Questions 1-4:   Which paragraph contains the following information:

  1. Details of the range of family types involved in an education programme

Keywords: details, family types, education programme

In paragraph 6 in  Section D, the writer describes  in  detail  some types of  families, based on  their typical  socio-economic  status  and  age  characteristics:  “The four-year  pilot  study  included  380 families who were about to have their first child and who  represented a cross-section of socio- economic status, age and family configurations. They included single-parent and two-parent families,  families  in  which  both  parents  worked,  and  families  with  either  the  mother  or father at home.”

+ four-year pilot study: a trial survey or study programme carried out over 4 years.

+ cross-section: typical, notable example


  1. Reasons why a child’s early years are so important

Keywords: reasons, child‟s early years, important.

In paragraph 2, Section B, the writer reports that: “by the age of three, most children have the potential  to  understand  about  1000  words  –  most  of  the  language  they  will  use  in  ordinary conversation for the rest of their lives”. This means that language is developed from the very early years of a child. In  paragraph  3,  Section  B,  the  writer  continues  to  argue  that:  “Furthermore,  research  has  shown that while every child is born with a natural curiosity, it can be suppressed dramatically during the second  and  the  third  years  of  life.  Researchers  claim  that  the  human  personality  is  formed during  the  first  two  years  of  life,  and  during  the  first  three  years  children  learn  the  basic skills they will use in all their later learning both at home and at school. Once over the age of three, children continue to expand on existing knowledge of the world”. So, human personality and basic skills are developed in the first two or three  years of life. We see that the child’s early years are so important because their language, personality and skills are formed in this period.


  1. Reasons why an education programme failed

Keywords: reasons, educational programme, failed

Paragraph  4,  Section  C  says  about  an  educational  programme:  “In  an  attempt  to  overcome  that educational  under-achievement,  a  nationwide  programme  called  „Headstart‟  was  launched  in the United States in 1965. A lot of money was poured into it.  It took children into pre-school institutions  at  the  age  of  three  and  was  supposed  to  help  the  children  of  poorer  families succeed in school” Paragraph 5, Section C explains why the programme failed: “Despite substantial funding,  results have  been  disappointing.  It  is  thought  that  there  are  two  explanations  for  this.  First,  the programme began too late.  Many children who entered it at the age of three were already behind their peers in language and measurable intelligence.  Second, the parents were not involved. At the end of each day, “Headstart” children returned to the same disadvantaged home environment.”

+ failed = results have been disappointing

+ reasons = two explanations for this


  1. A description of the positive outcomes of an education programme

Keywords: description, positive, outcomes, programme

In  papragraph 9,  Section  E,  the  writer  says  about  the  “Missouri”  programme  and  its  outcome:

“The  results  were  phenomenal.  By  the  age  of  three,  the  children  in  the  programme  were significantly  more  advanced  in  language  development  than  their  peers,  had  made  greater strides  in  problem  solving  and  other  intellectual  skills,  and  were  further  along  in  social development. In fact, the average child on the programme was performing at the level of the top 15  to  20  per  cent  of  their  peers  in  such  things  as  auditory  comprehension  verbal  ability  and language ability”.

outcomes = results. Positive  outcomes  included  more  significantly  advanced  language  development,  greater  strides in problem solving and intellectual skills, and further social development.


Questions 5-10:   Write the correct letter A, B, C, or D.

  1. the “Headstart” programme
  2. the “Missouri” programme
  3. both the “Headstart” and the “Missouri” programmes
  4. neither the  “Headstart” nor the “Headstart” programme
  1. Was administered to a variety of poor and wealthy families

Keywords: administered, variety,  poor, wealthy families

Section  D  discusses  the  „Missouri‟  programme.   In  paragraph   6  in  Section  D,  the  writer  says  that: “The  four-year  pilot  study  included  380  families  who  were  about  to  have  their  first  child  and  who represented a cross-section of socio-economic status, age and family configurations.” a variety of poor and wealthy families = a cross-section of socio-economic status

And  in  paragraph  9  in  Section  E,  the  writer  states  that  “At  the  age  of  three,  the  children  who  had been  involved  in  the  „Missouri‟  programme  were  evaluated  alongside  a  cross-section  of  children selected from the same range of socio-economic backgrounds and family situations”


  1. Continued with follow-up assistance in elementary schools

Keywords: follow-up assistance, elementary schools.

Both the “Headstart” and “Missouri” programmes focused on children’s early education before the age of  three.    So  neither  “Headstart” nor  “Missouri” continued  with  further  assistance  in  elementary schools.


  1. Did not succeed in its aim

Keywords: not succeed, aim

Paragraph  5  of  Section  C  reports  on  the  „Headstart‟  programme  and  its  failure:  “Despite  substantial funding, results have been disappointing”.

+ not succeed in its aim = results have been disappointing


  1. Dupplied many forms of support and training to parents

Keywords: support, training, parents

We can see that “Headstart” did not provide support and training to parents, as stated in paragraph 5, Section C that: “Second, the parents were not involved. At the end of each day, “Headstart” children returned to the same disadvantaged home environment”.

The parents were not involved: parents were not the subject of the programme. „Headstart‟ only took children at the age of three to pre-school institutions and taught them in schools. However, the “Missouri” programme offered support and training to parents, as indicated in paragraphs 6 and 7, Section D:   “a pilot programme was launched in Missouri in the US that focused on parents as  the  child’s  first  teachers…  The  programme  involved  trained  parent-educators  visiting  the parent’s  home  and  working  with  the  parent,  or  parents,  and  the  child.  Information  on  child development, and  guidance on  things to look  for and  expect as the  child  grows were provided, plus guidance in fostering the child’s intellectual, language, social and motor-skill development.”


  1. Received insufficient funding

Keywords: insufficient, funding

In paragraphs 4 and 5, the writer says that “Headstart” received substantial funding: “A lot of money was poured into it”. “Missouri”  also  gained  a  lot  of  funding,  as  described  in  paragraph  6,  Section  D:   “As  a  result  of  the growing  research  evidence  of  the  importance  of  the  first  three  years  of  a  child’s  life  and  the disappointing  results  from  that “Headstart” a  pilot  programme  was  launched  in  Missouri  in  the  US  that focused on parents as the child’s first teachers”.   “Missouri”  provided a lot of guidance and support to parents and the children, so it could not have received insufficient funding.


  1. Was designed to improve pre-schooler’s educational development

Keywords: improve, pre-schooler’s education development

Paragraph  6,  Section  D  says  that  “Missouri”  “included  380  families  who  were  about  to  have  their first  child”  and  this  programme  lasted  in  4  years.    During  these  4  years,  the  programme  offered training  and  support  to  the  parents  and  medical  check-ups  for  the  children.  So  this  programme  was designed to improve the pre-schooler’s educational development. Pre-school education : children’s education before 3 – the age of going to school. In   paragraph   4,   Section   C,   the   writer   states   that   “Headstart” “took   children   into   pre-school institutions at the age of three and was supposed to help the children of poorer families succeed in school.”


Questions 11-13:   TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN

  1. Most  “Missouri”  programme  three-year-olds  scored  highly  in  areas  such  as  listening,  speaking, reasoning and interacting with others.

Keywords: Missouri, scored highly, listening, speaking, reasoning, interacting

Paragraph 9, Section E reports on the results of the “Missouri”  programme. It states that:   “By the age of   three,   the   children   in   the   programme   were   significantly   more   advanced   in   language development  than  their  peers,  had  made  greater  strides  in  problem  solving  and  other  intellectual skills, and were further along in social development.”

+ scored highly = advanced


  1. “Missouri”  programme  children  of  young,  uneducated,  single  parents  scored  less  highly  on  the tests.

Keywords: Missouri, young, uneducated, single, less highly

In paragraph 10, the writer argues that:  “Most important of all, the traditional measures of “risk”, such as parent’s age and education, or whether they were a single parent, bore little or no relationship to the measures of achievement and language development. Children in the programme performed equally well regardless of socio-economic disadvantages.” Children  of  young,  uneducated,  single  parents  are  examples  of  children  who  have  socio-economic disadvantages.

+ scored less highly >< performed equally well


  1. The richer families in the „Missouri‟ programme had higher stress levels.

Keywords: richer, families, Missouri, higher, stress

Paragraph 10,  Section E  says that  ” The one factor that was found to  affect  the child‟s development was  family  stress  leading  to  a  poor  quality  of  parent-child  interaction.  That  interaction  was  not necessarily  bad  in  poorer  families”.  This  means  that  both  poor  and  rich  families  may  suffer  from stress,  which  will  affect  the  interaction  between  parents  and  the  child.  However,  the  writer  does  not say that richer families had higher stress levels than poor families.



Questions 14-17:  Choose the correct heading

  1. iv.  Interrupting a natural process

Keywords: interrupting, natural process

In paragraph B, the writer describes the loss/changes of the sediment that used to flow down the river when  the  two  dams  at  Aswan  were  built.  “Before  the  dams  were  built,  the  Nile  flowed  freely, carrying huge quantities of sediment north from Africa’s interior to be deposited on the Nile delta. This  continued  for  7,000  years”,  …But  when  the  Aswan  dams  were  constructed  in  the  20 century  to  provide  electricity  and  irrigation  ¼.  most  of  the  sediment  with  its  natural  fertilizer accumulated up above the dam in the southern, upstream half of Lake Nasser, instead of passing down  to  the  delta.”  So,  paragraph  B  describes  the  natural  process  of  sedimentation  and  this  was interrupted by the construction of the two dams, which resulted in serious impacts.


  1. i. Effects of irrigation on sedimentation

Keywords: effects, irrigation, sedimentation

In paragraph D, the writer says that:   “The water in the irrigation canals is still or very slow-moving and thus cannot carry sediment … The sediment sinks to the bottom of the canals and then is added to fields by farmers or pumped with the water into the four large freshwater lagoons that are located near the outer edges of the delta.   So very little of it actually reaches the coastline to replace what is being washed away by the Mediterranean currents.”

+ effects = thus, so

=>ANSWER:   i

  1. v. The threat to food production

Keywords: threat, food, production

In paragraph E, the writer describes the impacts  on the food supply:   “The farms on the delta plains and fishing and aquaculture in the lagoons account for much of Egypt‟s food supply.  But by the time the  sediment  has  come  to  rest  in  the  fields  and  lagoons  it  is  loaded  with  municipal,  industrial  and agricultural  waste…These  poisons  can  easily  enter  the  food  chain,  affecting  the  productivity  of fishing and farming.”

+ food production = food chain, food supply


  1. viii. Looking at the long-term impact

Keywords: long-term, impact

In paragraph F, the writer discusses whether a short-term or long-term

iii. Causing pollution in the Mediterranean. Paragraph E refers to the pollution /impacts on the food supply of Egypt, not about the pollution in the Mediterranean.=>iii is incorrect

  1. Less valuable sediment than before. At the end of paragraph  D, the writer says that “So very little of  it  actually reaches the  coastline  to replace  what  is  being  washed  away  by  the  Mediterranean  currents”.  The  writer  only  says  that  the amount  of  sediment  to  the  coastline  has  reduced,  although  it  has  now  accumulated  in  a  different region, according to paragraph B. Solution would be suitable for Egypt. He prefers a long-term solution when looking at the long-term impact: “But there are no easy solutions.  In  the  immediate  future,  Stanley  believes  that  one  solution  would  be  to  make  artificial floods to flush out the delta waterways, in the same way that natural floods did before the construction of the dams. He says, however, that in the long term an alternative process such as desalination may have to be used to increase the amount of water available”.

=>ANSWER:   Viii

Explanation for other headings:

  1. The danger of flooding the Cairo area

Paragraph B mentions that one of the dam construction‟s purposes is to protect “the huge population centre  of  Cairo  and  its  surrounding  areas  from  annual  flooding  and  drought”.   However,  it  does  not refer to the danger of flooding in the Cairo area.

=>ii is incorrect

=>vi is incorrect

Questions 18 -23:  YES/ NO/ NOT GIVEN

  1. Coastal  erosion  occurred  along  Egypt‟s  Mediterranean  coast  before  the  building  of  the  Aswan dams.

Keywords: coastal, erosion, Egypt‟s Mediterranean coast, before, Aswan dams

In paragraph A, the writer says that:   “The fertile land of the Nile delta is being eroded along Egypt’s Mediterranean  coast  at  an  astounding  rate,  in  some  parts  estimated  at  100  metres  per  year.  In  the past,  land  scoured  away  from  the  coastline  by  the  currents  of  the  Mediterranean  Sea  used  to  be replaced by sediment  brought  down to  the delta by the River Nile, but  this is  no longer happening”. This indicates that the coastal erosion had happened in the past, before they built the dams.

+ coastal erosion = land scoured away from the coastline


  1. Some people predicted that the Aswan dams would cause land loss before they were built.

In paragraph   B: ” Up to now, people have blamed this loss of delta land on the two large dams at Aswan in the south of  Egypt which hold back virtually all of the sediment that used to flow down the river”. The writer says: ” people have blamed”,  not predicted.  We do not know if land loss was predicted


  1. The Aswan dams were built to increase the fertility of the Nile delta.

Keywords: dams, built, increase, fertility, delta

In  paragraph  B:    “But  when  the  Aswan  dams  were  constructed  in  the  20th  century  to  provide electricity and irrigation, and to protect the huge population centre of Cairo and its surrounding areas   from  annual   flooding   and   drought,   most   of   the   sediment   with   its   natural   fertilizer accumulated  up  above  the  dam  in  the  southern,  upstream  half  of  Lake  Nasser,  instead  of  passing down  to  the  delta.”.  This  means  that  the  construction  of  the  dams  was  intended  to  prevent  flooding and drought in the Cairo area.  The fertility of the Nile delta actually decreased as a result. + increase the fertility of the delta>< sediment with natural fertilizer accumulated…,instead of passing down the delta


  1. Stanley found that levels of sediment in the river water in Cairo were relatively high.

Keywords:  Stanley, levels of sediment, river water, Cairo, high.

In paragraph C, the writer states that:  “Daniel Jean Stanley of the Smithsonian Institute noticed that water  samples  taken  in  Cairo,  just  before  the  river  enters  the  delta,  indicated  that  the  river sometimes carries more than 850 grams of sediment per cubic metre of water – almost half of what it carried before the dams were built”. And “There is still a lot of sediment coming into the delta, but  virtually  no  sediment  comes  out  into  the  Mediterranean  to  replenish  the  coastline.    So  this sediment must be trapped on the delta itself.”

+ relatively high = still a lot


  1. Sediment in the irrigation canals on the Nile delta causes flooding.

Keywords: sediment, irrigation canals, causes, flooding

In  paragraph  D,  the  writer  says  about  the  sediment  in  the  canal  that:   “The  water  in  the  irrigation canals is still or very slow-moving and   thus cannot carry sediment, Stanley explains”.   And “so very little of it  actually reaches the coastline to  replace what  is  being washed  away by the Mediterranean currents”. However, the writer does not say that the sediment causes flooding.


  1. Water is pumped from the irrigation canals into the lagoons.

In paragraph D, the writer says that:   “Sediment sinks to the bottom of the canals and then is added to fields by farmers or pumped with the water into the four large fresh-water lagoons that are located near the outer edges of the delta”.

+ water is pumped = pumped with the water


Questions 24-26:  Complete the summary of paragraphs E and F

  1. In  addition  to  the  problem  of  coastal  erosion,  there  has  been  a  marked  increase  in  the  level  of ¼contained in the silt deposited in the Nile delta.

Keywords: marked, increase

In   Paragraph   E:”   Pollutants   are   building   up   faster   and   faster‟,   says   Stanley.     Based   on   his investigations of sediment from the delta lagoons, Frederic Siegel of George Washington University concurs.  “In  Manzalah  Lagoon,  for  example,  the  increase  in  mercury,  lead,  copper  and  zinc coincide with the building of the High Dam at Aswan”.

+ a marked increase in pollutants = pollutants are building up faster and faster/The increase in mercury, lead, copper and zinc

=>ANSWER:   [pollutants]

  1. To deal with this, Stanley suggests the use of…in the short term,

Keywords: Stanley, use, short term

In  Paragraph  F,  the  writer  says  that:   “In  the  immediate  future,  Stanley  believes  that  one  solution would  be  to  make  artificial  floods  to  flush  out  the  delta  waterways,  in  the  same  way  that  natural floods did before the construction of the dams”.

+ in the short term = in the immediate future

=>ANSWER:   [artificial floods]

  1. and increasing the amount of water available through …in the longer term

Keywords: increasing, amount of water, longer term

In paragraph F, the writer states that:  “He says, however, that in the long term an alternative process such as desalination may have to be used to increase the amount of water available”.

=>ANSWER:   [desalination]


Questions 27-31:

Which paragraph contains the following information:

  1. How AI might have a military impact

Keywords: how, AI, military impact

In  Paragraph  E,  it  is  stated  that  ”  HNC  claim  that  their  system,  based  on  a  cluster  of  30  processors, could be used to spot camouflaged vehicles on a battlefield or extract a voice signal from a noisy background  –   tasks  humans  can  do  well,  but  computers  cannot”.   So  AI  can  be  used  for  military purposes in order to detect camouflaged vehicles on a battlefield.

+ military = camouflaged vehicles, battlefield


  1. The fact that AI brings together a range of separate research areas

Keywords: AI, together, separate research areas

In Paragraph B, the writer says that:   “The expression provided an attractive but informative name for a research programme that encompassed such previously disparate fields as operations research, cybernetics, logic and computer science.”

+ separate = disparate

+ brings together a range of separate research areas = encompassed such previously disparate fields as operation research, cybernetics, logic and computer science


  1. The reason why AI has become a common topic of conversation again

Keywords: reason, common topic, conversation, again

In   paragraph   A,  the  writer  indicates  that:     “After   years  in   the  wilderness,   the  term   „artificial intelligence‟  (AI)  seems  poised  to  make  a  comeback.  AI  was  big  in  the  1980s  but  vanished  in  the 1990s.  It  re-entered  public consciousness  with the release of  AI, a movie about  a robot  boy. This has  ignited  public debate  about  AI, but  the term  is  also  being used once more within the computer industry”.  This  explains  that  AI  has  become  a  common  topic  of  conversation  again  because  of  the release of AI, a movie about a robot boy.

+ became a topic of conversation again = re-entered public consciousness


  1. How   AI   could   help   deal   with   difficulties   related   to   the   amount   of   information   available electronically.

Keywords: deal with, difficulties, amount of information, electronically

In   paragraph   F,   the   writer   says   that:     “In   particular,   the   problem   of   information   overload, exacerbated by the growth of e-mail and the explosion in the number of web pages, means there are plenty of opportunities for new technologies to help filter and categorise information – classic AI problems.

+ difficulties = problems

+ amount of information available = information overload, i.e. the growth of e-mail and the explosion in the number of web pages


  1. Where the expression AI was first used.

Keywords: where, expression, first, used

In paragraph B, the writer says that:   “The field was launched, and  the term „artificial intelligence‟ coined,  at  a  conference  in  1956  by  a  group  of  researchers  that  included  Marvin  Minsky,  John McCarthy,  Herbert  Simon  and  Alan  Newell,  all  of  whom  went  on  to  become  leading  figures  in  the field.

+ first used = coined

+ the expression AI = the term „Artificial intelligence‟


Questions 32-37:  TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN

  1. The researchers who launched the field of AI had worked together on other projects in the past.

Keywords: researchers, AI, worked together, other projects, past

Paragraph  B  says:    “That  said,  different  groups  of  researchers  attacked  different  problems,  from speech recognition to chess playing, in different  ways; AI unified the field in name only”.  It means that a lot  of researchers  working on different  problems and in  different  ways worked together in  the field of AI, but we do not know if they had worked together on other projects before.


  1. In 1985, AI was at its lowest point.

Keywords: 1985, lowest, point

In paragraph C, the writer says that:  “Most researchers agree that AI peaked around 1985”.

+ lowest point ><peaked


  1. Research into agent technology was more costly than research into neural networks.

Keywords: research, agent, technology, costly, neural, networks

Paragraph   C   states   that:      “Then   when   people   realised   these   were   hard   problems,   there   was retrenchment.  By  the  late  1980s,  the  term  AI  was  being  avoided  by  many  researchers,  who  opted instead   to   align   themselves   with   specific   sub-disciplines   such   as   neural   networks,   agent technology, case-based reasoning, and so on”.

+ retrenchment: cutting down expenses, cost reduction.

+ The  writer  gives  no  information  about  the  cost  comparison  between  research  into  agent  technology and research into neural networks.


  1. Applications of AI have already had a degree of success.

Keywords: AI, degree of success

In  paragraph  C,  we  learn  that:   “Prototypes   of  medical-diagnosis  programs  and  speech-recognition software appeared to be making progress…”   Then, in paragraph D, the writer says that:   “Ironically, in some ways AI was a victim of its own success”. a degree of success = making progress


  1. The problems waiting to be solved by AI have not changed since 1967

Keywords: problems, solved, not changed, 1967

In  paragraph  C,  the  writer  states  that:    “Marvin  Minsky  said  in  1967  that  within  a  generation  the problem  of  creating  „artificial  intelligence‟  would  be  substantially  solved”.    However,  in  fact,  it proved  to  be  a  failure.  Therefore,  “By  the  late  1980,  the  term  AI  was  being  avoided  by  many researchers,  who  opted  instead  to  align  themselves  with  specific  sub-disciplines  such  as  neural networks, agent technology, case-based reasoning, and so on”. Furthermore, in paragraph D, the writer says that ” Meanwhile, the technologies that made it onto the market, such as speech recognition, language translation and decision-support software, were no longer regarded as AI. Yet all three once fell well within the umbrella of AI research.”

three once fell  well  within  the umbrella of  AI research:  speech recognition,  language translation and decision-support software used to be areas of AI research.   But later they were no longer regarded as AI.

=>this evidence shows that problems waiting to be solved by AI have changed since 1967


  1. The film 2001: A Space Odyssey reflected contemporary ideas about the potential of AI computers

Keywords: 2001: A space Odyssey, reflected, ideas, potential, AI computers

In paragraph G, the writer says that “The 1969 film, 2001: A space Odyssey, featured an intelligent computer  called  HAL 9000.  As  well  as  understanding  and  speaking English,  HAL  could  play chess and  even  learned  to  lipread.  HAL  thus  encapsulated  the  optimism  of  the  1960s  that  intelligent computers would be widespread by 2001”.

+ reflected contemporary ideas = encapsulated the optimism of the 1960s


Questions 38-40:  Choose the correct letter

  1. According to researchers, in the late 1980s there was a feeling that¼

B: original expectations of AI may not have been justified.

In  paragraph  C,  the  writer  says  that:    “There  was  undue  optimism  in  the  early  1980s” says  David Leake, a researcher at Indiana University. “Then when people realised there were hard problems, there was retrenchment. By the late 1980s, the term AI was being avoided by many researchers, who opted instead   to align themselves with specific sub-disciplines such as neural networks,   agent technology, case-based reasoning, and so on”.

+ original expectations of AI = overdue optimism in the early 1980s

+ [not] justified = undue

This  means  that  there  was  at  first  optimism  about  the  possibilities  of  AI.   Then,  researchers  and  the public realised in the late 1980s that there were many hard problems to overcome.

=>ANSWER:     B

  1. In Dr Leake’s opinion, the reputation of AI suffered as a result of….
  2. changing perceptions

In paragraph G, the writer says that:  “It may be, however, that the comparison with HAL no longer seems quite so important, and AI  can now be judged by what it can do, rather than by how well it matches up to a 30-year-old science-fiction film. “People are beginning to realise that there are impressive things that these systems can do”, says Dr Leake hopefully”

+ the reputation of AI = judged by how well it matches up to a 30-year old science-fiction film

+ changing perceptions = comparison with HAL no longer seems quite so important

=>ANSWER:    A

  1. The prospects for AI may benefit from….
  2. New investment priorities.

In  paragraph  F,  the  writer  says  that:   “Another  factor  that  may  boost  prospects  for  AI  in  the  near future  is  that  investors  are  looking  for  firms  using  clever  technology,  rather  than  just  a  clever business model, to differentiate themselves.

+ benefit from = factor that may boost

=>ANSWER:     D

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