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Passage 1: Stepwells
Paragraph 1: During the sixth and seventh…
Paragraph 2: Unique to this region…
Paragraph 3: As their name suggests…
Paragraph 4: Some wells….
Paragraph 5: Down the centuries…
Paragraph 6: However, some important sites…
Paragraph 7: In Patan….
Paragraph 8: Another example is….
Paragraph 9: Rajasthan….
Paragraph 10: In the old ruined town…
Paragraph 11: Still in public use…
Paragraph 12: Today….
Questions 1–5: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?
1. Examples of an ancient stepwells can be found all over the world.
=> ANSWER: FALSE
Keywords: ancient stepwells, all over the world
At the beginning of paragraph 2, the author says “Unique to this region, stepwells are…”, then he continues “Most stepwells are found dotted round the desert areas of Gujarat and Rajasthan, while a few also survive in Delhi”. This means that stepwells are typical of Gujarat, Rajasthan and Delhi, they can only be found at such places, not all over the world. So, the statement is FALSE.
2.Stepwells had a range of functions, in addition to those related to water collection.
Keywords: a range of functions
In paragraph 2, the author indicates that “During their heyday, they (stepwells) were places of gathering of leisure and relaxation and of worship for villagers of all but the lowest classes.” Then, he continues “Some were located in or near villages as public spaces for the community; others were positioned beside roads as resting places for travelers.” So, besides the function of collecting water which is mentioned in paragraph 1, stepwells had many other functions. As a result, the statement is TRUE.
3. The few existing stepwells in Delhi are more attractive than those found elsewhere.
= > ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
Keywords: stepwells in Delhi, more attractive.
In paragraph 2, the author lists some places where stepwells can be found, and he mentions that “a few also survive in Delhi”. However, he does not compare the attractiveness of stepwells in Delhi and in other places. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.
4. It took workers many years to build the stone steps characteristic of stepwells.
=> ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
Keywords: many years, stone steps
Only paragraphs 3 and 4 refer to stone steps, so we should focus on them. However, paragraph indicates whether it took workers many years to build stone steps or not. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.
5. The number of steps above the water level in a stepwell altered during the course of a year.
=> ANSWER: TRUE
Keywords: steps, water level, altered
In paragraph 3, the author writes “When the water level was high, the user needed only to descend a few steps to reach it; when it was low, several levels would have to be negotiated.” This means that the water level changed during the year, which means that the number of steps above the water level changed, too. So, the statement is TRUE.
Questions 6–8: Answer the questions below. Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
6.Which part of some stepwells provided shade for people?
The author describes stepwells in paragraph 4, so we should focus on this paragraph first. He says “Built from stone and supported by pillars, they (stepwells) also included pavilions that sheltered visitors from the relentless heat.”
- shade=shelter from the heat
=> ANSWER: pavilions
7. What type of serious climatic event, which took place in southern Rajasthan, is mentioned in the article?
Keywords: climatic event, southern Rajasthan
“Southern Rajasthan” is mentioned for the first time in paragraph 5, so we will focus on this paragraph first. At the end of paragraph 5, the author indicates that “southern Rajasthan suffered an eight-year drought between 1996 and 2004”
=> ANSWER: drought
8.Who are frequent visitors to stepwells nowadays?
Keywords: frequent visitors, nowadays
We should find out the paragraph that contains the information about stepwells today. In the last paragraph, the author argues that “Touristsflock to wells in far-flung corners of north-western India to gaze in wonder at these architectural marvels from hundreds of years ago…” This means that nowadays, a huge number of tourists visit India to gaze at these wells.
=> ANSWER: tourists
Questions 9-13: Complete the table below. Choose ONE WORD AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.
9-13.We will focus on paragraphs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, each of which describes a well-known well. Locate the paragraphs which give the different place names and pay attention to dates and numbers in the text, too.
9.Excellent condition, despite the….of 2001.
Keywords: 2001, excellent.
At the end of paragraph 7 , “Incredibly, in January 2001, this ancient structure survived an earthquake that measured 7.6 on the Richter scale”. This means that despite the earthquake in 2001,the stepwell of Rani Ki Vav was still in excellent condition.
=> ANSWER: earthquake
10. Steps on the….produce a geometrical pattern.
11. Looks more like a… than a well.
Keywords: steps, geometrical pattern/ more like/
In paragraph 8, “It actually resembles a tank rather than a well, but displays the hallmarks of stepwell architecture, including four sides of steps (that descend to the bottom) in a stunning geometrical formation.” This means that the stepwell of Surya Kund looks more like a tank. Besides, it is the steps on the four sides that create a geometrical formation (pattern)
10. 4 sides (As only ONE word AND/OR A number is accepted, so “four sides” is the wrong answer) ; 11. tank
12. Has…which provide a view of the steps.
At the end of paragraph 10 , “On the fourth side, verandas (which are supported by ornate pillars) overlook the steps”
provide a view of = overlook
=> ANSWER: verandas
13. Has two….levels
Keywords: Two, levels
In paragraph 11 , the author argues that “Constructed in around 1700, it is nine storeys deep, with the last two being underwater.”
=> ANSWER: underwater
Passage 2: European Transport Systems 1990 – 2010
Questions 14-21: Reading Passage 2 has nine paragraphs, A-I.
14. Paragraph A
In paragraph A, the author says “Although modern information technologies can reduce the demand for physical transport by facilitating teleworking and teleservices, the requirement for transport continues to rise.” The main idea is “the requirement for transport continues to rise”. To support this main idea, the author gives two factors, one of which is “the spectacular growth in car use”. So, the correct heading for paragraph A is viii.
=> ANSWER: viii: The rapid growth of private transport
the rapid growth=the spectacular growth
private transport = car
15. Paragraph B
In paragraph B, the first sentence is also the main idea “As far as goods transport is concerned, growth is due to a large extent to changes in the European economy and its system of production. ” Then, the author indicates that these changes cause some production sites to be relocated far away from the final assembly plant or away from users – perhaps even „hundreds or even thousands of kilometres away‟. This means that these changes affect the transport distances. So, the correct heading for paragraph B is iii.
=> ANSWER: iii: Changes affecting the distances goods may be transported
16. Paragraph C
In paragraph C, the author provides many transport statistics, or transport trends, in some countries which are “candidates for entry to the EU”. The trends include an increase in road haulage and a decrease in rail haulage. These countries are awaiting admission to become members of the EU. So, the correct heading for paragraph C is xi
=> ANSWER: xi: Transport trends in the countries awaiting EU admission.
17. Paragraph D
In paragraph D, “A new imperative – sustainable development- offers an opportunity for adapting the EU’s common transport policy.” So, this paragraph is about a long-term objective which is new and important for adapting the EU’s common transport policy. The correct heading for paragraph D is i.
( Note: Dictionaries generally define an ‘imperative’ [NOUN] as an essential duty that should be done. In this sense, and in this context, we can say that ‘promoting sustainable development’ is a duty which the EU hope to fulfil. This is very similar to a ‘goal’ or ‘objective’, although it is not an exact synonym.)
So, goal=imperative. Meaning: a duty which the EU aims to fulfil as a future objective – changing transport policy to make it more sustainable.)
long-term = sustainable
=>ANSWER: i: A fresh and important long-term goal
18. Paragraph E
In paragraph E, the effect of energy consumption in the transport sector on the environment is mentioned. Specifically, CO2 emissions are estimated to increase by 50% by 2020 due to the traffic growth trend, and road transport is also the main cause of CO2 emissions attributable to transport.
Finding some solutions is an “ecological necessity”. So, The correct heading for paragraph E is v.
environmental = ecological
=> ANSWER: v: The environmental costs of road transport.
19. Paragraph G
In paragraph E, the author emphasizes the importance of achieving transport rebalance; therefore, paragraph G details the first solution which focuses on road transport solely through pricing. In the short term, this approach might “curb the growth in road transport”. So, the correct heading for paragraph G is x.
charging = pricing
alone = solely
restrict = curb
=> ANSWER: x: Restricting road use through charging policies alone
20. Paragraph H
Paragraph H is about the second solution to achieve transport balance. This approach “concentrates on road transport pricing but is accompanied by measures to increase the efficiency of the other modes (better quality of services, logistics, technology.)”. So, the correct heading for paragraph H is ii.
improve=increase the efficiency of
transport methods=transport modes
=> ANSWER: ii: Charging for roads and improving other transport methods
21. Paragraph I
In paragraph I, “the third approach comprises a series of measures ranging from pricing to revitalising alternative modes of transport and targeting investment in the trans-European network”. This means that the third approach may change transport patterns. So, the correct heading for paragraph I is iv.
=>ANSWER: iv: Taking all the necessary steps to change transport patterns.
Questions 22-26: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?
22. The need for transport is growing, despite technological developments.
Keywords: growing, technological developments.
In paragraph A, “Although modern information technologies can reduce the demand for physical transport by facilitating teleworking and teleservices, the requirement for transport continues to rise.” The main idea is “the requirement for transport continues to rise”. So, the statement is TRUE.
technological developments=information technologies
23. To reduce production costs, some industries have been moved closer to their relevant customers.
Keywords: reduce costs, closer to customers
In paragraph B, “This phenomenon has been emphasized by the relocation of some industries, particularly those which are labour intensive, to reduce production costs, even though the production site is hundreds or even thousands of kilometres away from the final assembly or away from customers.” This means that some industries are moved much far away from their relevant customers.
So, the statement is FALSE.
=> ANSWER: FALSE
24. Cars are prohibitively expensive in some EU candidate countries.
Keywords: prohibitively expensive, candidate countries.
“EU candidate countries” are only mentioned in paragraph C. But the author does not provide any information about the price of these countries‟ cars or indicate whether they are expensive or not. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.
=> ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
25. The Gothenburg European Council was set up 30 years ago.
Keywords: 30 years ago
“The Gothenburg European Council” only appears in paragraph D, but the author does not mention when it was established or how long it has been in existence. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
26. By the end of this decade, CO2 emissions from transport are predicted to reach 739 billion tonnes.
Keywords: the end of this decade, 739 billion tonnes.
In paragraph E, the author argues that “…, CO2 emissions from transport can be expected to increase by 50% to 1,113 billion tonnes, compared with the 739 billion tonnes recorded in 1990.”So, 739 billion tonnes is the figure for CO2 emissions in 1990, not “by the end of this decade”. The statement is FALSE.
are predicted to=can be expected to
Passage 3: The psychology of innovation
Paragraph 1: Innovation is key to….
Paragraph 2: For Robert B. Cialdini….
Paragraph 3: One of the most famous….
Paragraph 4: The value fit matters….
Paragraph 5: Managing innovation….
Paragraph 6: Cialdini believes that….
Paragraph 7: Teamwork taps into….
Paragraph 8: Writing, visualising….
Paragraph 9: Authority doesn‟t have….
Paragraph 10: At the other end….
Paragraph 11: Many theorists believe….
Questions 27-30: Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
27. The example of the “million-dollar quartet” underlines the writer’s point about
B.working as a team
C.having a shared objective
D.being an effective leader
Keywords: the “million-dollar quartet”
In paragraph 3, the author indicates that while four people in the picture “million-dollar quartet” who are Presley, Cash, Perkins and Lewis understood and believed in Phillips’s ambition of revolutionising popular music, Roy Orbision who was not in the picture wasn’t inspired by this goal. Therefore, the example of the picture emphasizes the author’s point about “having a shared objective”
28. James Watson suggests that he and Francis Crick won the race to discover the DNA code because they
A.were conscious of their own limitations
B.brought complementary skills to their partnership
C.were determined to outperform their brighter rivals
D.encouraged each other to realise their joint ambition
=> ANSWER: A
Keywords: discover the DNA code
At the end of paragraph 6, “he (James Watson) and Crick had succeeded because they were aware that they weren‟t the most intelligent of the scientists pursuing the answer. The smartest scientist was called Rosalind Franklin who was so intelligent she rarely sought advice.” This means that unlike Franklin who was too intelligent to need the help of others , James Watson and Crick knew they had limitations; therefore, they cooperated with each other and successfully discovered the DNA code.
29. The writer mentions competitions on breakfast cereal packets as an example of how to
A.inspire creative thinking
B.generate concise writing
C.promote loyalty to a group
D.strengthen commitment to an idea
Keywords: competitions, cereal packets
In paragraph 8,”…even something as simple as writing deepens every individual’s engagement in the project”. Then, the writer mentions “competitions on breakfast cereal packets” as an example to support this finding. So, the example is mentioned to deepen every individual’s commitment to an idea.
commitment to=engagement in
30. In the last paragraph, the writer suggests that it is important for employees to
A.be aware of their company’s goals
B.feel that their contributions are valued
C.have respect for their co-workers’ achievements
D.understand why certain management decisions are made
Keywords: important, employees
In the last paragraph, “Leaders should encourage everyone to contribute and simultaneously assure all concerned that every recommendation is important to making the right decision and will be given full attention.”
Questions 31-35: Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-G, below.
31. Employees whose values match those of their employers are more likely to
Keywords: values, match.
In paragraph 2, the writer argues that “Research shows that the fit between an employee‟s values and a company’s values makes difference to what contribution they make and whether they’re still at the company”. This means that the value fit has an influence on whether employees remain in their jobs or not.
=> ANSWER: G
32. At times of change, people tend to
In paragraph 4, the author mentions that “when things change, we are hard-wired to play it safe.” This means that when there are changes, people will, of course, avoid risks.
play it safe=avoid risk
33. If people are aware of what they might lose, they will often
Keywords: aware, lose
At the end of paragraph 4, “studies show that we invariably take more gambles when threatened with a loss than when offered a reward”. This means that when threatened with a loss, people will take chances.
take gambles=take chances
=> ANSWER: A
34. People working under a dominant boss are liable to
Keywords: dominant boss, liable to
In paragraph 9, Cialdini says “crew members of multi pilot aircraft exhibit a sometimes deadly passivity when the flight captain makes a clearly wrong-headed decision. This behaviour is not unique to air travel, but can happen in any workplace where the leader is overbearing.” This means that people working under an overbearing boss tend to be more passive. In other words, they are liable to ignore their duties.
liable to=can happen
35. Employees working in organisations with few rules are more likely to
Keywords: few rules
In paragraph 10, the writer indicates that the environment “where the only rule was that there were no rules” … “encouraged a free interchange of ideas…” This means that employees working in organisations with few rules are more likely to share their ideas.
Questions 36-40: Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage?
36. The physical surroundings in which a person works play a key role in determining their creativity.
Keywords: surroundings, determining creativity
In the first paragraph, “There are, nevertheless, people working in luxurious, state-of-the-art centres designed to stimulate innovation who find that their environment doesn‟t make them feel at all creative. And there are those who don’t have a budget, or much space, but who innovate successfully.” This means that the physical surroundings where a person works does not influence their creativity.
37. Most people have the potential to be creative
Keywords: potential, creative
At the end of paragraph 2, “although some individuals may be more creative than others, almost every individual can be creative in the right circumstances.”
most people=almost every individual
have the potential=can
=> ANSWER: YES
38. Teams work best when their members are of equally matched intelligence.
Keywords: best, equally matched intelligence
Paragraph 7 deals with teamwork. Obviously, the writer does not mention the productiveness of teamwork when team members are equally intelligent. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
39. It is easier for smaller companies to be innovative
Keywords: easier, smaller companies, innovative
In paragraph 5, the author just argues that “It’s easy for a company to be pulled in conflicting directions as the marketing, product development, and finance departments each get different feedback from different sets of people” and “it’s also easy for small “pockets of innovation‟ to disappear”. As a result, whether it is easier for smaller companies to be innovative or not is NOT GIVEN
=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN
40. A manager’s approval of an idea is more persuasive than that of a colleague.
Keywords: manager’s approval, more persuasive
At the end of paragraph 6, research shows that “peer power, used horizontally not vertically, is much more powerful than any boss’s speech.”
persuasive ~ powerful