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Passage 1: Tea and the Industrial Revolution

Questions 1-7: Reading Passage has seven paragraphs, A-G.

1. Paragraph A.

In  paragraph  A,  the  Industrial  Revolution  is  first  mentioned.  Besides,  two  questions  are  raised:
“Why did this particular Big Bang-the world-changing birth of industry – happen in Britain? And why did  it  strike  at  the  end  of  the  18    century?”  Thanks  to  these  questions,  we  know  that  the  Industrial Revolution happened in Britain at the end of the 18 century.
=>ANSWER: iv: The time and place of the Industrial Revolution.

2. Paragraph B

In paragraph B, the writer mentions factors needed for industry to take off, namely the technology and power to drive factories, large urban populations to provide cheap labour, easy transport to move goods   around,   an   affluent   middle-class   willing   to   buy  mass-produced   objects,   a   market-driven economy  and  a  political  system  that  allows  this  to  happen.  In  other  words,  all  of  these  factors  are conditions required for industrialization.
–     conditions = factors
=>ANSWER: viii: Conditions required for industrialization.

3. Paragraph C

The  main  idea  of  paragraph  C  is  “Tea  and  beer,  two  of  the  nation’s  favorite  drinks,  fuelled  the revolution.” They are important to Britain‟s industrial revolution because the antiseptic properties of tannin, the active ingredient in tea, and hops in beer – plus the fact that both are made with boiled water – allowed urban communities to flourish at close quarters…”
=>ANSWER: vii: Two keys to Britain‟s industrial Revolution.

4. Paragraph D

In paragraph D, the author argues that “there was a burst in population growth”, then he lists four questions which were suggested as causes of this burst.
–     increase in population =population growth
=>ANSWER: i: The search for the reasons for an increase in population.

5. Paragraph E

In  paragraph  E,  Macfarlane  says  “For  a  long  time,  the  English  were  protected  by  the  strong antibacterial agent in hops, which were added to help preserve the beer. But in the late 17th century a tax was introduced on malt, the basic ingredient of beer. The poor turned to water and gin and in the 1720 s,  the  mortality  rate  began  to  rise  again.  Then  it  suddenly  dropped  again.”  This  means  that  the English changed their drinking habits, which changed the mortality rate, as well.
=>ANSWER: vi: Changes in drinking habits in Britain

6. Paragraph F

In  paragraph  F,  Macfarlane  compares  Britain  with  Japan.  While  both  countries  were  developing cities about the same time and also had no sanitation, water-borne diseases had a much looser grip on the Japanese population  than those in  Britain.  Thanks to  this comparison, Macfarlane found  out  that “the history of tea in Britain provided an extraordinary coincidence of dates”.
=>ANSWER: ix: Comparisons with Japan lead to the answer.

7. Paragraph G

In paragraph G, Macfarlane notes that although 17  -century Japan  had some of the conditions for an industrial revolution (“Japan had large cities, high literacy rates, even a futures market”), it  gave up labour-saving  devices  such  as  animals,  because  they  were  afraid  that  they  would  put  people  out  of work.
–     industrial revolution=industrialisation
–     fear=be afraid
–     unemployment=out of work
=>ANSWER: ii: Industrialisation and the fear of unemployment

Questions 8-13: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2 ?

8. China’s transport system was not suitable for industry in the 18  century

Keywords: China, transport, not suitable, 18   century
“China”  is  mentioned  in  paragraphs  B  and  F.  China  and  the  18     century  are  referred  to  in paragraph F.   However, in these paragraphs, the writer does not say anything about China‟s transport system. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN

9. Tea and beer both helped to prevent dysentery in Britain

Keywords: tea, beer, prevent dysentery
In paragraph C, the author argues that “The antiseptic properties of tannin, the active ingredient in tea,  and  hops  in  beer  –  plus  the  fact  that  both  are  made  with  boiled  water  –  allowed  urban communities  to  flourish  at  close  quarters   without succumbing  to  water-borne  diseases  such   as dysentery.” The active ingredients in tea and beer prevent the British from succumbing to dysentery. So, the statement is TRUE.
–     prevent dysentery = without succumbing to… dysentery

10. Roy Porter disagrees with Professor Macfarlane’s findings

Keywords: disagree, Roy Porter
At  the  end  of  paragraph  C,  “Macfarlane’s  case  has  been  strengthened  by  support  from  notable quarters-  Roy  Porter…recently  wrote  a  favourable  appraisal  of  his  research”.  This  means  that  Roy Porter agrees with Macfarlane‟s findings. So, the statement is FALSE

11. After 1740, there was a reduction in population in Britain

Keywords: after 1740, reduction, population.
In paragraph D, “Between 1650 and 1740, the population in Britain was static. But then there was a  burst  in  population  growth.”  This  means  that  after  1740,  there  was  an  increase  in  population  in Britain. So, the statement is FALSE

12. People in Britain used to make beer at home.

Keywords: make beer, home
Beer is mentioned in paragraphs C and E.   In the text, the author just mentions that “the antiseptic properties of tannin, the active ingredient in tea, and hops in beer – plus the fact that both are made with  boiled  water  –  allowed  urban  communities  to  flourish  at  close  quarters…”  and  that  “We  drank beer. For a long time, the English were protected by the strong antibacterial agent in hops, which were added to help preserve the beer.” There is no information about whether the British used to make beer at home. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

13. The tax on malt indirectly caused a rise in the death rate.

Keywords: tax on malt, indirectly, rise, death rate
At the end of  paragraph  E, “But  in  the  late 17    century,  a tax  was introduced on malt,  the basic ingredient of beer. The poor turned to water and gin and in the 1720s the mortality rate began to rise again.”   This means that the introduction of tax on malt led people to turning to water and gin, which caused a rise in the mortality rate. So, the statement is TRUE.
–     death rate=mortality rate


Passage 2: Gifted children and learning

Questions 14-17: Reading Passage 2 has six paragraphs, A-F.

14. a reference to the influence of the domestic background on the gifted child.

Key words: influence, domestic background, gifted child
We need to find out some information about  “domestic background” in  the text.  In paragraph A, the author refers to the importance of “home educational provision” and “reported verbal interactions with parents, number of books and activities in their home etc”. “Giftedness” is related to “educational backup” at home.
–     domestic=home

15. reference to what can be lost if learners are given too much guidance

Keywords: what lost, too much guidance
We need to find out some information about “too much guidance” provided. In paragraph D, the author  indicates that  “Conversely,  teachers  who  have  a  tendency  to  “overdirect”  can  diminish  their gifted pupils‟ learning autonomy…Too  much dependence on the teacher risks loss of autonomy and motivation to discover.” This means that  too much help from teachers causes students’ autonomy and motivation to be lost.
–     overdirect=too much guidance

16. a reference to the damaging effects of anxiety.

Keywords: effects, anxiety
We need to find out some information about anxiety. In paragraph F, the author argues that “Fear, for  example,  can  limit  the  development  of  curiosity,  which  is  a  strong  force  in  scientific  advance, because  it  motivates  problem-solving  behaviour.  So,  fear,  or  anxiety,  has  negative  effects  on  the development of curiosity.
–     anxiety=fear

17. examples of classroom techniques which favour socially-disadvantaged children.

Keywords: techniques, socially-disadvantaged children.
We need to  find out some information  about  disadvantaged  children. At the end of paragraph D, “There are quite  a number of  new  methods  which can help,  such  as  child-initiated learning,  ability-peer  tutoring,  etc.  Such  practices  have  been  found  to  be  particularly  useful  for,  or  in  other  words “favour”, right children from deprived areas.” So, some classroom techniques such as child-initiated learning, ability-peer tutoring, etc are very useful for socially-disadvantaged children.
–     techniques=methods=practices
–     socially-disadvantaged=deprived

Questions 18-22: Look at the following statements (Questions 18-22) and the list of people below.

18. Less time can be spent on exercises with gifted pupils who produce accurate work.

Keywords: Less time, exercises
In paragraph C, Shore and Kanevsky say “If the gifted merely think more quickly, then we need only teach more quickly. If they merely make fewer errors, then we can shorten the practice.”
–     produce accurate work=make fewer errors
–     less time spent on exercises=shorten the practice

19. Self-reliance is a valuable tool that helps gifted students reachtheir goals.

Keywords: self-reliance, reach goals
In  paragraph  E,  Simonton  concludes  that  “above  a  certain  high  level,  characteristics  such  as independence seemed to contribute more to reaching the highest levels of expertise than intellectual skills, due to the great demands of effort and time needed for learning and practice.”
–     self-reliance=independence
–     goals=the highest levels of expertise

20. Gifted children know how to channel their feelings to assist their learning.

Keywords: channel feelings, assist learning
In the last paragraph, “In Boekaerts” (1991) review of emotion in the learning of very high IQ and highly  achieving  children,  she  found  emotional  forces  in  harness.  They  (gifted  children)  were  not only  curious,  but  often  had  a  strong  desire  to  control  their  environment,  improve  their  learning efficiency, and increase their own learning resources.”
–     channel their feelings=emotional forces in harness
–     assist their learning=improve their learning efficiency

21. The very gifted child benefits from appropriate support from close relatives.

Keywords: benefits, support from relatives.
In paragraph A, “A very close relationship was found when children‟s IQ scores were compared with their home educational provision. The higher the children‟s IQ scores, especially over IQ 130, the   better   the   quality   of   their   educational   backup,   measured   in   terms   of   reported   verbal interactions  with  parents,  number  of  books  and  activities  in  their  home,  etc”    The  researcher mentioned in this paragraph is Freeman.
–     support from close relatives=educational backup/ home educational provision

22. Really successful students have learnt a considerable amount about their subject.

Keywords: learnt a considerable amount.
In paragraph E,  “individuals who  know  a great deal  about  a specific domain  will  achieve at  a higher level than those who do not.”
–     Really successful=achieve at a higher level
–     learnt a considerable amount=know a great deal
–     subject =specific domain

Questions 23-26: Complete the sentences below.

23.  One  study  found  a  strong  connection  between  children’s  IQ  and  the  availability  of……and…..at home.

Keywords: connection,  children’s IQ, at home.
In paragraph A, the writer argues that “A very close… relationship was found when children‟s IQ scores  were  compared  with  their  home  educational  provision.  The  higher  the  children‟s  IQ  scores, especially  over  IQ  130,  the  better  the  quality  of  their  educational  backup,  measured  in  terms  of reported verbal interactions with parents, number of books and activities in their home, etc”
–     a strong connection=a very close relationship
=>ANSWER: books-activities

24.  Children  of  average  ability  seem  to  need  more  direction  from  teachers  because  they  do  not have…..

Keywords: average, more direction, they do not have
We need to  find out some information  about  average-ability children.  In  paragraph  B, the author indicates  that  “There  appears  to  be  a  qualitative  difference  in  the  way  the  intellectually  highly  able think,  compared  with  more  average-ability  or  older  pupils,  for  whom  external  regulation  by  the teachers often compensates for lack of internal regulation.”
–     direction=regulation
–     do not have=lack(v)
=>ANSWER: internal regulation

25.   Metacognition   involves   children   understanding   their   own   learning   strategies,   as   well   as developing…..

Keywords: metacognition, developing
We  need  to  find  out  the  information  about  metacognition.  In  paragraph  B,  “To  be  at  their  most effective  in  their  self-regulation,  all  children  can  be  helped  to  identify  their  own  ways  of  learning- metacognition-which  include  strategies  of  planning,  monitoring,  evaluation,  and  choice  of  what  to
learn.  Emotional  awareness  is  also  part  of  metacognition,  so  children  should  be  helped  to  be aware of their feelings around the area to be learned.”
–     understand=identify
=>ANSWER: emotional awareness

26. Teachers who rely on what is known as…..often produce sets of impressive grades in class tests.

Keywords: rely on, produce impressive grades, tests.
In  paragraph  D,  “Although  ‘spoon-feeding’  can  produce extremely  high  examination  results, these are not always followed by equally impressive life successes.”
–     extremely high=impressive
–     grades=results
–     test=examination
=>ANSWER: spoon-feeding


Passage 3: Museums of fine art and their public

Questions 27-31: Complete the summary using the list of words, A-L, below.

27-28. People go to art museums because they accept the value of seeing an original work of art. But they do not go to museums to read original manuscripts of novels, perhaps because the availability of novels  has  depended  on  27… for  solong,  and  also  because  with  novels,  the  28……are  the  most important thing.

27. Keywords:  museums, novels

We need to find out why people do not go to museums to read original manuscripts of novels. At the beginning of paragraph 2, the writer argues that “This might be explained by the fact that the novel has evolved precisely because of technological developments that made it possible to printout huge numbers of texts, whereas oil paintings have always been produced as unique objects.” This means that, unlike original paintings which are unique, novels are available in such huge number that people do not want to go to museums to read original manuscripts.
–     mass production=print out huge numbers

28. Keywords: novels, most important

In paragraph 2, “With novels, the reader attends mainly to the meaning of words rather than the way they are printed on the page.” So, the reader finds the meaning of words most important.
–     mainly=most important
–     underlying ideas=the meaning of words

29-30. However, in historical times, artists such as Leonardo were happy to instruct 29…..to produce copies  of  their  work  and  these  days  new  methods  of  reproduction  allow  excellent  replication  of surface relief features as well as colour and 30…..

29. Keywords: artists, instruct, copies.

In paragraph 3, the author indicates that “…in the 16    century, artists seemed perfectly content to assign the reproduction of their creations to their workshop apprentices as regular „bread and butter ‟work”
–     happy=content
–     assistant=apprentice
–     copy=reproduction

30. Keywords: excellent replication, colour, surface relief

In  paragraph  3,  “And  today  the  task  of  reproducing  pictures  is  incomparably  more  simple  and reliable, with reprographic techniques that allow the production of high-quality prints made exactly to the original  scale, with  faithful  colour values,  and even  with  duplication of the surface  relief  of the painting.”So, besides surface relief features and faithful colour values, new methods allow the copies made exactly to the original scale. This means that the copies have the same size as the original novel.
–     replication=reproducing

31. It is regrettable that museums still promote the superiority of original works of art, since this may not be in the interests of the…

Keywords: promote, original works, not in the interests of In paragraph 5, “Unfortunately, this seems to place severe limitations on the kind of experience offered to visitors.” Because   “museums still promote the special status of original work” [paragraph 4], this may not be in the interests of visitors, or the public.
–     the public=visitors

Questions 32-35: Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

32.The writer mentions London‟s National Gallery to illustrate…

Keywords: London’s National Gallery
In  paragraph  6,  the  author  argues  that  “In  addition,  a  major  collection  like  that  of  London’s National Gallery is housed in numerous rooms, each with dozens of works, any one of which is likely to be worth more than all the average visitor possesses. In a society that judges the personal status of  the  individual  so  much  by  their  material  worth,  it  is  therefore  difficult not  to  be  impressed  by one’s  own  relative  ‘worthlessness’  in  such  an  environment.”  This  means  that  London’s  National Gallery  is  mentioned  to  illustrate  the  negative  effect  a  museum  can  have  on  visitors’  opinions  of themselves.

33. The writer says that today, viewers may be unwilling to criticise a work because

Keywords: unwilling, criticise a work
In  paragraph  7,  “…since  these  works  were  originally  produced,  they  have  been  assigned  a  huge monetary value  by some  person  or  institution  more  powerful  than  themselves”,  therefore,  they are not willing to criticise a work because they feel that their reaction is useless.

34. According to the writer, the ‘displacement effect’ on the visitor is caused by

Keywords: displacement effect, caused by
In  paragraph  8,  “The  visitor  may be  struck  by  the  strangeness  of  seeing  such  diverse  paintings, drawings  and  sculptures  brought  together  in  an  environment  for  which  they  were  not  originally created.” This means that the ‘displacement effect’ is caused by the variety of works on display and the way they are arranged.  Such paintings were never intended to be displayed in that way.

35.The writer says that unlike other forms of art, a painting does not

In paragraph 9, the author says that “a fundamental difference between paintings and other forms is that there is no prescribed time over which a painting is viewed.”    A “picture has no clear place at which  to  start  viewing,  or  at  which  to  finish”.  This  means  that  a  painting  does  not  have  a  specific beginning or end.
–     unlike=a fundamental difference

Questions 36-40: Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 3?

36. Art history should focus on discovering the meaning of art using a range of media.

Keywords: art history, meaning of art, media.
Art history is mentioned in paragraph 10 where the writer argues that “Consequently, the dominant critical  approach  becomes  that  of  the  art  historian,  a  specialised  academic  approach  devoted  to ‘discovering the meaning’ of art within the cultural context of its time”. So, whether art history should focus  on  discovering  the  meaning  of  art  using  a  range  of  media  is  not  mentioned.  The  statement  is NOT GIVEN

37. The approach of art historians conflicts with that of art museums.

Keywords: art historians, conflicts, art museums.
In paragraph 10, “This (the approach of art historians) is in perfect harmony with the museum’s function” This means that there are  absolutely no conflicts between the approach of art historians and that of art museums.

38. People should be encouraged to give their opinions openly on works of art

Keywords: give opinions openly
In  the  last  paragraph,  the  author  indicates  that  “The  museum  public,  like  any  other  audience, experience art more rewardingly when given the confidence to express their views.
–     give their opinions=express their views

39. Reproductions of fine art should only be sold to the public if they are of high quality.

Keywords: reproductions, sold, high quality.
In the last paragraph, the writer mentions high-quality reproductions of fine art and states that the public should have access to them, but no reference is made to the sale of such reproductions. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

40. In the future, those with power are likely to encourage more people to enjoy art.

Keywords: those with power, encourage, enjoy art.

In  the  last  paragraph,  “Unfortunately,  that  may  be  too  much  to  ask  from  those  who  seek  to maintain and control the art establishment.”
–     those with power=those who seek to maintain and control


cambridge ielts 10 reading test 2 passage 3
cambridge ielts 10 reading test 2 passage 3

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