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Passage 1: Stepwells

Paragraph 1: During the sixth and seventh…

Paragraph 2: Unique to this region…

Paragraph 3: As their name suggests…

Paragraph 4: Some wells….

Paragraph 5: Down the centuries…

Paragraph 6: However, some important sites… 

Paragraph 7: In Patan….

Paragraph 8: Another example is….

Paragraph 9: Rajasthan….

Paragraph 10: In the old ruined town…

Paragraph 11: Still in public use…

Paragraph 12:  Today….

Questions 1–5: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?

1. Examples of an ancient stepwells can be found all over the world.


Keywords:  ancient stepwells, all over the world

At the beginning of paragraph 2, the author says “Unique to this region, stepwells are…”, then he continues “Most stepwells are found dotted round the desert areas of Gujarat and Rajasthan, while a few also survive in Delhi”. This means that stepwells are typical of Gujarat, Rajasthan and Delhi, they can only be found at such places, not all over the world. So, the statement is FALSE.

2.Stepwells had a range of functions, in addition to those related to water collection.


Keywords: a range of functions

In  paragraph  2,  the  author  indicates  that  “During  their  heyday,  they  (stepwells)  were  places  of gathering of leisure and relaxation and of worship for villagers of all but the lowest classes.” Then, he continues “Some were located in or near villages as public spaces for the community; others were positioned  beside  roads  as  resting  places  for  travelers.”  So,  besides  the  function  of  collecting water which is mentioned in paragraph 1, stepwells had many other  functions. As a result, the statement is TRUE.

3. The few existing stepwells in Delhi are more attractive than those found elsewhere.


Keywords: stepwells in Delhi, more attractive.

In paragraph 2, the author lists some places where stepwells can be found, and he mentions that “a few also survive in Delhi”.  However, he does not compare the attractiveness of stepwells in Delhi and in other places. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

4. It took workers many years to build the stone steps characteristic of stepwells.


Keywords: many years, stone steps

Only paragraphs  3  and  4  refer  to  stone  steps,  so  we  should  focus  on  them.  However,  paragraph indicates  whether  it  took  workers  many  years  to  build  stone  steps  or  not.  So,  the  statement  is  NOT GIVEN.

5. The number of steps above the water level in a stepwell altered during the course of a year.


Keywords: steps, water level, altered

In paragraph 3, the author writes “When the water level was high, the user needed only to descend a few steps to reach it; when it was low, several levels would have to be negotiated.” This means that the water level changed during the year, which  means that the number of steps above the water level changed, too. So, the statement is TRUE.

Questions 6–8: Answer the questions below. Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.

6.Which part of some stepwells provided shade for people?

Keyword: shade

The author describes stepwells in paragraph 4, so we should focus on this paragraph first. He says “Built  from  stone  and  supported  by  pillars,  they  (stepwells)  also  included  pavilions  that  sheltered visitors from the relentless heat.”

  •  shade=shelter from the heat

=> ANSWER: pavilions

7. What  type  of  serious  climatic  event,  which  took  place  in  southern  Rajasthan,  is  mentioned  in  the  article?

Keywords: climatic event, southern Rajasthan

“Southern  Rajasthan”  is  mentioned  for  the  first  time  in  paragraph  5,  so  we  will  focus  on  this paragraph first.  At the end of paragraph 5, the author indicates that “southern Rajasthan  suffered  an eight-year drought between 1996 and 2004”

=> ANSWER: drought

8.Who are frequent visitors to stepwells nowadays?

Keywords: frequent visitors, nowadays

We should find out the paragraph that contains the information about stepwells today.  In the last paragraph, the author argues that “Touristsflock to wells in far-flung corners of north-western India to gaze  in  wonder  at  these  architectural  marvels  from  hundreds   of  years  ago…”  This  means  that nowadays, a huge number of tourists visit India to gaze at these wells.

=> ANSWER: tourists

Questions 9-13: Complete the table below. Choose ONE WORD AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.

9-13.We will focus on paragraphs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, each of which describes a well-known well.   Locate the  paragraphs  which  give  the  different  place  names  and  pay  attention  to  dates  and  numbers  in  the text, too.

9.Excellent condition, despite the….of 2001.

Keywords: 2001, excellent.

At  the  end  of  paragraph  7  ,  “Incredibly,  in  January  2001,  this  ancient  structure  survived  an earthquake that measured 7.6 on the Richter scale”. This means that despite the earthquake in 2001,the stepwell of Rani Ki Vav was still in excellent condition.

=> ANSWER: earthquake

10. Steps on the….produce a geometrical pattern.

11. Looks more like a… than a well.

Keywords: steps, geometrical pattern/ more like/

In  paragraph  8,  “It  actually  resembles  a  tank  rather  than  a  well,  but  displays  the  hallmarks  of stepwell  architecture,  including  four  sides  of  steps  (that  descend  to  the  bottom)  in  a  stunning geometrical formation.” This means that the stepwell of Surya Kund looks more like a tank. Besides, it is the steps on the four sides that create a geometrical formation (pattern)

look like=resemble


10. 4 sides  (As only ONE word AND/OR A number is accepted, so “four sides” is the wrong answer) ; 11. tank

12. Has…which provide a view of the steps.

At the end of paragraph 10 , “On the fourth side, verandas (which are supported by ornate pillars) overlook the steps”

provide a view of = overlook

=> ANSWER: verandas

13. Has two….levels

Keywords: Two, levels

In paragraph 11 , the author argues that “Constructed in around 1700, it is nine storeys deep, with the last two being underwater.”


=> ANSWER: underwater


Passage 2: European Transport Systems 1990 – 2010

Questions 14-21: Reading Passage 2 has nine paragraphs, A-I.

14. Paragraph A

In  paragraph  A,  the  author  says  “Although  modern  information  technologies  can  reduce  the demand   for   physical   transport   by  facilitating   teleworking   and   teleservices,   the   requirement   for transport  continues  to  rise.”  The  main  idea  is  “the  requirement  for  transport  continues  to  rise”.  To support this main idea, the author gives   two factors, one of which is “the spectacular growth in car use”. So, the correct heading for paragraph A is viii.

=> ANSWER: viii: The rapid growth of private transport

the rapid growth=the spectacular growth

private transport = car

15. Paragraph B

In  paragraph  B,  the  first  sentence  is  also  the  main  idea  “As  far  as  goods  transport  is  concerned, growth  is  due  to  a  large  extent  to  changes  in  the  European  economy  and  its  system  of  production. ” Then,  the  author  indicates  that  these  changes  cause  some  production  sites  to  be  relocated  far  away from  the  final  assembly  plant  or  away  from  users  –  perhaps  even  „hundreds  or  even  thousands  of kilometres away‟. This means that these changes affect the transport distances. So, the correct heading for paragraph B is iii.

=> ANSWER: iii: Changes affecting the distances goods may be transported

16. Paragraph C

In paragraph C, the author provides many transport statistics, or transport trends, in some countries which  are  “candidates  for  entry  to  the  EU”.   The  trends  include  an  increase  in  road  haulage  and  a decrease in  rail  haulage.  These countries are awaiting admission to  become members of the EU.  So, the correct heading for paragraph C is xi

=> ANSWER: xi: Transport trends in the countries awaiting EU admission.

17. Paragraph D

In paragraph D, “A new imperative – sustainable development- offers an opportunity for adapting the  EU’s  common  transport  policy.”  So,  this  paragraph  is  about  a  long-term  objective  which  is  new and important for adapting  the EU’s common transport policy. The correct heading for paragraph D is i.



( Note: Dictionaries generally define an ‘imperative’ [NOUN] as an essential duty that should be done. In this sense, and in this context, we can say that ‘promoting sustainable development’ is a duty which the  EU  hope  to  fulfil. This  is  very  similar  to  a  ‘goal’  or  ‘objective’,  although  it  is  not  an  exact synonym.)

So, goal=imperative.   Meaning:   a duty which the EU aims to  fulfil  as a future objective  – changing transport policy to make it more sustainable.)

long-term = sustainable

=>ANSWER: i: A fresh and important long-term goal

18. Paragraph E

In  paragraph  E,  the  effect  of  energy  consumption  in  the  transport  sector  on  the  environment  is mentioned. Specifically, CO2 emissions are estimated to increase by 50% by 2020 due to the  traffic growth trend, and road transport is also the main cause of CO2 emissions attributable to transport.

Finding some solutions is an “ecological necessity”.  So, The correct heading for paragraph E is v.

environmental = ecological

=> ANSWER: v: The environmental costs of road transport.

19. Paragraph G

In paragraph E, the author emphasizes the importance of achieving transport rebalance; therefore, paragraph  G  details  the  first  solution  which  focuses  on  road  transport  solely through  pricing.  In  the short  term,  this  approach  might  “curb  the  growth  in  road  transport”.  So,  the  correct  heading  for paragraph G is x.

charging = pricing

alone = solely

restrict = curb

=> ANSWER: x: Restricting road use through charging policies alone

20. Paragraph H

Paragraph H is about the second solution to achieve transport balance. This approach “concentrates on road transport pricing but is accompanied by measures to increase the efficiency of the other modes (better quality of services, logistics, technology.)”. So, the correct heading for paragraph H is ii.


improve=increase the efficiency of

transport methods=transport modes

=> ANSWER: ii: Charging for roads and improving other transport methods

21. Paragraph I

In  paragraph  I,  “the  third  approach  comprises  a  series  of  measures  ranging  from  pricing  to revitalising  alternative  modes  of  transport  and  targeting  investment  in  the  trans-European  network”. This  means  that  the  third  approach  may  change  transport  patterns.  So,  the  correct  heading  for paragraph I is iv.


=>ANSWER: iv: Taking all the necessary steps to change transport patterns.

Questions 22-26: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?

22. The need for transport is growing, despite technological developments.

Keywords: growing, technological developments.

In paragraph A, “Although modern information technologies can reduce the demand for physical transport by facilitating teleworking and teleservices, the requirement for transport continues to rise.” The main idea is “the requirement for transport continues to rise”. So, the statement is TRUE.



technological developments=information technologies


23. To reduce production costs, some industries have been moved closer to their relevant customers.

Keywords: reduce costs, closer to customers

In  paragraph  B,  “This  phenomenon  has  been  emphasized  by  the  relocation  of  some  industries, particularly those which are labour intensive, to reduce production costs, even though the production site  is  hundreds  or  even  thousands  of  kilometres  away  from  the  final  assembly  or  away  from customers.” This means that some industries are moved much far away from their relevant customers.

So, the statement is FALSE.



24. Cars are prohibitively expensive in some EU candidate countries.

Keywords: prohibitively expensive, candidate countries.

“EU candidate countries” are only mentioned in paragraph C. But the author does not provide any information about the price of these countries‟ cars or indicate whether they are expensive or not. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.


25. The Gothenburg European Council was set up 30 years ago.

Keywords: 30 years ago

“The Gothenburg European Council” only appears in paragraph D, but the author does not mention when it was established or how long it has been  in existence. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.


26. By the end of this decade, CO2 emissions from transport are predicted to reach 739 billion tonnes.

Keywords: the end of this decade, 739 billion tonnes.

In  paragraph  E,  the  author  argues  that  “…,  CO2  emissions  from  transport  can  be  expected  to increase by 50% to 1,113 billion tonnes, compared with the 739 billion tonnes recorded in 1990.”So, 739  billion  tonnes  is  the  figure  for  CO2  emissions  in  1990,  not  “by  the  end  of  this  decade”.  The statement is FALSE.

are predicted to=can be expected to



cambridge ielts 10 reading test 1 passage 2
cambridge ielts 10 reading test 1 passage 2

Passage 3: The psychology of innovation

Paragraph 1:  Innovation is key to….

Paragraph 2:  For Robert B. Cialdini….

Paragraph 3:  One of the most famous….

Paragraph 4:  The value fit matters….

Paragraph 5:  Managing innovation….

Paragraph 6:  Cialdini believes that….

Paragraph 7:  Teamwork taps into….

Paragraph 8:  Writing, visualising….

Paragraph 9:  Authority doesn‟t have….

Paragraph 10:  At the other end….

Paragraph 11:  Many theorists believe….

Questions 27-30: Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

27. The example of the “million-dollar quartet” underlines the writer’s point about

A.recognising talent

B.working as a team

C.having a shared objective

D.being an effective leader


Keywords: the “million-dollar quartet”

In paragraph 3, the author indicates that while four people in the picture “million-dollar quartet” who  are  Presley,  Cash,  Perkins  and  Lewis  understood  and  believed  in  Phillips’s  ambition  of revolutionising popular music, Roy Orbision who was not in the picture wasn’t inspired by this goal. Therefore, the example of the picture emphasizes the author’s point about “having a shared objective”

28. James Watson suggests that he and Francis Crick won the race to discover the DNA code because they

A.were conscious of their own limitations

B.brought complementary skills to their partnership

C.were determined to outperform their brighter rivals

D.encouraged each other to realise their joint ambition


Keywords: discover the DNA code

At the end of paragraph 6,   “he (James Watson) and Crick had succeeded because they were aware that they weren‟t the most intelligent of the scientists pursuing the answer. The smartest scientist was called  Rosalind  Franklin  who  was  so  intelligent  she  rarely  sought  advice.”  This  means  that  unlike Franklin who was too intelligent to need the help of others , James Watson and Crick knew they had limitations; therefore, they cooperated with each other and successfully discovered the DNA code.

29. The writer mentions competitions on breakfast cereal packets as an example of how to

A.inspire creative thinking

B.generate concise writing

C.promote loyalty to a group

D.strengthen commitment to an idea


Keywords: competitions, cereal packets

In paragraph 8,”…even something as simple as writing deepens every individual’s engagement in the  project”.  Then,  the  writer  mentions  “competitions  on  breakfast  cereal  packets”  as  an  example  to support  this  finding.  So,  the  example  is  mentioned  to  deepen  every  individual’s  commitment  to an idea.


commitment to=engagement in

30. In the last paragraph, the writer suggests that it is important for employees to

A.be aware of their company’s goals

B.feel that their contributions are valued

C.have respect for their co-workers’ achievements

D.understand why certain management decisions are made


Keywords: important, employees

In  the  last  paragraph,  “Leaders  should  encourage  everyone  to  contribute  and  simultaneously assure all concerned that every recommendation is important to making the right decision and will be given full attention.”

Questions 31-35: Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-G, below.

31. Employees whose values match those of their employers are more likely to

Keywords: values, match.

In paragraph 2, the writer argues that “Research shows that the fit between an employee‟s values and a company’s values makes difference to what contribution they make and whether they’re still at the company”. This means that the value fit has an influence on whether employees remain in their jobs or not.


32. At times of change, people tend to

In paragraph 4, the author mentions that “when things change, we are hard-wired to play it safe.” This means that when there are changes, people will, of course, avoid risks.

play it safe=avoid risk


33. If people are aware of what they might lose, they will often

Keywords: aware, lose

At the end of paragraph 4, “studies show that we invariably take more gambles when threatened with a loss than when offered a reward”. This means that when threatened with a loss, people will take chances.

take gambles=take chances


34. People working under a dominant boss are liable to

Keywords: dominant boss, liable to

In  paragraph  9,   Cialdini  says  “crew  members  of  multi pilot  aircraft  exhibit  a  sometimes  deadly passivity when the flight captain makes a clearly wrong-headed decision. This behaviour is not unique to  air  travel,  but  can  happen  in  any  workplace  where  the  leader  is  overbearing.”  This  means  that people working under an overbearing boss tend to be more passive.   In other words, they are liable to ignore their duties.


liable to=can happen


35. Employees working in organisations with few rules are more likely to

Keywords: few rules

In paragraph 10, the writer indicates that the environment “where the only rule was that there were no  rules”  …  “encouraged  a  free  interchange  of  ideas…”  This  means  that  employees  working  in  organisations with few rules are more likely to share their ideas.



Questions 36-40: Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage?

36. The physical surroundings in which a person works play a key role in determining their creativity.

Keywords: surroundings, determining creativity

In  the  first  paragraph,  “There  are,  nevertheless,  people  working  in  luxurious,  state-of-the-art centres designed to stimulate innovation who find that their environment doesn‟t make them feel at all creative. And there are those who don’t have a budget, or much space, but who innovate successfully.” This means that the physical surroundings where a person works does not influence their creativity.


37. Most people have the potential to be creative

Keywords: potential, creative

At the end of paragraph 2, “although some  individuals may be more creative than others, almost every individual can be creative in the right circumstances.”

most people=almost every individual

have the potential=can


38. Teams work best when their members are of equally matched intelligence.

Keywords: best, equally matched intelligence

Paragraph  7  deals  with  teamwork.  Obviously,  the  writer  does  not  mention  the  productiveness  of teamwork when team members are equally intelligent. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN


39. It is easier for smaller companies to be innovative

Keywords: easier, smaller companies, innovative

In  paragraph  5,  the  author  just  argues  that  “It’s  easy  for  a  company  to  be  pulled  in  conflicting directions as the marketing, product development, and finance departments each get different feedback from different sets of people” and “it’s also easy for small “pockets of innovation‟ to disappear”. As a result, whether it is easier for smaller companies to be innovative or not is NOT GIVEN


40. A manager’s approval of an idea is more persuasive than that of a colleague.

Keywords: manager’s approval, more persuasive

At  the  end  of  paragraph  6,  research  shows  that  “peer  power,  used  horizontally not  vertically,  is much more powerful than any boss’s speech.”


persuasive ~ powerful




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