Cambridge IELTS 12 Reading Test 8 Answers

Cambridge IELTS 12 is the latest IELTS exam preparation. READINGIELTS.COM will help you to answer all questions in cambridge ielts 12 reading test 8 with detail explanations.

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Passage 1: The History of Glass

Questions 1-8: Complete the notes below.

Q1 - 2. Early humans used a material called 1…… to make the sharp points of their 2...

Key words: early humans, sharp points

In the first paragraph, the author mentioned that “From our earliest origins, man has been making use of glass. Historians have discovered that a type of natural glass – obsidian – … was first used as tips for spears”. “From our earliest origins” can be understood as “early humans”, “make use of” is the same as “use”, and “tips” means “sharp points”, so it can be inferred from the two sentences that our ancestors used obsidian to make the sharp points of their spears. Therefore, the answer for question 1 is “obsidian” and for question 2 is “spears”.

Man from our ealiest origins = early human

Tip = sharp point • Make use of = use

Answer: 1. obsidian – 2. spears

3. 4000 BC: 3……………………. made of stone were covered in a coating of man-made glass.

Key words: 4000 BC, made of stone, covered, coating, man-made glass

By using the skim and scan skill, we can locate the word “4000 BC” in the first paragraph: “Archaeologists have even found evidence of man-made glass which dates back to 4000 BC; this took the form of glazes used for coating stone beads”. Here, “this” refers to “man-made glass”, and “coat” means “cover”, so the sentence can be paraphrased into “man-made glass was used to cover the stone beads”. The answer is “beads” (note that only one word is allowed)

Coat = cover

Answer: Beads

4. First century BC: glass was coloured because of the 4… in the material.

Key words: first century BC, coloured, because of, material We can find the phrase

“First century BC” in the second paragraph: “The glass made during this time was highly coloured due to the impurities of the raw material”. “due to” means “because of”, so the impurities in the material were responsible for the colour of glass. Hence, the answer is “impurities”.

Due to = because of

Answer: impurities

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5. Until 476 AD: only the 5… knew how to make glass.

Key words: until 476 AD, only, knew

It is mentioned in the second paragraph that the Romans “guarded the skills and technology required to make glass very closely” and it was not until 476 AD “that glass-making knowledge became widespread”. “glass-making knowledge” means “how to make glass” and “widespread” means “distributed over a wide region, or occurring in many places or among many persons or individuals”, which is the opposite of the term “only”. It can be inferred from this that prior to 476 AD, such knowledge had been exclusive to the Romans and only they knew how to make glass. The answer is “Romans”.

Glass-making knowledge = how to make glass

Answer: Romans

Q6 - 7. 17th century: George Ravenscroft developed a process using 6… to avoid the occurrence of 7… in blown glass.

Key words: 17th century, George Ravenscroft, avoid, blown glass

Information about George Ravenscroft can be found in the third paragraph where the author mentioned an attempt to “counter the effect of clouding that sometimes occurred in blown glass by introducing lead to the raw materials used in the process”. The words “counter the effect of” mean “reduce the effect of”, which means it is the same as “avoid”. The idea is to use a material called lead in the production of blown glass to avoid “clouding” which may otherwise occur. Hence, the answer for question 6 is “lead” and for question 7 is “clouding”.

Counter the effect of = avoid

Answer: 6.lead – 7.clouding

8.Mid-19th century: British glass production developed after changes to laws concerning 8…

Key words: mid-19th century, British glass production, after, changes, laws

Because the questions follow the order of the text, and we already know the position of the answer to question 7 (in third paragraph), just pay attention to the following parts. We find the word “Britain” and the date 1845, which refers to “mid-19th century”, at the beginning of the fourth paragraph. It is mentioned that the Excise Act had put “heavy taxes on the amount of glass melted in a glasshouse, and were levied continuously from 1745 to 1845”. But since its repeal, meaning that the laws were cancelled, “the modern glass industry”, which is the same as “British glass production”, started to develop. “The repeal of the Excise Act in 1845” can be considered as “changes to laws” and obviously it was concerned with “heavy taxes”. With the note that only one word is allowed, the answer should be “taxes”.

Answer: taxes

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Questions 9-13: In boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet

9. In 1887, HM Ashley had the fastest bottle-producing machine that existed at the time.

Key words: fastest, bottle-producing, at the time

In terms of HM Ashley’s machine, the fifth paragraph stated that it was “more than three times quicker than any previous production method”. A “bottle-producing machine” is a form of “production method”, so this statement obviously means that it was the fastest machine at that time. Therefore the answer is TRUE.

Answer: True

10. Michael Owens was hired by a large US company to design a fully-automated bottle manufacturing machine for them.

Key words: hired, large US company, design,

fully-automated Information about Michael Owens can be found in the fifth paragraph. It is mentioned that he wasthe “founder of the Owens Bottle Machine Company”. He started the company and he was the owner. Hence, the statement that he was hired by the company, meaning that he was an employee, must be FALSE.