nino

Keywords: predict, duration, El Nino

El  Nino  is  only  mentioned  in  paragraph  10;  however,  in  this  paragraph,  the  writer  does  not  say anything  about  the  Lapita  learning  to  predict  the  duration  of  El  Nino.  So,  the  statement  is  NOT GIVEN


39. It remains unclear why the Lapita halted their expansion across the Pacific.

Keywords: unclear, halted expansion, the Pacific.

In paragraph 11, the writer indicates that “the Lapita spread themselves a third of the way across the Pacific, then called it quits for reasons known only to them.” This means that it remains unclear why they halted their expansion across the Pacific. So, the statement is true.

–     halt = call it quits


40. It is likely that the majority of Lapita settled on Fiji.

Keywords: the majority, Fiji.

Fiji is only mentioned in paragraph 11.   At the end of paragraph 11, the writer argues that “They probably never numbered more than a few thousand in total, and in their rapid migration eastward they encountered hundreds of islands – more than 300 in Fiji alone.” The writer does not mention whether the majority of Lapita settled on Fiji. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.



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