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Passage 1: Nutmeg – a valuable spice
Questions 1- 4: Complete the notes below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.Write your answer in boxes 1-8 on your answer sheet.
1. Answer: oval
Key words: leaves, shape
Using the scanning skill, we can see that the first paragraph describes the characteristics of the tree in detail, including the leaves, so we would pay attention to this paragraph. It can be seen in the 2nd sentence: “The tree is thickly branched with […], dark green oval leaves, […]” referring first to the colour, and then to the shape, stating that the leaves are oval. Therefore, “oval” is the answer.
2. Answer: husk
Key words: surrounds, fruit, open, ripe
Similarly, fruit is another feature of the tree, so we would still look into in paragraph 1. There are two sentences mentioning fruit: “The fruit is encased in a fleshy husk. When the fruit is ripe, this husk splits into two halves along a ridge running the length of the fruit.” To be “encased” in something” is to be covered completely by something, so it can be understood the other way around that a “fleshy husk” surrounds the fruit. Moreover, “splitting into two halves” is a simple image of “breaking open”, so it is once again confirmed that “husk” is the answer.
to surround = to encase
to break = to split
3. Answer: seed
Key words: produce, spice nutmeg
Although the nutmeg is mentioned in both paragraph 1 and 2, butparagraph 2 is focused on the historical application of the nutmeg, not theorigin different parts of the plant, so we would once again pay attention to paragraph 1. The spice nutmeg is brought up in the last sentence: “These are the sources of the two spices nutmeg and mace, the former being produced from the dried seed and the latter from the aril.” As “the former” refers to the subject that was mentioned first, which, in this case, is the “spices nutmeg”, it can be inferred that the spices nutmeg is produced from the dried seed, revealing the answer to be the “seed”.
4. Answer: mace
Key words: covering, aril, produce
In We find the answer to this question in the same last final sentence thatof paragraph 1 that we look into in found the answer to question 3. “The latter” refers to the subject spice that was mentioned later after nutmeg, which is the “mace”. The previous sentence explains the meaning of the word ‘aril’, which is the red covering surrounding the seed. Note that the key word ‘covering’ is mentioned here. Therefore, it can be understood that the mace is produced from the aril, confirming that our answer is the“mace”.
Questions 5 – 7: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?
5. Answer: FALSE
Key words: Middle Ages, Europeans, knew, grown
Through scanning, we can see that the Middle Ages period is mentioned in paragraph 2, so we would look into this one. “Arabs were the exclusive importers of the spice to Europe”, so it can be understood that they are the only people getting having access to the source of the nutmeg. Moreover, “they never revealed the exact location of the source”, which means that no Europeans, other than the Arabs, know the source of the nutmeg, which is where it was grown. Therefore, this statement is false.
→ Answer: FALSE
6. Answer: NOT GIVEN
Key words: VOC, first, major trading
As the VOC was mentioned only in paragraph 4, this paragraph would be investigated. In this statement, the word “first” refers to the idea that there was no major trading company before the VOC. However, there was no sentence mentioning this; the only sentence emphasizing the position ofdescribing the VOC is that it is was the “richest commercial operation in the world”. not “the first”. We do not know if it was the first trading company, only that it was rich. Therefore, it is not given to confirm whether this statement is true or false. we have no information to confirm if the statement is true or false.
trading company = commercial operation
→ Answer: NOT GIVEN
7. Answer: TRUE
Key words: following, Treaty of Breda, Dutch, control, all, where nutmeg grew
By using the scanning technique, we can see that the Treaty of Breda is brought up referred to in paragraph 5, which mentions how the Dutch and British arrived at the settlement and what happened afterwards. The paragraph shows that the Dutch managed to be “securely in control of the Bandas”, where all nutmeg production was concentrated into easily guarded areas, and “there was no chance a fertile seed which could be grown elsewhere would leave the islands”. which This means that the Banda Islands were the sole islands that where nutmeg grew in, and the Dutch is were fully in control of those, except for only the island of Run. However, through the Treaty of Breda, the ownership of this island of Run was also transferred to the Dutch. Therefore, after the Treaty of Breda, it is true that all the islands where nutmeg grew are were under the control of the Dutch.
→ Answer: TRUE
Questions 8 -13: Complete the table below. Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet.
8. Answer: arabs
Key words: Middle Ages, brought to, Europe
We would look into paragraph 2 where the Middle Ages period was brought up is mentioned. As mentioned, Here, it is stated that “throughout this period, the Arabs were the exclusive importers of the spice to Europe”, which means that the Arabs were the only people that brought nutmeg to Europe in the Middle Ages. Therefore, “Arabs” is the answer here.
→ Answer: Arabs
9. Answer: plague
Key words: 17th century, disease
The 17th century starts from 1600, so we would look into where this period was first mentioned – paragraph 4. In this paragraph, a disease that was called “the plague” was mentioned, which was doctors decided tocould be cured by nutmeg, making everyone want it at the time. Therefore, “plague” is the answer for question 9.
→ Answer: plague
10. Answer: lime
Key words: 17th century, Dutch, avoid, outside, obtained, British
The information on the Dutch protecting its monopoly position wasbrought up is given in paragraph 5. It mentions that “all exported nutmeg was covered with lime to make sure there was no chance a fertile seed which could be grown elsewhere would leave the islands”. It could then be understood that to avoid fertile seed being grown – or cultivated – outside the islands, the Dutch had used lime cover nutmeg, or in other words, put lime on nutmeg. Therefore, “lime” is the answer to question 10. Additionally, was We can now find the answer to question 11. It is mentioned that although the Dutch was were in control of the Banda Islands, one of them islands – called Run – was under the control of the British. which was called Run. After the trade exchange offered by the Dutch, the British gave the island of Run to them. It can therefore be said that the Dutch finally obtained the island of Run from the British.
cultivated = grown
→ Answers: lime – Run
11. Answer: run
Key words: 17th century, Dutch, avoid, outside, obtained, British
The information on the Dutch protecting its monopoly position is given in paragraph 5. It mentions that “all exported nutmeg was covered with lime to make sure there was no chance a fertile seed which could be grown elsewhere would leave the islands”. It could then be understood that to avoid fertile seed being grown – or cultivated – outside the islands, the Dutch used lime to cover nutmeg, or in other words, put lime on nutmeg. Therefore, “lime” is the answer to question 10. We can now find the answer to question 11. It is mentioned that although the Dutch were in control of the Banda Islands, one of the islands – called Run – was under the control of the British. After the exchange offered by the Dutch, the British gave the island of Run to them. It can therefore be said that the Dutch finally obtained the island of Run from the British.
- cultivated = grown
→ Answers: lime – Run
12. Answer: mauritius
Key words: 1770, secretly taken
As 1770 was is mentioned in paragraph 6, we would investigate this paragraph. It states that: “a Frenchman … smuggled nutmeg plants to safety in Mauritius”. “Smuggle” means to steal or to take something secretly, so this is the piece of information we are looking for. Therefore, Mauritius is our answer to question 12.
- secretly taken = smuggle
→ Answer: Mauritius
13. Answer: tsunami
Key words: 1778, half, Banda Islands, destroyed
An event in 1778 was is mentioned in paragraph 6: “a volcanic eruption in the Banda region caused a tsunami that wiped out half the nutmeg groves”. “Wipe out” has the same meaning with as “destroy”, and it can be understood that the tsunami is was the direct cause of this event. Therefore, tsunami is the missing word here.
- destroy = wipe out
→ Answer: tsunami
Passage 2: Driverless cars
Questions 14 -18: Reading Passage 2 has six paragraphs, A-G. Which paragraph contains the following information?
14. Answer: C
Key words: time, not in use
Paragraph C states that: “At present, the average car spends more than 90 percent of its life parked”. In this context, “parked” means that the car is turned off stationary and not in use, which means that the amount of time referenced referred to is 90% of the car’s life. Therefore, the answer is C.
→ Answer: C
15. Answer: B
Key words: advantages, individual road-users
While several paragraphs mention the advantages of driverless vehicles, most are about the effects on the large society as a whole, and only paragraph B mentions the pros for individual road-users. Specifically, the author shows how the technology could reduce road collisions involving human error and free the time people spend on driving. Therefore, the answer is B.
→ Answer: B
16. Answer: E
Key words: opportunity, appropriate vehicle, each trip
Paragraph E states that: “If […], drivers will have the freedom to select one that best suits their needs for a particular journey, […]”
- best suit = appropriate
- each trip = particular journey
The author then explains that consumers could see this happen by purchasing access to a range of vehicles, to suit their particular individual needs for exceptional journeys such as a family camping trip. through a mobility provider, which is an opportunity through changes in vehicle manufacture. Therefore, the answer is E.
→ Answer: E
17. Answer: G
Key words: how long, overcome, problems
The hurdles are mentioned in the last two paragraphs, where paragraph F brings up specific difficulties, and paragraph G shows the potentiality to overcome those problems. Paragraph G states that “It’s clear that there are many challenges that need to be addressed, but … these can most probably be conquered within the next 10 years.”
- problems = challenges
- overcome = conquer
It could then be inferred that 10 years is the estimate of how long it will take to overcome a number of problems. Therefore, the answer is G.
→ Answer: G
18. Answer: D
Key words: no effect, number, vehicles manufactured
Paragraph D first begins with “… it might mean that we need to manufacture far fewer vehicles to meet demand.” However, in However, the author states that although fewer cars might be used, they would be “…used more intensively, and might need replacing sooner. At the end, it states is stated that: “This faster rate of turnover may mean that vehicle production will not necessarily decrease”. Therefore, it is suggested from this paragraph that the number of vehicles manufactured might not decrease as calculated in the beginning, meaning that the use of driverless cars may have no effect on this. Hence, the answer is D.
→ Answer: D
Questions 19 – 22: Complete the summary below. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
19. Answer: human error
Key words: Transport Research Laboratory, motor accidents, due to
Paragraph B states that: “…, research at the UK’s Transport Research Laboratory has demonstrated that more than 90 percent of road collisions involve human error as a contributory factor, and it is the primary cause in the vast majority”.
- motor accidents = road collisions
It can then be inferred that most motor accidents are partly due to human error. Therefore, “human error” is the answer for question 19.
→ Answer: human error
20. Answer: car (-) sharing
Key words: schemes, workable
Benefits that are beyond direct ones, such as greater safety, are mentioned in paragraph C. It states that: “Automation means that initiatives for car-sharing become much more viable, …”
- schemes = initiatives
- workable = viable
It can therefore be understood that automation would make car-sharing more workable, suggesting “car-sharing” as the answer for this question.
→ Answer: car (-) sharing
21. Answer: ownership
Key words: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, 43 percent drop, cars
This piece of information is specifically mentioned in paragraph D: “Modelling work by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute suggests automated vehicles might reduce vehicle ownership by 43 percent, …”
- drop = reduce
- cars = vehicles
Thus, the answer here is “vehicle ownership”.
→ Answer: ownership
22. Answer: mileage
Key words: yearly, twice as high
In the same sentence mentioned above in paragraph D, it is describedstated that “… vehicles’ average annual mileage would double as a result.” As “annual” is the same as “yearly”, the answer to question 22 is “mileage”.
- yearly = annual
- twice as high = double
→ Answer: mileage
Questions 23 – 24: Choose TWO letters, A – E. Write the correct letters in boxes 23 and 24 on your answer sheet.
Questions 23-24: C Travellers could spend journeys doing something other than driving., D People who find driving physically difficult could travel independently.
Key words: benefits
Cost savings and pollution are not mentioned anywhere in the passage, so A and E is are incorrect. Moreover, parking is only brought up in paragraph C, where the main idea is that the average car spends most of its life parked, so B is also incorrect.
In paragraph B, one of the advantages is described as “Another aim is to free the time people spend driving for other purposes”, meaning that instead of driving, travellers could spend the time on something else. Thus, C is correct.
In the same paragraph, people who find driving physically difficult, who are mentioned to be referred to as “those who are challenged by existing mobility models”, are said to “be able to enjoy significantly greater travel autonomy”. As autonomy can be understood as independence, D is correct.
- travel independently = travel autonomy
→ Answers: C & D
Questions 25 – 26: Choose TWO letters, A – E. Write the correct letters in boxes 25 and 26 on your answer sheet.
Questions 25-26: A making sure the general public has confidence in automated vehicles , E getting automated vehicles to adapt to various different driving conditions
- Key words: challenges
The hurdles are easily found in paragraph F.
As the pace of transition, professional drivers compensation and infrastructure are not mentioned anywhere, B, C and D are incorrect.
It is stated that In paragraph F, the text refers to “… the societal changes that may be required for communities to trust and accept automated vehicles …” In this context, “communities” can be understood as the “general public”, and “trust and accept” is the same as “have confidence”. Therefore, making sure that the general public has confidence in automated vehicles is one of the challenges that automated vehicle development meets, so A is correct.
Paragraph F also tells that there are: “… technical difficulties in ensuring that the vehicle works reliably in the infinite range of traffic, weather and road situations it might encounter.” As “infinite” can also be expressed as “various”, and “range of traffic, weather and road situations” is also “different driving conditions”, this sentence expresses the same idea as E. Thus, E is correct.
general public = communities
have confidence = trust and accept
various = infinite
- Answers: A & E
Passage 3: What is exploration
Questions 27 – 32: Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D. Write the correct letter in boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet.
27. Answer: A exploration is an intrinsic element of being human.
28. Answer: C They act on an urge that is common to everyone.
29. Answer: C Hardy’s aim was to investigate people’s emotional states.
30. Answer: D we are wrong to think that exploration is no longer necessary.
31. Answer: A people tend to relate exploration to their own professional interests
32. Answer: B the human ability to cast new light on places that may be familiar.
Questions 33 – 37: Look at the following statements (Questions 33-37) and the list of explorers below.Match each statement with the correct explorer, A-E
33. Answer: E
34. Answer: A
35. Answer: D
36. Answer: E
37. Answer: B
Questions 38 – 40: Complete the summary below. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
38. Answer: (unique) expeditions
39. Answer: uncontacted / isolated
40. Answer: (land) surface
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