IELTS LISTENING PART 4 | TEST 5

Questions 31– 40

IELTS LISTENING PART 4 | TEST 5

Questions 31–34

Label the diagrams below

Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer

IELTS LISTENING SECTION 4 – TEST 4
IELTS LISTENING PART 4 | TEST 5

Questions 35 – 40

Complete the summary below.

Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer

IELTS LISTENING SECTION 4 – TEST 4
IELTS LISTENING PART 4 | TEST 5

Answers

Questions 31– 34

31. Answer: eardrum/ ear drum

  • Key words: normal, ear canal, cochlea
  • Here’s what the speaker says:
    • “First, let’s revise how normal hearing works.  If you look at image 1, you will remember that the ear has three sections.  The outer ear, or pinna, picks up sounds, which are then channelled through the ear canal to the eardrum, where they are transformed into mechanical vibrations.  These are sent to the cochlea, or inner ear”.
  • Explanation:  The speaker talks first about a normal ear.  The 3 sections are mentioned, and we look for the key words: ear canal, cochlea.  In the diagram, the part of the ear that we need to find is between these two parts of the ear.  We learn that sounds travel through the ear canal to the eardrum, before then reaching the cochlea.
  • The answer is eardrum/ear drum.

32. Answer: auditory nerve

  • Key words: cochlea, brain
  • Here’s what the speaker says:
    • “Inside this snail-shaped tube, there are sensory hearing cells that have a variety of functions.  The outer ear cells make soft sounds louder, and reduce the volume of louder sounds.  The inner ear cells transfer this information to the auditory nerve, and thence to the brain…”
  • Explanation:  The appearance of the cochlea is described by the speaker as “a snail-shaped tube”.  The diagram shows this ‘snail’ shape (in the form of a spiral).  So, information goes from the inner ear to the brain by means of the auditory nerve, which is shown on the diagram as connected to the inner ear (cochlea).
  • The answer is auditory nerve.

33. Answer: speech processor

  • Key words: cochlear implant, microphone
  • Here’s what the speaker says:
    • “Image 2 shows how a cochlear implant works.  You can see that the implant has three main parts.  The first, external part, behind the ear itself, is the microphone and, at the back of this, you can see its associated speech processor, which is a tiny computer”.
  • Explanation:  Thus, behind the ear is the microphone, which is shown on the diagram.  Associated with the microphone is the speech processor.  The speaker says that this is at the back of the microphone, although this is not very clear in the diagram.
  • The answer is speech processor.

34. Answer: receiver

  • Key words: transmitter, electrode array
  • Here’s what the speaker says:
    • “….directly behind the transmitter, is a surgically-implanted receiver.  This receives the sounds from the transmitter.  It converts these sounds into electrical impulses, which are sent directly to an electrode array that is implanted inside the cochlea itself…”
  • Explanation: It is clear from the diagram that behind the transmitter there is the receiver.  Its relation to the electrode array is then described as shown in the diagram.
  • The answer is receiver.

Questions 35 – 40

35. Answer: amplify

  • Key words: hearing, aids, loss, mild, severe
  • Here’s what the speaker says:
    • “In cases of mild hearing loss, hearing aids can be very helpful.  They simply amplify the normal sound waves as they travel down the ear canal.  However, they generally cannot overcome severe hearing difficulties, and this is where cochlear implants come into play”.
  • Explanation:  If people suffer from only mild (= not severe) hearing loss, hearing aids are useful because they amplify normal sounds.  The speaker says, however, that when hearing difficulties are severe, cochlear implants are an effective solution.
  • The answer is amplify.

36. Answer: sound signals

  • Key words:  help, NOT everyone, different, relearn
  • Here’s what the speaker says:
    • “However a cochlear implant is not a magic bullet that works equally well for all users.  The sound signals that the brain receives from an implant are quite different from normal ones, and this means that the user has to relearn how to hear”. 
  • Here are some key words that help you to get the correct answer (sound signals):
    • all users = everyone
    • gets = receives
  • Explanation:  The speaker says, however, that not everyone benefits from a cochlear implant.  The brain gets different sound signals from an implant, and the user is not used to these and has to relearn how to hear.
  • The answer is sound signals.

37. Answer: speech therapy

  • Key words:  NOT cure, training
  • Here’s what the speaker says:
    • “It is important to understand that a cochlear implant is not a cure for deafness…..an implant is a long-term commitment, involving lengthy and intensive training.  The user must learn to reinterpret sounds, and will likely need to augment this with speech therapy….”
  • Here are some key words that help you to get the correct answer (speech therapy):
    • ongoing = lengthy
  • Explanation:  The speaker explains that a cochlear implant is not a cure for deaf people.  Users need to train for a long time, with the help of speech therapy and – as the speaker mentions later – the help also of lip-reading and sign language (which they will have to learn in order to communicate effectively with others).
  • The answer is speech therapy.

38. Answer: natural hearing

  • Key words: surgery, damage, destroy
  • Here’s what the speaker says:
    • “Another disadvantage of a cochlear implant, is that the surgery may remove any natural hearing that the deaf person still retains.  This takes away the possibility of using a hearing aid should the implant not be effective”.
  • Here are some key words that help you to get the correct answer (natural hearing):
    • destroy = remove
  • Explanation:  The speaker explains that the problem with surgery to install a cochlear implant is that the deaf person may lose any hearing that they still have.  This is referred to as their “natural hearing”.
  • The answer is natural hearing.

39. Answer: deafness

  • Key words:  factor, selecting users, deafness, age, speaking
  • Here’s what the speaker says:
    • “So, who is best suited to receiving an implant?  Many factors impact on this decision.  The most significant one appears to be the duration of the deafness, and, as you would expect, those who have been deaf for a long time generally have lower success rates”.
  • Explanation:  Those who receive an implant are called “users”, so what factors decide who is selected to receive an implant?  The speaker names 3 factors.  The first is the duration of the person’s deafness.  The speaker goes on to name the other 2 factors:  the age at which the person became deaf (= how old they were) and whether they had learned to speak before they became deaf (= speaking ability).
  • The answer is deafness.

40. Answer: disease

  • Key words:  condition, cells, factor
  • Here’s what the speaker says:
    • “Another factor is the health and structure of the cochlea, and how many nerve cells the user retains.  This is related to the cause of the hearing loss, and recent research is exploring how the spiral ganglion, or nerve cells are affected by disease”.
  • Explanation:  The speaker then talks about another (final) factor when selecting who is to receive a cochlear implant.  This depends on how many nerve cells the user has in the cochlea which still remain healthy.  Nerve cells can be damaged by disease which leads to deafness.
  • The answer is disease.

Transcript

You will hear a lecturer giving a talk on cochlear implants. First you have some time to look at questions 31 to 40.

Now listen carefully and answer questions 31 to 40.

The topic for today’s lecture is cochlear implants, which are a relatively new form of technology for assisting people who are profoundly deaf.

First, let’s revise how normal hearing works. If you look at image 1, you will remember that the ear has three sections. The outer ear, or pinna, picks up sounds, which are then channelled through the ear canal to the eardrum, where they are transformed into mechanical vibrations. These are sent to the cochlea, or inner ear. Inside this snail-shaped tube, there are sensory hearing cells that have a variety of functions. The outer hair cells make soft sounds louder, and reduce the volume of louder sounds. The inner ear cells transfer this information to the auditory nerve, and thence to the brain, which interprets the input as sounds. This sophisticated and sensitive process allows us to process a huge variety of auditory input. For those who are profoundly deaf, the system functions poorly or not at all, and the brain does not receive the input it needs to process and interpret sounds.

Image 2 shows how a cochlear implant works. You can see that the implant has three main parts. The first, external part, behind the ear itself, is the microphone and, at the back of this, you can see its associated speech processor, which is a tiny computer. This analyses and digitises sounds and sends them to the transmitter, which is worn on the head. Those sounds need to be converted into electrical impulses so that they can be sent to the cochlea. If you look carefully at the image, you can see that just under the skin, directly behind the transmitter, is a surgically-implanted receiver. This receives the sounds from the transmitter. It converts these sounds into electrical impulses, which are sent directly to an electrode array that is implanted inside the cochlea itself, thus completely bypassing the ear canal.

As you have seen, a cochlear implant does not operate in the same way as the ear, nor, in fact, as a hearing aid. In cases of mild hearing loss, hearing aids can be very helpful. They simply amplify the normal sound waves as they travel down the ear canal. However, they generally cannot overcome severe hearing difficulties, and this is where cochlear implants come into play. So, what are the pros and cons of using a cochlear implant?

Well, firstly, cochlear implants can deliver significant improvements in hearing for some users, and some people report dramatic improvements in the perception of individual words and sentences over the weeks and months after an implant. However a cochlear implant is not a magic bullet that works equally well for all users. The sound signals that the brain receives from an implant are quite different from normal ones, and this means that the user has to relearn how to hear. Many users report that speech sounds robotic after a cochlear implant, and the degree to which people can adjust to this new kind of hearing varies hugely with each user and situation.

It is important to understand that a cochlear implant is not a cure for deafness, and that the user is still deaf. Especially for a child, an implant is a long-term commitment, involving lengthy and intensive training. The user must learn to reinterpret sounds, and will likely need to augment this with speech therapy, so that people in the community can easily communicate with them. The implants work much better in quiet situations than in noisy ones, so they still need to learn to lip-read and to use sign language. The surgery itself is not without risk, though it has greatly improved since it was first performed, and there is some possibility of damage to facial nerves. Another disadvantage of a cochlear implant, is that the surgery may remove any natural hearing that the deaf person still retains. This takes away the possibility of using a hearing aid should the implant not be effective. For this reason, many users have implant surgery performed on only one ear, the one with the least natural hearing.

So, who is best suited to receiving an implant? Many factors impact on this decision. The most significant one appears to be the duration of the deafness, and, as you would expect, those who have been deaf for a long time generally have lower success rates. The second, related factor is how old the patient was when they became deaf, and maybe more significantly, whether they had learned to speak before they became deaf. Those who become deaf post-lingually generally have better outcomes. Another factor is the health and structure of the cochlea, and how many nerve cells the user retains. This is related to the cause of the hearing loss, and recent research is exploring how the spiral ganglion, or nerve cells are affected by disease. OK, let’s now move on to discuss the long-term prognosis for …

IELTS Listening Part 4 British Council

IELTS LISTENING PART 4

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